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  1. 1. BIRDS
  2. 2. DO YOU KNOW??????
  3. 3. ORIGIN AND RELATIONSHIPS  A flying animal Figure below show Archeoptryx, a 147- drowned and settled million-year-old reliative of modern bird to the bottom of a shallow marine lagoon in Bavaria, 147 million years ago and eventually fossilized.  Discovered in 1861 by a workman splitting slate in limestone quarry.
  4. 4.  The fossil features:  Size of a crow  With a skull not unlike a modern birds  bony teeth set in a sockets like those of dinasours  long bony tail  Clawed fingers  Abdominal ribs
  5. 5. Morphology of ancestor of bird 1. Skull 15. illium 2. cervical vertebrae (innominate bone) 3. Furcula 16. caudal vertebrae 4. coracoid 17. pygostyle 5. uncinate process 18. synsacrum 6. keel 19. scapula 7. patella 20. lumbar vertebrae 8. tarsometatarsus 21. humerus 9. digits 22. ulna 10. tibiotarsus (long leg 23. radius bone) (10 and 11) 24. carpus 11. tibiotarsus(10 and 11) 12. Femur 25. metacarpus 13. ischium(innominate 26. digits bone) 27. alula 14. Pubi ( innominate bone)
  6. 6. Living birds Paleognathae Neognathae - Flightless - Some can fly - Have flat sternum - Have keeled sternum - Poorly develop - Powerful flight muscles pectoral muscles
  7. 7. CHARACTERISTICS OF CLASS AVES  Body usually spindle shaped, with 4 divisions : head, neck, trunk and tail.  Limbs paired;  Forelimbs  Posterior pair  Epidermal covering of feathers and leg scales  Thin integument of epidermis and dermis  No sweat glands  Oil or preen gland at the base of tail
  8. 8.  Fully ossified skeleton with air cavities  No teeth  Nervous system well developed  Circulatory system consist of four-chambered heart with two atria and two ventricles  Endothermic  Respiration by slightly expansible lungs, with an air sacs among the visceral organs and skeleton
  9. 9.  Excretory system includes:  Metanephric kidneys  Ureters open into cloaca  No bladder  Semisolid urine  Sexes separate  Testes paired with the vas deferens opening into the clocoa  Females have left ovary and oviduct only
  10. 10.  Fertilization internal  Amniotic eggs with much yolk and hard  Calcareous shells  Incubation external  Sex determined by females heterogametic
  11. 11. MORPHOLOGY OF BIRDS 1. Beak 11. Primaries (longest wing feather) 2. Head 12. Vent 3. Iris 13. Thigh 4. Pupil 14. Tibio-tarsal 5. Mantle (back) articulation 6. Lesser coverts 15. Tarsus 7. Scapulars 16. Feet 8. Coverts 17. Tibia 9. Tertials (=the 18. Belly flight feathers 19. Flanks that closest to 20. Breast the bird's body 22. Wattle along the wing) 10. Rump
  12. 12. RELAX FOR A WHILE………
  13. 13. 1. Ada 9 ekor burung di atas pokok. 2 ekor telah mati ditembak. Berapakah bilangan burung yang tinggal di atas pokok tersebut ???
  14. 14. Answer : 0 kerana burung tentulah akan lari setelah terdengar bunyi tembakan tersebut…
  15. 15. 2.Kenapa siput babi jalan dengan perlahan????
  16. 16. Answer : sebab dia confuse dia siput ke dia babi.. Dia berjalan lambat kerana berfikir semasa berjalan
  17. 17. Structural and functional adaptations for flight.
  18. 18. Feathers  One of the most prominent features .  Function;  Provide insulation.  Allow for flight.  Feathers control what a bird looks like by supplying the bird with colors.
  19. 19. Feathers  Basic form;  Hollow, central shaft called a rachis.  A number of smaller side branches.  The side branches are called barbs and are linked together by a set of barbules and their "hooklets" sometimes called 'Hamuli‘  The base of the feather - where their are no side branches - is called the calamus or quill.
  20. 20. Skeleton  Birds have a lightweight skeleton.  Most of the bones of flying birds are thin and hollow.  The keel-shaped sternum (breastbone) - the powerful flight muscles attach to the body.
  21. 21. Skeleton  Part of bone;  Skull  Neck  Thorax and Sternum  Pectoral Girdle  Pelvic Girdle  Wing  Leg and Foot
  22. 22. Muscular system  The muscle ventral (underneath) to the pectorals is the supracoracoideus. It raises the wing between wingbeats.  The skin muscles help a bird in its flight by adjusting the feathers, which are attached to the skin muscle and help the bird in its flight maneuvers.
  23. 23.  There are only a few muscles in the trunk and the tail, but they are very strong and are essential for the bird.  The pygostyle controls all the movement in the tail and controls the feathers in the tail.  This gives the tail a larger surface area which helps keep the bird in the air.
  24. 24. Digestive system  The tongue of birds adapted to the type of food the bird consumes.  Birds have a two part stomach, a glandular portion known as the proventriculus and a muscular portion known as the gizzard.  Avian large intestine is reduced to a short, featureless connection between the small intestine and the cloaca.  The cloaca is the final holding area for the waste products of digestion until they are voided through the vent.
  25. 25. Circulatory system  The avian heart has evolved into a large and powerful organ with rapid muscular contractions.  Generally the smaller the species the larger the relative heart size.  Birds have hearts larger and ones that beat faster than mammals.
  26. 26. Respiratory system  birds having relatively small lungs plus air sacs that play an important role in respiration  The air sacs permit a unidirectional flow of air through the lungs.  Unidirectional flow means that air moving through bird lungs is largely 'fresh' air and has a higher oxygen content.  Therefore, in bird lungs, more oxygen is available to diffuse into the blood.
  27. 27.  Air flow through the avian lungs and air sacs during respiration.  On first inhalation, air flows through the trachea & primarily into the posterior (rear) air sacs  On first exhalation, air moves from the posterior air sacs & into the lungs
  28. 28.  With the second inhalation, air moves from the lungs & into the anterior (front) air sacs  With the second exhalation, air moves from the anterior air sacs back into the trachea & out  It takes two respiratory cycles to move one "packet" of air completely through the avian respiratory system.
  29. 29. Excretory system  Birds excrete uric acid with their feces.  The white material seen in bird droppings is uric acid. It is not very toxic and is not very soluble in water.  Excretion of wastes in the form of uric acid conserves water because it can be produced in a concentrated form due to its low toxicity.
  30. 30.  Because it is relatively insoluble and nontoxic, it can accumulate in eggs without damaging the embryos.  The synthesis of uric acid requires more energy than urea synthesis.  There is no urinary bladder in birds.
  31. 31. Nervous and sensory system  The birds’ nervous system is very similar to human.  Both are made up of the brain, the spinal cord, and countless nerves throughout the body that transmit messages to and from the brain.  Birds have well-developed brains, but the enlarged portion seems to be the area responsible for instinctive behavior. Therefore, birds, follow very definite patterns of migration and nesting.
  32. 32. FLIGHT  Bird wing as a lift device  In birds, two kinds of wing slots have developed : 1) The alula , or a group of small feathers on the thumb, which provides a mid -wing slot 2) Slotting between the primary feathers, which provides a wing-tip slot.
  33. 33.  Flapping flight  Two forces are required for flapping flight  vertical lifting force to support the bird’s weight  horizontal thrusting force to move the bird forward against resistive forces of friction
  34. 34.  Basic forms of a bird wings  Four types of bird wings are easily recognized  Elliptical Wings  High-aspect Ratio Wings  Dynamic soaring Wings  High-lift Wings
  35. 35. Reproductive system  Males repductive organ Most of the year - Testes tiny, bean-shaped bodes During breeding season - Testes will enlarge greatly as much as 300 times their non-breeding size
  36. 36.  Females reproductive organ - Only left ovary and oviduct develop (figure 1.2) ; those on the right dwindle to vestigial structures (loss of one ovary is another adaptation of birds for reducing weight)
  37. 37. Nesting and care of young Newly hatched bird divided Altricial Precocial - Naked and unable to walk or - Include see at birth, remain in the quail, fowl, ducks, and most nest for a weeks or more. water birds. - Covered with down when hatched and can run or swim as soon as their plumage is dry.
  38. 38. Cerita tentang katak kecil
  39. 39. Pada suatu hari ada sekumpulan katak-katak kecil... …yang berlumba-lumba.
  40. 40. Tujuannya adalah untuk mencapai puncak sebuah menara yang sangat tinggi.
  41. 41. Penonton berkumpul bersama mengelilingi menara untuk menyaksikan perlumbaan dan memberikan semangat kepada para peserta...
  42. 42. Perlumbaan pun dimulakan...
  43. 43. Secara jujur: Tak satupun penonton benar-benar percaya bahawa katak-katak kecil boleh berjaya mencapai puncak menara. Terdengar ada yang berkata: "Oh, jalannya terlalu susahhhhh!! Mereka TIDAK AKAN BOLEH sampai ke puncak." dan: "Tidak ada kesempatan untuk berjaya...Menaranya terlalu tinggi...!!
  44. 44. Katak-Katak kecil mulai berjatuhan. Satu persatu...
  45. 45. ... Kecuali mereka yang tetap bersemangat menaiki menara perlahan-lahan semakin tinggi... dan semakin tinggi..
  46. 46. Penonton terus bersorak "Terlalu susah!!! Tak seekor pun yang akan berjaya!!!"
  47. 47. Lebih banyak lagi katak kecil penat dan menyerah...
  48. 48. ...Tapi ada SATU yang tetap melangkah hingga semakin tinggi dan tinggi... Dia tak mahu menyerah kalah!
  49. 49. Akhirnya yang lain telah menyerah untuk menaiki menara. Kecuali seekor katak kecil yang begitu berusaha keras dan menjadi satu- satunya yang BERJAYA sampai KE PUNCAK!
  50. 50. SEMUA katak kecil yang lain ingin tahu bagaimana katak itu boleh melakukannya? ?
  51. 51. Seekor peserta bertanya bagaimana cara katak yang berjaya itu mempunyai kekuatan untuk mencapai tujuan? ?
  52. 52. Ternyata... Katak yang menjadi pemenang itu adalah PEKAK!!!! …… ……
  53. 53. Nasihat dari cerita ini adalah: Jangan sesekali mendengar kata orang lain yang mempunyai kecenderungan negatif ataupun pesimis... …kerana mereka akan mengambil sebahagian besar mimpimu dan menjauhkannya darimu.
  54. 54. Selalulah fikirkan kata- kata bertuah yang ada. Kerana segala sesuatu yang kau dengar dan kau baca boleh mempengaruhi perilakumu!
  55. 55. Kerana itu: Selalulah tetap.... POSITIVE!
  56. 56. Dan yang terpenting: Bersikap PEKAK jika ada orang mengatakan bahawa KAMU tidak boleh mencapai cita- citamu!
  57. 57. Selalulah berfikir: I can do this!
  58. 58. Are you sure you want quit?