THE HYPECluster ComputingCloud ComputingGrid Computing
INTRODUCTIONThe underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to 1960, when John McCarthyopined that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility"; indeedit shares characteristics with service bureaus that date back to the 1960s.The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunicationscompanies, who until the 1990s primarily offered dedicated point-to-point datacircuits, began offering ³VIRTUALPRIVATE NETWORK (VPN) services withcomparable quality of service but at a much lower cost.
INTRODUCTIONThe cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between thatwhich was the responsibility of the provider from that of the user. Cloudcomputing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the networkinfrastructure.Cost is claimed to be greatly reduced and capital expenditure is converted tooperational expenditure. Device and location independence enable users toaccess systems using a web browser regardless of their location or whatdevice they are using
USEHelps to use applications without installations.Access the personal files at any computer with internetaccess.This technology allows much more efficient computationby centralizing storage, memory , processing and bandwidth
SURVEYBased on a study conducted in June 2010 by versionone, 41% of IT senior professionals doesn’t have soundknowledge on cloud computing.In September 2011 , Aberdeen Group found that 18%reduction in there IT budget and a 16% reduction indatacenter power costs.
LAYERSA cloud client consists of computer Hardwareand/or computer software that relies on cloudcomputing for application delivery
LAYERS CLIENT APPLICATION PLATFORMINFRASTRUCTURE SERVER
SERVERThe servers layer consists of computer hardwareand/or computer software products that are specificallydesigned for the delivery of cloud services, includingmulti-core processors, cloud-specific operating systemsand combined offerings
COMMUNITY CLOUD:A community cloud may be established where severalorganizations have similar requirements and seek to shareinfrastructure so as to realize some of the Benefits of cloudcomputing with the costs spread over fewer users than a publiccloud , this option is more expensive but may offer a higherlevel of privacy .Eg : Google’s Gov Cloud
HYBRID CLOUDA hybrid cloud environment consists of multiple internal andexternal providers “ will be typical for most enterprises “ . Byintegerating multiple cloud , users may be able to ease thetransition to public cloud services
PRIVATE CLOUDPrivate cloud and Internal cloud are expressions that somevendors have recently used to describe offering that emulatecloud computing on private networks. These products claim “ todeliver some benefits of the cloud computing without pitfall ”,capitalizing on data security, corporate governance andreliability concerns. They have been criticized on the basis that“ users still buy , build and manage them” and as such do notbenefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hand onmanagement.
Application Programming Interfaces (APIs)Levels of APIs Level 1 – The Wire: At this level, the developer writes directly to the wireformat of the request. Level 2 – Language-Specific Toolkits: Developers at this level use alanguage- specific toolkit to work with requests. Level 3 – Service-Specific Toolkits: The developer uses a higher-leveltoolkit to work with a particular service. Level 4 – Service-Neutral Toolkits: This is the highest level of API. Adeveloper working at this level uses a common interface to multiple cloudcomputing Level 5 – Internal Interfaces: Programming interfaces for the internalinterfaces between the different parts of a cloud infrastructure.
“We are at the beginning of the age of planetarycomputing. Billions of people will be wirelesslyinterconnected, and the only way to achieve that kind ofmassive scale usage is by massive scale, brutally efficientcloud-based infrastructure.” Dan Farber, Editor in Chief CNET News