8th domastic water pollution


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8th domastic water pollution

  1. 1. Made by Hiteshi. Class - VIII Section - C Roll no. – 12 Subject - S.Sc. Submitted to Mrs. Ahlawat
  2. 2. Safe drinking water and sanitation services are common issues in most rapidly growing developing cities. Varanasi is no exception; however, the situation in Varanasi is different compared to the ones of other cities at a similar development stage. Varanasi’s water supply is highly dependent on the Ganga, which is considered to be sacred and purifying by the Hindus. Immersion and ablution in its water are daily procedures for the inhabitants as well for the numerous pilgrims. Every day, around 60,000 people take a holy dip in the Ganga in Varanasi. Furthermore, religious practices, such as burning of corpses, aggravate the pollution of the river. This extreme focus of daily life along the river makes Varanasi’s water situation more unique but also more urgent than in other cities (Mishra 2005).
  3. 3. During the last century the city spread in a rather unpleaanned way. The lack of a strong coordinating body resulted in serious deficits in the field of large infrastructures such as drainage and sewerage systems. Consequently, the capacity of the old sewers exceeded and the city’s sewage and industrial waste flow into the Ganga, polluting the river heavily. Today, the largest part of the sewage, industrial effluent, run-off from chemical fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture and huge quantities of solid waste are dumped in the Ganga untreated. Even thousands of animal carcasses and hundreds of human corpses are thrown into the river every day contributing to the pollution (cf. e.g. Jaiswal 2007; Mishra 2005). The problem of pollution is further intensified by over-extraction and diversion of the river water (Jaiswal 2007).
  4. 4. The pollution of the Ganga presents a severe health hazard, in particular for those who bathe in the river and drink its water. In their study, Pandey et al. (2005) found out that the Ganga water pollution has a very significant effect on occurrence of enteric diseases in Varanasi city. In particular the concentration of Nitrate, Chloride and Faecal coliforms in the river water has a major effect on water-borne diseases. The result of this study indicates that the drinking water may cause enteric diseases even if the raw Ganga water is treated properly. One possible explanation is that contamination could take place due to seepage of old supply pipelines (Pandey et al. 2005).
  5. 5. Many efforts to clean-up the holy Ganga were undertaken during the last decades. The most comprehensive was The Ganga Action Plan (GAP). The GAP was an ambitious program, prepared by the Department of Environment and approved by the Cabinet in 1985, in order to reduce the pollution of the Ganga. It was launched at Varanasi in June 1986 (Jaiswal 2007). The objectives of the GAP were to abate pollution and to improve the river water quality by interception, diversion and treatment of domestic sewage and control of non-point, non-measurable pollution from human defecation, dumping of dead bodies etc. (CAG 2000). To achieve these objectives the GAP took up core and non-core schemes. Actions addressed to major, direct causes of pollution were identified as core sector schemes, consisting of interception, and diversion schemes of domestic wastewater and sewage treatment plants. Non-core sector schemes consisted of actions such as implementation of low cost sanitation systems, installation of crematoria and riverfront development (CAG 2000). In Varanasi five sewage pumps were installed to intercept sewage flowing into the Ganga from 30 point sources (Mishra 2005). 8ee68c26bea2
  6. 6. A 2007 study finds that discharge of untreated sewage is single most important cause for pollution of surface and ground water in India. There is a large gap between generation and treatment of domestic waste water in India. The problem is not only that India lacks sufficient treatment capacity but also that the sewage treatment plants that exist do not operate and are not maintained
  7. 7. The majority of the government-owned sewage treatment plants remain closed most of the time due to improper design or poor maintenance or lack of reliable electricity supply to operate the plants, together with absentee employees and poor management. The wastewater generated in these areas normally percolates in the soil or evaporates. The uncollected wastes accumulate in the urban areas cause unhygienic conditions and release pollutants that leaches to surface and groundwater.[1] A 1992 World Health Organization study is claimed to have reported that out of India's 3,119 towns and cities, just 209 have partial sewage treatment facilities, and only 8 have full wastewater treatment facilities.[2] Downstream, the untreated water is used for drinking, bathing, and washing. A 1995 report claimed 114 Indian cities were dumping untreatedsewage and partially cremated bodies directly into the Ganges River.[3] Open defecation is widespread even in urban areas of India.[4][5] This situation is typical of India as well as other developing countries.
  8. 8. It has also led to the spread of diseases in such away that when wastes like broken bottles and these are dumped anywhere, they collect water in them (when it rains) and this may become a breeding ground for mosquitoes. Wastes like human stool cause diseases when poorly dumped, as the flies will carry the germ from the stool. It can also lead to human injury. For example, when a person is walking and steps on the broken bottles or nails or even pins (shape objects), he can get injured which may lead to bleeding. (normal these waste shape objects are infected with germs) Uncontrolled damping of solid waste can lead to wastage of land where we find lots of land being used as damping sites for wastes. These same pieces of land are later on neglected by the inhabitants of the area. Poor waste management can be a source of under development around the societies surrounding that particular area. This ca cause harm to tourist
  9. 9. Not only humans but the water pollution have a big effect on animals and other life on earth. Water which is most important resources for every one including animals should be keep like something rely precious but no one do like this That is why it is not hard to see any river, lake or other water body which is not polluted And thus animals who can not get pure water like us through filters and clean water facility from storage tanks Have to drink it even it is good or not so they got ill and some rely serious deceases Normally they can not get proper health facility so they die .The aquatic life on earth is also suffering because of this as when oil or other waste got mistakenly aflowed on water the life in seas die due to lack of o2 .