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Basics of Differential Amplifier
Contents
• Introduction
• Block diagram
• Differential gain
• Common mode gain
• CMRR
• Configuration of differential amplifier
• Conclusion and References
Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
Introduction
• The function of differential amplifier is to amplify the
difference between two signals.
• The need for differential amplifier in many physical
measurements arises where response from d.c to many
megahertz is required. It is also the basic input stage of an
integrated amplifier.
Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
Block diagram of differential amplifier
Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
• The output signal in a differential amplifier is proportional to the
difference between the two input signals.
Vo α (V1 – V2)
Where,
V1 & V2 – Two input signals
Vo – Single ended output
Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
Differential Gain (Ad):
Where,
Ad is the constant of proportionality.
Ad is the gain with which differential amplifier amplifies the difference
between two input signals.
Hence it is known as ‘differential gain of the differential amplifier’.
V1-V2= Difference of two voltage
Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
Common Mode Gain (Ad):
An average of the two input signals is called common mode
signal denoted as Vc.
Hence, the differential amplifier also produces the output
voltage proportional to common mode signals.
Vo = Ac Vc
Where Ac is the common mode gain.
Therefore, there exists some finite output for V1 = V2 due to common
mode gain Ac.
Hence the total output of any differential amplifier can be given as,
Vo = Ad Vd + Ac VcPrepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR):
• The ability of a differential amplifier to reject a common mode signal is
defined by a ratio called ‘Common Mode Rejection Ratio’ denoted as
CMRR.
• CMRR is defined as the ratio of the differential voltage gain Ad to
common mode gain Ac and is expresses in dB.
Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
Configurations of Differential Amplifier:
• The differential amplifier in the difference amplifier stage in the
op-amp, can be used in four configurations.
(i) Dual input, balanced output differential amplifier
(ii) Dual input, unbalanced output differential amplifier
(iii) Single input, balanced output differential amplifier
(iv) Single input, unbalanced output differential amplifier
 Out of these four configurations, the dual input, balanced output is the
basic differential amplifier configuration.
Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
9
Dual input balanced output
differential amplifier
Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
Dual input unbalanced output
differential amplifier
Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
Single input balanced output
differential amplifier
Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
Single input unbalanced output
differential amplifier
Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
• Conclusion
From this presentation came to know about
differential amplifier and its types.
• References
Thomas L.Floyd, “Electronic devices” Conventional
current version, Pearson prentice hall.
David A. Bell, “Electronic devices and circuits”, Oxford
University higher education.
Sedra and smith, “Microelectronic circuits”,7th Ed.,
Oxford University Press.
Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers

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Differential amplifier

  • 1. Basics of Differential Amplifier Contents • Introduction • Block diagram • Differential gain • Common mode gain • CMRR • Configuration of differential amplifier • Conclusion and References Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
  • 2. Introduction • The function of differential amplifier is to amplify the difference between two signals. • The need for differential amplifier in many physical measurements arises where response from d.c to many megahertz is required. It is also the basic input stage of an integrated amplifier. Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
  • 3. Block diagram of differential amplifier Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
  • 4. • The output signal in a differential amplifier is proportional to the difference between the two input signals. Vo α (V1 – V2) Where, V1 & V2 – Two input signals Vo – Single ended output Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
  • 5. Differential Gain (Ad): Where, Ad is the constant of proportionality. Ad is the gain with which differential amplifier amplifies the difference between two input signals. Hence it is known as ‘differential gain of the differential amplifier’. V1-V2= Difference of two voltage Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
  • 6. Common Mode Gain (Ad): An average of the two input signals is called common mode signal denoted as Vc. Hence, the differential amplifier also produces the output voltage proportional to common mode signals. Vo = Ac Vc Where Ac is the common mode gain. Therefore, there exists some finite output for V1 = V2 due to common mode gain Ac. Hence the total output of any differential amplifier can be given as, Vo = Ad Vd + Ac VcPrepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
  • 7. Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR): • The ability of a differential amplifier to reject a common mode signal is defined by a ratio called ‘Common Mode Rejection Ratio’ denoted as CMRR. • CMRR is defined as the ratio of the differential voltage gain Ad to common mode gain Ac and is expresses in dB. Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
  • 8. Configurations of Differential Amplifier: • The differential amplifier in the difference amplifier stage in the op-amp, can be used in four configurations. (i) Dual input, balanced output differential amplifier (ii) Dual input, unbalanced output differential amplifier (iii) Single input, balanced output differential amplifier (iv) Single input, unbalanced output differential amplifier  Out of these four configurations, the dual input, balanced output is the basic differential amplifier configuration. Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
  • 9. 9 Dual input balanced output differential amplifier Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
  • 10. Dual input unbalanced output differential amplifier Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
  • 11. Single input balanced output differential amplifier Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
  • 12. Single input unbalanced output differential amplifier Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers
  • 13. • Conclusion From this presentation came to know about differential amplifier and its types. • References Thomas L.Floyd, “Electronic devices” Conventional current version, Pearson prentice hall. David A. Bell, “Electronic devices and circuits”, Oxford University higher education. Sedra and smith, “Microelectronic circuits”,7th Ed., Oxford University Press. Prepared By S ARUN M.Tech Differential Amplifiers