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Wood a detailed study

Saruchithra Manohar
Saruchithra Manohar
Saruchithra ManoharArchitect at Bhoomi & Buildings (P) Ltd.

Wood as an construction / interior design material

Wood a detailed study

1 of 151
A Detailed Study
What are we going to explore?
A brief introduction on trees
The Life Cycle of trees
How to identify the various types
The log- lumber- timber connection
Formation of wood
Ageing
Classification of Trees
Properties of wood
Commercial usage of wood
Wooden Joineries
Classification of wood
Defects in wood
A look into different wooden samples
Preservation of wood
Exterior usage of wood
Interior usage of wood
Conclusion
WOOD
• Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in
the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It
has been used for thousands of years for both fuel and
as a construction material.
• It is an organic material, a natural composite of
cellulose fibers (which are strong in tension) embedded
in a matrix of lignin which resists compression.
• Wood is sometimes defined as only the
secondary xylem in the stems of trees, or it is defined
more broadly to include the same type of tissue
elsewhere such as in the roots of trees or shrubs.
• In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling
woody plants to grow large or to stand up by
themselves. It also mediates the transfer of water
and nutrients to the leaves and other growing tissues.
• Wood may also refer to other plant materials with
comparable properties, and to material engineered from
wood, or wood chips or fibre.
• The Earth contains about one trillion tonnes of wood,
which grows at a rate of 10 billion tonnes per year.
• As an abundant, carbon-neutral renewable resource,
woody materials have been of intense interest as a
source of renewable energy.
• In 1991, approximately 3.5 cubic kilometres of wood
were harvested. Dominant uses were for furniture and
building construction.
Where do trees grow?
• Trees grow at the
desert. They also grow
at home. Trees can
grow where ever you
go. They grow at the
forests where they are
all together. Trees also
grow at the jungle,
people's backyard,
parks and and at home.
Lumber or timber is a collective term for harvested wood that has been manufactured
into boards and planks. This process is part of something called wood production.
Lumber is predominantly used for structural purposes but has many other uses as
well. Lumber is classified as hardwood or softwood.
India with the Russian
Federation, Brazil, Canada,
United States of America,
China, Democratic
Republic of the Congo,
Australia, Indonesia and
Sudan account for 67
percent of total forest
area of the world.
Why do trees have different shapes?
• Some trees are different
shapes cause some live
in dry places and some
do t . T ees a e
different shapes cause
some are biased and
some are not.

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Wood a detailed study

  • 2. What are we going to explore? A brief introduction on trees The Life Cycle of trees How to identify the various types The log- lumber- timber connection Formation of wood Ageing Classification of Trees Properties of wood Commercial usage of wood Wooden Joineries Classification of wood Defects in wood A look into different wooden samples Preservation of wood Exterior usage of wood Interior usage of wood Conclusion
  • 3. WOOD • Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It has been used for thousands of years for both fuel and as a construction material. • It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers (which are strong in tension) embedded in a matrix of lignin which resists compression. • Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere such as in the roots of trees or shrubs. • In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves. It also mediates the transfer of water and nutrients to the leaves and other growing tissues. • Wood may also refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, and to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fibre. • The Earth contains about one trillion tonnes of wood, which grows at a rate of 10 billion tonnes per year. • As an abundant, carbon-neutral renewable resource, woody materials have been of intense interest as a source of renewable energy. • In 1991, approximately 3.5 cubic kilometres of wood were harvested. Dominant uses were for furniture and building construction.
  • 4. Where do trees grow? • Trees grow at the desert. They also grow at home. Trees can grow where ever you go. They grow at the forests where they are all together. Trees also grow at the jungle, people's backyard, parks and and at home.
  • 5. Lumber or timber is a collective term for harvested wood that has been manufactured into boards and planks. This process is part of something called wood production. Lumber is predominantly used for structural purposes but has many other uses as well. Lumber is classified as hardwood or softwood. India with the Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, United States of America, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Australia, Indonesia and Sudan account for 67 percent of total forest area of the world.
  • 6. Why do trees have different shapes? • Some trees are different shapes cause some live in dry places and some do t . T ees a e different shapes cause some are biased and some are not.
  • 7. How many kinds of trees are there? • There is 100,000 types of trees in the world.
  • 8. Explain the life cycle of a tree. • First you plant a seed then it grows into a seedling. Then the seedling turns in to a tree. After that the tree grows flowers then the flowers grow in to fruit.
  • 9. How do trees feed? • The sun shines on the leafs then the photosynthesis go inside it then it makes food for the tree.
  • 10. Name and describe the parts of a tree. • Trunk – A trunk is huge • Leafs –Leafs good helpers cause they get food for the tree. • Branches- Braches are strong they grow leafs. • Roots –Roots hold up the tree and it is really good. • Flowers- Flowers make more seeds to grow trees.
  • 11. Describe the skin of a tree and its purpose. • The skin of a tree is called bark and it protects the inside of the tree. trees skins are wrinkly and they are hard.
  • 15. How do trees stand up? • Trees stand up by their strong roots that are underneath the ground.
  • 16. How old can a tree be? • A tree can be over 4000 years old.
  • 17. How can you tell the age of a tree? • You can tell by the rings when you cut it down. How wide the tree is tells you how old a tree can be when it is still alive.
  • 19. Advantages of Timber • Environmentally friendly material • Good appearance, aesthetic appeal • Low weight to strength ratio • Light, easy to handle, easily joined • Suitable for prefabrication of components (reduce amount of site work)
  • 20. • Wood floats on water.Low density • Wood absorbs water and it swellsPorousity PROPERTIES OF WOOD • Ductility: It can be moulded into threads. • Malleable: It can be moulded into sheets. • Tenaciousity: It does t break with hits.. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES • Electric insulator • Acoustic insulator • Thermal insulator INSULATOR
  • 21. ECOLOGICAL PROPERTIES Wood is... RECYCLABLE It can be used again. BIODEGRADABLE It decomposes in natural environment. RENEWABLE It grows again. PROPERTIES OF WOOD
  • 22. PROPERTIES OF WOOD - MECHANICAL Tensile Strength – Ti e is st o ge i te sio alo g the ai ut it s uite difficult to determine this because of the difficulties in conducting test. Compressive Strength – The strength along the grain is important for columns, props, and post. Shear Strength – Shear strength is important in the case of the beam and slabs. Bending Strength or Flexural Strength – This refers as the strength of the timber as a beam. Cleavability – High resistance for cleavage is important for nailing and screwing while low splitting strength is important for used as firewood. Brittleness – is use to describe the property of suffering little deformations before breaking. Torsion Strength – is used to determine the torsion strength of the timber and the specimen is loaded up to failure. Hardness – is important in case of timber for paving blocks flooring bearings and other similar purposes. Stiffness - This property is important to determine the deflection of a
  • 23. PROPERTIES OF WOOD THERMAL PROPERTIES THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY. THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION HEAT CAPACITY WOOD Thermal Conductivity A measure of the rate of heat flow (W m–2 or Btu h–1 ft–2) through a material subjected to unit temperature difference (K or °F) across unit thickness (m or in.) Heat Capacity The amount of energy needed to increase one unit of mass (kg or lb) one unit in temperature (K or °F) Thermal Diffusivity A measure of how quickly a material can absorb heat from its surroundings. Coefficient of Thermal Expansion A measure of the relative change of dimension caused by temperature change
  • 24. QUALITIES OF WOOD • Strong & Stiff • Light • Easily worked / shaped • Fastened quickly & economically • Recyclable • Biodegradable • Renewable Resource
  • 25. UNDESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICS OF WOOD • Not perfectly straight nor precise • Size & shape affected by moisture • Contains growth defects • Can spilt & warp • Burns easily • Decays • Susceptible to Insect Damage
  • 26. Classification of trees Conifers Broadleaved trees Needle-like leaves Scale-like leaves Compound leaves Simple leaves Coniferous trees generally have narrow, hard leaves that are known as scales or needles, depending on their shape. Nearly all of them are evergreen. Conifers do not have true flowers; instead, they produce cones.
  • 27. Conifers with needle-like leaves  Pine  Fir  Cedar  Yew
  • 31. Broadleaved trees with compound leaves  Serrate  (scaly) Service tree  (scaly) Elder  (vertical cracking) Ash  (smooth) Rowan Horse chestnut Entire  (linear) Mimosa  (ovate-lanceolate) Walnut  (ovate) Black locust
  • 34. Broad leaved trees with simple lobed leaves  Opposite Marple,  Sycamore  Alternate  (Smooth)  (entire/serrate) Fig tree  (fan shape) Gingko  (smooth with diamonds) White poplar  (peeling) London plante  (Vertical cracking)  (entire) Oak, Tulip tree  (serrate) Hawthorn  (Scaly) Sweet Gum
  • 37. Broadleaved trees with simple unlobed evergreen leaves  evergreen  (scaly)  (lanciolate) Holm oak  (ovate-lanciolate) Kermes oak  (smooth)  (ovate) Magnolia  (ovate toothed) Holly  (lanceolate) Laurel  (peeling) Gum tree  (vertical cracking) Privet, Olive tree  (irregular vertical cracking) Cork oak
  • 40. Broadleaved trees with simple unlobed deciduous leaves  Heart-shaped  (Vertical cracking) Lime, Princess tree  (Irregular vertical cracking) Poplar  (scaly) Judas Tree  Ovate  (serrate) Elm, Japanese cherry, Cherry plum  (entire) Beech  Ovate /triangular Birch  Round  (smooth) Hazel  (smooth with diamonds) Aspen  (scaly) Alder Lanceolate  (Alternate)  (Entire) Wipping willow  (Vertical cracking) Chestnut
  • 44. Types of Wood Joints
  • 45. Dowel Joint • Do els o e i diffe e t sizes ¼”, 3/8”, ½” , /8” et . • These joints are hidden and add strength to the joint. • Dowel holes are drill and glued and clamped together.
  • 46. Dado • Dado's are typically used in making book shelves, they support the shelf without the benefit of any additional fasteners, any glue or hardware simply holds the shelf in place. • Dados may be made with a dado blade on a table saw
  • 47. Rabbet Joint • This type of joint is made by using the dado blade. • Each side of wood is cut to a specific length, then glued or brad nailed to make a stronger joint.
  • 48. Lap Joint • A lap joint is when two pieces are cut on a dado & glued or nailed together to create a stronger joint.
  • 49. Dovetail Joints • Most commonly used to attach drawer sides to drawer fronts, dovetails joints almost always indicate quality furniture. • Typically cut using a manufactured jig to cut these. Can be done by hand.
  • 50. Mortise and Tenon • The mortise and tenon joint is one of the strongest joints. • Mortise and tenon joint is normally formed by cutting a square tongue (the tenon) on the end of one piece of wood and an equal size square hole or slot (the mortise) in another.
  • 51. Miter with Wood Spline Mitered corners make the joint disappear. They have a clean look, and can be strengthened with splines. Splines can be either hidden inside the joint or cut on the outside.
  • 52. Tongue and Groove • Tongue and groove is a method of fitting similar objects together, edge to edge. • T&G joints allow two flat pieces to be joined strongly together to make a single flat surface. • The effect of wood shrinkage is concealed when the joint is beaded or otherwise molded.
  • 53. WOOD - A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIAL
  • 54. WOOD AS A CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL: Wood is a commonly used construction material in many parts of the world because of its reasonable cost, ease of working, attractive appearance and adequate life if protected from moisture and insects. However, forests are a valuable natural resource that must be conserved, particularly in areas with marginal rainfall. As good a material as wood may be, there are regions where other materials should be considered first, simply on a conservation basis. Wood for building is available from many different species with widely varying characteristics. Some species are used in the form of small poles for light construction, while other species are allowed to mature so that timber may be sawn from the large logs. The species that produce small, inexpensive poles in rather short growing periods often grow in the fringes of agricultural land and can be used without danger to the ecology of the region.
  • 55. HISTORY OF WOOD IN CONSTRUCTION: Wood has been an important construction material since humans began building shelters, houses and boats. Nearly all boats were made out of wood until the late 19th century, and wood remains in common use today in boat construction. A research team led by Willy Tegel and Dr. Dietrich Hakelberg from the Institute for Forest Growth of the University of Freiburg, Germany has succeeded in precisely dating four water wells built by the first Central European agricultural civilization. The wells were excavated at settlements in the Greater Leipzig region and are the oldest known timber constructions in the world. They were built by the Linear Pottery culture, which existed from roughly 5600 to 4900 BC.
  • 56. Greensted Church, in the small village of Greensted-juxta-Ongar, near Chipping Ongar in Essex, England, is the oldest wooden church in the world, and probably the oldest wooden building in Europe still standing, albeit only in part, since few sections of its original wooden structure remain. Greensted Church has stood for nearly 1,200 years. Archaeological evidence suggests that, before there was a permanent structure, there may well have been another church, or a holy place, on the site for much longer, possibly dating back to around the 4th century.
  • 57. HARDWOOD & SOFTWOOD: Wood cut from deciduous trees is considered to be hardwood, while that cut from coniferous trees is considered to be softwood. However, this classification does not accurately reflect whether the wood itself is soft or hard. For example, balsa wood is one of the lightest, least dense woods there is, and it's considered a hardwood.
  • 60. CHARACTERISTICS OF WOOD: Strength in wood is its ability to resist breaking when it is used in beams and columns. Not only is strength related to the species, but also to moisture content (MC) and defects. Strength is also quite closely related to density. Hardness is the resistance to denting and wear. While hardwoods are more difficult to work, they are required for tools, tool handles, flooring and other applications subject to wear, or where a high polish is desired.
  • 61. Woods that are stiff resist deflection or bending when loaded. Stiff woods are not necessarily very strong. They may resist bending up to a point and then break suddenly. Tough woods will deflect considerably before breaking. Even after fracturing, the fibres tend to hang together and resist separation. Tough woods are resistant to shock loading.
  • 62. Warping is a deviation from flatness as a result of stresses and shrinkage from the uneven drying of lumber. The types of wood warping include: cup: a warp across the width of the face, in which the edges are higher or lower than the centre of the wood bow: a warp along the length of the face of the wood twist: a distortion in which the two ends do not lie on the same plane crook: a warp along the length of the edge of the wood kink: a localized crook, often due to a knot
  • 63. Nail-holding resistance for hardwoods is greater than for softer woods. However, woods that are so hard that they tend to split when nailed, lose much of their holding ability. Pre-boring to 75 % of the nail size avoids splitting. The workability differs in hardwoods and softwoods. Sawing, shaping and nailing, is better for soft, low-density woods than for hardwoods, but usually they cannot be given a high polish.
  • 64. SAWING TIMBER: The method of sawing has a considerable effect on the appearance, resistance to warping, shrinking, paint-holding ability and wear resistance of the final piece. There are several methods of sawing a log into boards and planks, giving different relationships between the growth rings and the surface, i.e. more or less parallel to the surface in plain sawn timber and at right angles in radial sawn timber. Radially sawn boards shrink less, are less liable to cup, twist & are easier to season. Unfortunately cutting methods that produce a high proportion of quarter-sawn timber are wasteful and hence used to produce material for high-class joinery work. PLAIN-SAWN QUARTER-SAWN THROUGH & THROUGH CUT
  • 65. SEASONING OF TIMBER: The strength, stiffness and dimensional stability of wood are related to its moisture content. Hence, if wood is dried (seasoned) before use, not only can higher strength values be used in a design, but a more durable structure will result. In developing countries, most timber is not seasoned and it is sold in what is called its g ee state. Timber must be stacked, supported and sometimes restrained so as to minimize distortion during seasoning. If drying is too rapid, the outer parts, in particular the unprotected ends, shrink before the interior does, and this leads to surface checking and splitting, as well as the possible extension of ring and heart shakes. Some timber species are more difficult to season satisfactorily than others.
  • 66. GRADES OF TIMBER: EXAMPLE – TEAK WOOD Teak grade is a common way of determining teak ood s quality and therefore pricing. Teak furniture usually indicates the grade of the wood used to make it. The grades that teak wood may have are A, B or C where A has the highest quality and price while C is the lowest quality and pricing. Teak wood graded A is wood is taken from the heart of the trunk where teak oil is more concentrated. Also A grade teak has more silica and rubber making it more resistant to water and insects. This means that the ood s texture is more uniform and resistant. A grade teak wood is about ten times more expensive than than C or B grade teak. Less than 20 percent of a teak tree is considered A grade teak.
  • 67. Teak wood graded B is also great. Its quality is not as high as A grade teak but its still fine for furniture. B grade teak wood is taken from the outer part of the heart of the tree. It still has a good concentration of natural oil. The color is a bit lighter than the one you find in A grade teak wood. The touch is not as smooth and is less shiny than A grade. C grade teak is taken from the outer part of the teak log. It is the lowest quality teak that you will find, also the cheaper. Many cheap teak furniture is made from this type of wood. Knots and flaws are common. The grain is not so tight making this grade of teak a bit less resistant than B and A grade teak. C grade teak is still a great wood. It is waterproof and very resistant to insects but the overall wood quality is a bit lower.
  • 94. SEASONING OF TIMBER: As fresh timber which is obtained from trees contains about 30 to 40 % sap or moisture. This sap is very harmful for the life of a timber. Therefore, it is necessary to remove that sap by applying some special methods. All those methods which are used timber. for removing the sap from timber are collectively termed as seasoning of timber. Advantages of seasoned timber: It has reduced weight, It is strong and durable, It has resistance to decay or rot, It takes high polish, It is easier to work, Its life is more.
  • 95. (a) Kiln Seasoning: In kiln seasoning timber is placed in a chamber with some special heating arrangement. In this process one thing should be kept in mind that heating system should be under control, other wise timber will be crack or wrap. The time required for this seasoning is 3 to 12 days. This is quick process. (b) Chemical Seasoning: In chemical seasoning carbon dioxide, ammonium carbonate or urea are used as agents for seasoning, those are applied in dry state, the inter surface of timber dries first than outer side. This ensures uniform seasoning. The time required for this seasoning is 30 to 40 days. (c) Electric Seasoning: In this method electric current is passed through the timber logs. The time required for this seasoning is 05 to 08 hours.
  • 96. (1) NATURAL SEASONING: In the air seasoning or natural seasoning or natural drying, seasoning of timber, timber is dried by direct action of air, wind and sun. In this method, the timber logs are arranged one over the other, keeping some space or distance between them for air circulation of fresh air. Generally this type of seasoning requires few months to over a year, this is very slow process. (2) ARTIFICIAL SEASONING (a) Kiln Seasoning, (b) Chemical Seasoning, (c) Electric Seasoning (3) WATER SEASONING: In water seasoning, timber logs are kept immersed whole in the flowing water. The sap present in timber is washed away. After that logs are taken out from water and are kept in open air, so water present in timber would be dried by air. The time required for this type of seasoning is 2 to 4 weeks.
  • 97. DETERIORATION OF TIMBER (OR) DECAY OF TIMBER: There are so many agencies which may cause decay of timber. But there are three main harmful agencies which cause timber decay. (1) Decay or Rot: Decay or rot of timber is the result of the activity of various bacteria and fungi, which utilize various portions of timber as food; they require both oxygen and excess moisture. Hence timber having moisture content below 25 % will not rot easily. (2) Insects: There are so many insects which attack the wood, out of them termites (white ants) are the main insects which are very dangerous for timber. Termites of one class live under ground and eat wood and forms tubes or tunnels inside it. (3) Fire: Fire is also the damaging factor for timber. As timber has tendency to burn, so fire can damage it easily.
  • 98. PRESERVATION OF TIMBER TIMBER PRESERVATIVES: There are three main classes of timber preservatives. (1) Oily substances insoluble in water (2) Water soluble salts Oily substances insoluble in water: Coal tar oil is the best known and widely used preservative material of this class. It is obtained during the destructive distillation of bituminous coal. It is available in many grades and types. It has high degree of penetration. It has highly toxic effect to wood destroying fungi. (2) Water soluble salts: Zinc chloride is the most extensively used preservative of this type. It is clean and odourless.
  • 99. SPECIAL PAINTS TO SAVE TIMBER FROM FIRE: Following paints are used to save timber from fire. Diammonium phosphate, Mono ammonium phosphate, Mono magnesium phosphate, Phosphoric acid. METHODS OF APPLYING PRESERVATIVES: Before applying preservatives, the timber should be completely seasoned. There are some important methods of applying timber preservatives which are given below. Painting and dipping method Pressure process or full cell process Empty cell process
  • 100. (1) Painting and dipping method: This is the most common method in which the preservative material is applied by means of a brush several times. The timber is also immersed in a tank full of liquid p ese ati e ate ial . I oth t pes the pe et atio ha dl e eeds 1/1 . The duration of immersion and temperature of solution is increased the penetration rate. (2) Pressure process or full cell process: In this process, the timber is placed in an air tight chamber, from which air is with drawn by creating a vacuum. The cells are full emptied to receive preservative material. After that preservative material is pumped under pressure of 100 to 200 psi and at a temperature of 120degreeF. As the timber contains required quantity of preservative a low vacuum is maintained to remove excess preservative. Such a timber is generally used in case of piles in salt water and railway sleepers. (3) Empty cell process: This method is similar to the full cell process but initial vacuum is not to be maintained and no attempt is to be made to remove the air from cells. The preservative material is applied under pressure of 200 psi.
  • 143. • Ancient Chinese wooden architecture is among the least studied of any of the world's great architectural traditions from the western point of view. • Although Chinese architectural history reaches far back in time, descriptions of Chinese architecture are often confined to the well known Forbidden with little else explored by the West. • Although common features of Chinese architecture have been unified into a vocabulary illustrating uniquely Chinese forms and methods, until recently data has not been available. • Because of the lack of knowledge of the roots of Chinese architecture, description of its elements is often translated into Western terms and architectural theory, losing its unique Chinese meanings. Ancient Chinese wooden architecture Structural features Foundation platform • By the middle Neolithic period, the use of rammed earth and unbaked mud bricks was prevalent. • Hangtu, the pounding of layers of earth to make walls, altars, and foundations remained an element of Chinese construction for the next several millennia. • The Great wall of china, built of Hangtu, was erected beginning in the first millennium BC • Sundried mud bricks and rammed mud walls were typically constructed within wood frames. • Hard pounded earth floors were strengthened by heating.
  • 144. • A fundamental achievement of Chinese wooden architecture is the load-bearing timber frame, a network of interlocking wooden supports forming the skeleton of the building. • This is considered China's major contribution to worldwide architectural technology. However, it is not known how the builders got the huge wooden support columns into position. • Unlike western architecture, in ancient Chinese wooden architecture, the wall only defined an enclosure, and did not form a load-bearing element. • Buildings in China have been supported by wooden frames for as long as seven millennia. The emergence of the characteristics articulated wooden Chinese frame emerged during the Neolithic period. • Seven thousand years ago mortise and tenon joinery was used to build wood-framed houses. (The oldest are at Hemudu site at Zhejiang). • Over a thousand of these sites have been identified, usually with circular, square or oblong shaped buildings. During the Yangshao culture in the middle neolithic, circular and rectangular semi subterranean structures are found with wooden beams and columns. • Wooden beams or earth supported the roofs which were most likely thatched.[3] • As the villages and towns grew they adhered to symmetrical shapes. Symmetry was also important in the layout of homes, altars, and villages. • In traditional Chinese architecture, every facet of a building was decorated using various materials and techniques. Simple ceiling ornamentations in ordinary buildings were made of wooden strips and covered with paper. • More decorative was the lattice ceiling, constructed of woven wooden strips or sorghum stems fastened to the beams. • Dougong is a unique structural element of interlocking wooden brackets, one of the most important elements in traditional Chinese architecture. • It first appeared in buildings of the last centuries BC and evolved into a structural network that joined pillars and columns to the frame of the roof. Dougong was widely used in the Spring and Autumn Period (770–476 BC) and developed into a complex set of interlocking parts by its peak in the Tang and Song periods. Since ancient times when the Chinese first began to use wood for building, joinery has been a major focus and craftsmen cut the wooden pieces to fit so perfectly that no glue or fasteners were necessary TIMBER-FRAME
  • 145. In traditional Chinese architecture, every facet of a building was decorated using various materials and techniques. Simple ceiling ornamentations in ordinary buildings were made of wooden strips and covered with paper. More decorative was the lattice ceiling, constructed of woven wooden strips or sorghum stems fastened to the beams. Because of the intricacy of its ornamentation, elaborate cupolas were reserved for the ceilings of the most important structures such as tombs and altars, although it is not clear what the spiritual beliefs of the early Chinese were, as altars appear to have served as burial sites.[1] In traditional Chinese architecture, the layered pieces of the ceiling are held together by interlocking bracket sets (斗拱 dǒugǒng). Elaborate wooden coffers (藻井 zǎojǐng) bordered by a round, square, or polygon frame with its brackets projecting inward and upward from its base were used around the 7th century. Deeply recessed panels shaped like a well (square at the base with a rounded top) were fitted into the ceiling's wooden framework. The center panel of the ceiling was decorated with water lilies or other water plants. The relationship of the name to water has been linked to an ancient fear that wooden buildings would be destroyed by fire and that water from the zǎojǐng would prevent or quell the fire's flames.[1] The tomb of Empress Dowager Wenming of the Northern Wei Dynasty has a coffer in the flat-topped, vaulted ceiling in the back chamber of her tomb.[4] The Baoguo Temple in Yuyao in Zhejiang has three cupolas in the ceiling, making it unique among surviving examples of Song architecture.[citation needed] Sanqing Hall (Hall of the Three Purities) is the only Yuan period structure with three cupolas in its ceiling Roof and ceiling
  • 146. Bandon Bluff House A modern house on the Oregon coast provides expansive views of the Pacific to the west and a river to the north. Wood , concrete and rich colors make this house warm and comfortable year-round. The expansive deck and outdoor fireplace make this outdoor space useable year-round the entry is protected from the strong coastal winds. The granite water feature connects with the entry court pond.
  • 147. The expansive deck and outdoor fireplace make this outdoor space useable year-round the entry is protected from the strong coastal winds. The granite water feature connects with the entry court pond.
  • 148. Yusuhara Wooden Bridge Museum Architects: Kengo Kuma & Associates Location: 3799-3 Taro-gawa Yusuhara-cho, Takaoka-gun, Kochi Prefecture, Japan Client: Tomio Yano, Town Mayor of Yusuhara Site area: 14,736.47 sqm Completion: 2011 Photographs: Takumi Ota Photography • This is a plan to link two public buildings with a bridge-typed facility, which had been long separated by the road in between. • The museum technically bridges communications in this area. It functions not only as a passage between the two facilities but also as an accommodation and workshop, ideal location for artist-in-residence programs. • In this project, we challenged a structural system which composes of small parts, referring to cantilever structure often employed in traditional architecture in Japan and China. • It is a great example of sustainable design, as you can achieve a big cantilever even without large- sized materials.
  • 150. Dendrology • ‘Dendro-’ from the Greek word meaning tree • ‘-ology’ meaning the study of • Dendrology is the study of trees and includes taxonomy, identification, silivical characteristics, ranges, morphology, and ecology
  • 151. Vocabulary • Taxonomy is the study of the classification of living things. • Morphology is the study of the shape, general appearance, or form of an organism. • Silviculture is the care and cultivation of forest trees. • Ecology is the study of the relationships between living and non-living things and their environment.