Thesis writing

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Thesis writing

  1. 1. Chapter I: The Problem: Its Rationale and BackgroundChapter II: Review of Related LiteratureChapter III: MethodologyChapter IV: Results and discussionChapter V: Summary, Conclusions, and recommendations
  2. 2. 1.1 Statement of the Problem1.2 Hypotheses1.3 Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework1.4 Significance of the Study1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study1.6 Definition of key terms
  3. 3. 2.1 Related Legal Basis2.2 Related Literature2.3 Related Studies
  4. 4. 3.1 Research Design 3.2 Determination of Sample Size 3.3 Sampling Design and Technique 3.4 The Subject 3.5 The Research Instruments3.6 Validation of the Research Instruments 3.7 Data Gathering procedure 3.8 Data Processing Method 3.9 Biostatistical treatment
  5. 5. 4.1 Each specific question in chapter I be answered in this chapter in textual, tabular and graphical forms
  6. 6. 5.1 Summary5.2 Conclusions5.3Recommendations
  7. 7. VI: BibliographyVII: AppendixVIII: Curriculum Vitae
  8. 8. Presents the panoramic view of the problem.This part gives the foundation of the problem by citing some phrases and sentences from published materials relevant to the study in order to arouse the interest of the reader to read the thesis.
  9. 9. For instance, the researcherwishes to conduct the study oncorrelation between job relatedproblems and job performanceof staff nurses in private andgovernment hospitals in IloiloCity. Descriptive design is used inthis study.
  10. 10. Should be clearly andexplicitly expressed ininterrogative form andpossess the characteristics ofSMART, (Specific, measurable,attainable, realistic, and timebounded)
  11. 11. What is the extent of the degree of seriousness of job related problems and job performance by staff nurses in private and government hospital in Iloilo city to (a) administration of top management, (b) administration of middle management, (c) administration of lower management, (d) communication, (e) financial condition, (g) hospital facilities, and (h) job hazards?
  12. 12.  What is the mean job performance of staff nurses in the private and government hospitals in Iloilo city for the last three years? What is the relationship between job-related problems and job performance of staff nurses in private and government hospital in Iloilo City? Isthere a significant difference between job-related problems and job performance of staff nurses in private and government hospitals in Iloilo City when they are classified as to civil status, age, length of nursing practice?
  13. 13. The null hypotheses iscommonly used by researchwriters because it is the denialof the difference of an effectwhich is easy to reject andaccept and the difference ofvariable is zero.
  14. 14. Based on the foregoing research questions, the researcher formulate the following null hypotheses: The staff nurses in the private and government hospital in Iloilo City are not serious of job-related problems met in relation to administration of top management, administration of middle management, administration of lower management, communication, financial condition, hospital facilities, and job hazards.
  15. 15. There is no relationship between job- related problems and job performance of staff nurses in private and government hospitals in Iloilo City.There is a significant difference on job related problems and job performance of the staff nurses in private and government hospitals in Iloilo City when classified as to civil, age and length of nursing practice.
  16. 16.  Provide clear explanation about the relationship of variables. Its desirable that the researcher uses only one framework, either theoretical or conceptual. Itshape the justification of the research problem which uses abstract concepts, facts or laws, variables and their relations that explain and predict how observed trend occurs and operates.
  17. 17. A researcher is required to formulate existing theory which link on his study because theories are useful devices for interpret, criticizing and unifying established specific laws or facts that guide the discovering new generalizations.
  18. 18. A theory as framework of this study is the Lawler’s theory(1973) which deals on the relationship between actual rewards and performance and perceived equitable rewards. If actual rewards are equal to or exceed perceived equitable rewards satisfaction results. If perceived equitable rewards exceed actual rewards dissatisfaction results.(Lawler, 1973)Actual rewards include salary, promotion, performance incentive, loyalty award for at least ten years of continuous and satisfactory services, bonuses, thirteen month pay, and allowances. Likewise actual rewards are termed as “should received”.
  19. 19.  Itis important in order to convince the thesis committee that the study has important contribution in relation to (a) solving the problems and needs, (b) bridging the knowledge gap, (c) improving social, economic, technological, and health conditions, (d) enriching research instruments and methods, ad government trusts.
  20. 20. The study has significance to the task to top, middle, lower managers in the hospital because it can guide their role identity in job-related problems met by the staff nurses and solve these problems in order that the staff nurses can perform effectively and efficiently their duty, especially the health of the people is an important factor to have progressive nation or “health is wealth”.
  21. 21. This section includes coverage of the study area, the subjects, the research instruments, the research issues and concerns, the duration of the study, and the constraint that have direct bearing on the result of the study.
  22. 22. Thus study is limited only to correlate job- related problems and job performance of staff nurses in all private and public hospital in Iloilo City during academic year 200_. All staff nurses employed for at least one year or more in five existing hospitals in Iloilo City, namely: Iloilo Mission Hospital, Saints Paul hospital, Iloilo Doctors Hospital, west Visayan state University Hospital, and Western Visayas Medical Center.
  23. 23. It will involve all staff nurses in private and government hospitals if less 100 per hospital. But if the population per hospital is more that 100, sample survey is applied. Unrestricted random sampling is used to get sample from the population where in each staff nurses is given equal chance of inclusion to the sample. Lottery will be the technique in getting the sample.(Etc.)
  24. 24. There are two ways in defining key terms: Conceptual Operational
  25. 25.  Conceptual definition of key terms- the meaning of the terms is usually taken from the dictionary, encyclopedia, and published books, journals and articles. Operational definition of key terms- the definition is based on the observed characteristics and how it is used in the study.
  26. 26. Two ways in arranging key terms: they are arranged as they appear in the text They are appear in alphabetical order Note: if there are more than 15 terms defined, they are placed in the glossary.
  27. 27.  Job related problems- as used in the study, this refers to the unpleasant or disagreeable situation met by nurses in performing their duty in the hospital in relation to the administration of top, middle, and lower management, communication, financial condition, hospital facilities, and job hazards. Private hospitals- as used in this study, this refers to private health institutions governed and subsidized by private individuals or corporation.
  28. 28.  Review of related literature is placed in the Chapter 2 of the research paper, thesis and dissertation. An investigator needs to review the literature and studies related to the study to determine the similarities and differences of the previous study and to gain insights into the aspects of the problem that are critical and controversial. Divided into three parts:  Related legal basis  Related literature  Related studies (foreign or local)
  29. 29.  Thesources are laws, constitutions, department directives, such as circulars, orders, memoranda and many other which have implication to the government thrusts. Forevery related legal basis cited, the researcher has to explain of it to the present study. It is unscientific if legal basis is presented without explanation at all.
  30. 30.  Aretaken from published articles, books, journals, magazines, novels, poetry, and many others which have direct bearing to the present study. They are also arranged in chronological order from present to past. Explanation of the literature to the relevance to the present study is a must. It is unscientific if related literature has no explanation at all.
  31. 31. Related studies published and unpublished which have direct bearing to the present study.They are segregated into foreign and local studies.
  32. 32. Methodology is chapter heading of chapter 3 of the research paper, thesis and dissertation. The subtopic of the chapter 3 are the research design, determination of the sample size, sampling design and technique, the subject, the research instrument, data gathering procedure, and biostatistical treatment.
  33. 33.  Theinvestigator has to choose the most appropriate research design applicable to his present study. In descriptive research there are nine types:  Descriptive survey  Descriptive normative  Descriptive status  Descriptive analysis  Descriptive classification  Descriptive evaluative  Descriptive comparative  Correlational survey  Longitudinal survey
  34. 34.  Sample survey is used by the researcher when the total population is 100 or more. Ss=NV+ (Se)2 x (1-p) NSe + (V)2 x p(1-p)Where:  Ss= sample size  N= total population  V= standard value (2.58) of 1 % level of possibility and 99% reliabilility  Se= sampling error(0.01)  P= the largest possible proportion (0.50)
  35. 35. Two kinds of sampling design: Scientific sampling, very member of the population is given equal chance to be included as a sample Nonscientific sampling
  36. 36. Restricted random samplingUnrestricted random samplingStratifies random samplingSystematic samplingMulti-stage samplingCluster sampling
  37. 37. Lottery techniqueTable of random numbers
  38. 38.  Lottery is used as technique in getting the sample size of the present study. Hospitals with 100 or more staff nurses are subjected to random sampling. Total population used in the hospitals with less that 100 staff nurses. They are not subjected to random sampling in order to give the subjects of the study equal chance of their responses in the categorization as to civil, age, and length of nursing practice.
  39. 39. Distribution of subjects and percent retrieval of questionnaires Hospitals Frequency Frequency Percent retrieval Private Iloilo Mission Hospital 60 55 91.7 Iloilo Doctor’s Hospital 62 57 91.9 Saints Paul’s Hospital 50 46 92.0 GovernmentWestern Visayas Medical Center 97 88 90.7 West Visayan State University 71 64 90.1 Hospital TOTAL 340 310 X=91.28
  40. 40. The research instruments, forinstance, questionnaire isdescribed on how it is designedby the researcher. Each part ofthe research instrument isclearly stated and explained.
  41. 41.  Suggestions, corrections, refinement of the draft of the questionnaire (research instrument) must be explained thoroughly. The different personnel involved in the refinement of the research instrument must be mentioned. After it is refined, testing the validity and reliability of the research instrument must be done.
  42. 42.  Forvalidity, experts in line of the field of study are requested to go over the research instrument. Each item in the instrument has column on retain(3), revise(2), and delete(1). The expert are requested to check the appropriate column for each item. Then the researcher compute the weighted mean for the 3 columns’ results. Items with mean values of 2.5 to 3.0 be retained. Item with mean values of 2.4 to 1.5, revise; and 1.4 to 1.0 delete.
  43. 43.  For reliability, the researcher must use either test- retest method, split-half ,parallel form method or internal consistency method. Ifhe uses the test-retest method, the questionnaire is administered twice to staff nurses in the other hospitals who are not subjects of the study. The interval of the first and second questionnaire is at least one week and not more than one month.
  44. 44. The spearman rho or spearman rank correlation coefficient is used to determine the reliability of the responses. If the reliability value is high to very high, this means the research instrument is reliable. If the research instrument is both valid and reliable, it is ready to administered to the subjects of the study.
  45. 45.  Having found the research instrument valid and reliable, the investigator proceeds to ask permission and approval from the head of agency where the subject is employed. Once permitted the researcher administers the questionnaires to the subject of study. The date of administration of questionnaires, retrieval date, and percentage retrieval of questionnaires must be stated.
  46. 46.  Afterthe retrieval of the questionnaires, the investigator tabulates, processes, and analyzes the data. The data gathered are organized. The researcher makes the assessment of job related problems met by the staff nurses in private and government hospital in Iloilo City and its relationship with Job performance. The responses are analyzed with the subjects considered as a whole, then as a civil status, age, length and practice.
  47. 47. The biostatistical tools used toanswer the specific questions aredescribed and formulae arepresented and explained. The levelof significance, either 1 percent or5 percent are stated to determinethe significance of the findings.
  48. 48.  In this chapter, all specific questions in chapter 1 must be answered in textual, tabular and graphical forms. The first specific problem is “what is the extent of the degree of seriousness on the problems met by staff nurses in private and government hospitals in Iloilo City in relation to, (a) administration of top management, (b) administration of middle management, (c) administration of lower management, (d) communication, (e) financial condition, (f) hospital facilities, and (g) job hazards.
  49. 49. Degree of seriousness of the problems met by staff nurses in private and government hospitals in Iloilo City in relation to administration of top management, administration of middle management, and administration of lower management, communication, financial condition, hospital facilities and job hazards.
  50. 50. Using the weighted arithmetic mean, the results showed the mean score for job related problems in relation to administration of top management ranged from 1.3 to 3.6 or “not a problem at all” to “very serious problem”. There items were item 2, “incompetence to manage the hospital,” having mean value of 1.3 and item 15, “lack of support to send staff nurses to grow professionally”.
  51. 51. Hence, the degree of the seriousness of the problems met by staff nurses in private and government hospitals in relation to administration of top management ranged from “not a problem at all” to very serious problem”.
  52. 52. Table 10.1 Mean and Degree of seriousness on the problems met by staff nurses in private and government hospitals in Iloilo City in relation to administration of Top Management (Artificial Data)
  53. 53. Job-related problems Mean Degree of seriousness1. Poor implementation of the 1.7 Less serious problem hospital’s philosophy, mission, vision, goals and objectives by top managers.2. Incompetence to manage the 1.3 Not a problem at all hospital3. Lack of knowledge, skills and 1.4 Not a problem at all abilities to execute discretionary power4. Poor leadership 1.6 Less serious problem5. Poor attitudes toward 1.5 Less serious problem management.6. Inefficient to perform one’s job 1.4 Not a problem at all
  54. 54. Job-related problems Mean Degree of seriousness7. Autocratic management 1.5 Less serious problem8. Abuse of discretionary power 2.6 serious problem9. Vindictive 2.4 Less serious problem10. Not friendly with his colleagues 2.2 Less serious problem11. Fault finder 1.4 Not a problem at all12. Not approachable with his 2.7 Serious problemsubordinates13. Not understanding to the 2.8 Serious problemproblems and needs of staff nurses14. Poor rapport with his 2.1 Less serious problemsubordinates
  55. 55. Job-related problems Mean Degree of seriousness15. Lack of support to staff nurses to 3.6 Very serious problemgrow professionally16. Lac of support in giving salary 2.9 serious problemdifferential17. Lack of support in giving fringe 3.1 serious problembenefits18. Not concern with the welfare of 3.0 serious problemhis subordinates19. Favoritism usually practice in 2.8 serious problemthe hospital20. Promotion is based on palakasan 3.5 Very serious problem21. Lack of support in giving awards 3.4 serious problemand incentives
  56. 56. Job-related problems Mean Degree of seriousness22. Lack of support to send nurses to attend 2.9 serious problemseminars, in-service training, and workshops23. Lack of support to give overtime services by 3.5 Very serious problemstaff nurses beyond the call of duty24. Unfair and unjust in dealing with his 1.4 Not a problem at allsubordinates25. Lack of support to provide equipment and 3.2 serious problemapparatus26. Lack of support to provide medicine and 1.4 Not a problem at allsupply27. Lack of initiative to renovate the 1.7 Less serious problemdilapidated buildings28. Lack of support to provide enough beds to 1.4 Not a problem at allpatients
  57. 57. Scale:5-very very serious problem4- very serious problem3- serious problem2- less serious problem1- not a problem at all
  58. 58. The result showed that the mean scores of the job-related problems met by staff nurses in private and government hospital in Iloilo City in relation to middle management ranged from 1.2 to 3.8 “or not a problem at all” to “very serious problem”. These items were item 2 “incompetence to perform official duties” and item 6 “lack of support to recommend staff nurses to attend seminar-workshops, training and to grow professionally.
  59. 59. Table 10.2Mean and Degree of seriousness on the problems met by staff nurses in private and government hospitals in Iloilo City in relation to administration of Middle Management (Artificial Data)
  60. 60. Job-related problems Mean Degree of seriousness1. Lack of support in the 2.4 Less serious problem implementation of hospital’s philosophy, mission, vision, goals and objectives.2. Incompetence to perform official 1.2 Not a problem at all duties3. Lack of knowledge skills and 1.3 Not a problem at all abilities4. Lack of leadership 2.3 Less serious problem5. Poor attitudes towards work 2.2 Less serious problem6. Lack of support to recommend 3.8 Very serious problem staff nurses to attend seminars- workshops, training and grow professionally.
  61. 61. Job-related problems Mean Degree of seriousness7. Not understanding to the 2.9 serious problem problems and needs of staff nurses8. Bias in evaluating the problem of 2.4 Less serious problem staff nurses9. Not concern on the welfare of her 3.6 Very serious problem subordinates10. Poor rapport with her 2.3 Less serious problem subordinates11. Not approachable 2.4 Less serious problem12. Not friendly 2.1 Less serious problem13. Fault finder 1.4 Not a problem at all
  62. 62. Job-related problems Mean Degree of seriousness14. Lack of assistance to staff 2.0 Less serious problem nurses in performing nursing care 3.0 Very serious problem15. Unfair in giving schedule of duty to staff nurses 3.7 Very serious problem16. Lack of supports in giving awards and incentives to efficient staff nurses 2.7 Very serious problem17. Favoritism in dealing with staff nurses 1.4 Not a problem at all18. Frequent tardiness in reporting on duty
  63. 63. Using weighted mean, the results showed that the mean score of job-related problems met by staff nurses of private and government hospitals in Iloilo City in relation to lower management ranged from 1.4 to 3.9 or “not a problem at all” to “very serious problem”. These items are items 2, “Incompetence to perform official duties and item 19, “Lack of support to recommend staff nurses to attend seminars, training and workshops.
  64. 64. Job-related problems Mean Degree of seriousness1. Lack of support in the 1.9 Less serious problem implementation of hospital’s philosophy, mission, vision, goals and objectives.2. Incompetence to perform 1.4 Not a problem at all official duties3. Lack of knowledge, skills and 1.6 Less serious problem abilities to manage staff nurses4. Poor leadership 2.6 serious problem
  65. 65. Job-related problems Mean Degree of seriousness5. Poor attitudes toward work 2.0 Less serious problem6. Not approachable 2.0 Less serious problem7. Not friendly 2.1 Less serious problem8. Not understanding to the 1.8 Less serious problem problems and needs of staff nurses9. Bias in evaluating the 2.9 serious problem performance of staff nurses10. Poor rapport with staff 2.3 Less serious problem nurses11. Not concern with the welfare 2.0 Less serious problem of staff nurses
  66. 66. Job-related problems Mean Degree of seriousness12. Lack of assistance to staff 3.0 serious problem nurses in performing nursing care13. Unfair in giving schedule of 2.7 serious problem duty to staff nurses14. Fault finder 1.6 Less serious problem15. Frequent tardiness in 1.5 Less serious problem reporting to duty16. Favoritism in dealing with 2.2 Less serious problem subordinates
  67. 67. Job-related problems Mean Degree of seriousness17. Strict in dealing with staff 2.4 Less serious problem nurses18. Lack of support to 3.7 Very serious problem recommend awards/ incentives to efficient staff nurses19. Lack of support to 3.9 Very serious problem recommend to attend seminars, trainings and workshops
  68. 68. Using weighted mean, the results showed that the mean score of job-related problems met by staff nurses of private and government hospitals in Iloilo City in relation to communication ranged from 1.2 to 3.0 or “not a problem at all” to “ serious problem”. These items are items 17, “intrigues against staff nurses are entertained by superior” and item 11, “Vague instruction from physician who give order”.
  69. 69. Job-related problems Mean Degree of seriousness1. No proper communication 2.3 Less serious problem channel in the hospital2. Communication gap 1.8 Less serious problem between the physician and chief of the hospital3. Communication gap 1.3 Not a problem at all between physician and chief nurse4. Communication gap 1.4 Not a problem at all between chief nurse and supervisor5. Communication gap 1.6 Less serious problem between supervisor and head nurse
  70. 70. Job-related problems Mean Degree of seriousness6. Communication gap between 1.4 Not a problem at all physician and staff nurses7. Communication gap between 1.5 Less serious problem chief nurse and staff nurses8. Communication gap between 1.7 Less serious problem supervisor and staff nurses9. Communication gap between 2.0 Less serious problem head nurse and staff nurses10. Communication gap between 1.3 Not a problem at all staff nurses and peers11. Vague instruction from 3.0 serious problem physicians who give orders
  71. 71. Job-related problems Mean Degree of seriousness12. Vague instruction from chief 2.3 Less serious problem nurse13. Vague instruction from 2.0 Less serious problem supervisor14. Vague instruction from head 2.4 Less serious problem nurse15. Confuse as from whom to 2.1 Less serious problem take order16. Gossip is rampant in the 1.8 Less serious problem hospital17. Intrigues against staff nurses 1.2 Not a problem at all are entertained by supervisors.
  72. 72. Using weighted mean, the results showed that the mean score of job-related problems met by staff nurses of private and government hospitals in Iloilo City in relation with financial condition ranged from 1.3 to 4.8 or “not a problem at all” to “ very very serious problem”. These items are item 2, “delay in giving salary” and item 1, “Low salary”.
  73. 73. Job-related problems Mean Degree of seriousness1. Low salary 4.8 Very very serious problem2. Delay in giving salary 1.3 Not a problem at all3. Delay in giving salary 2.6 Serious problem deferential4. No overtime pay 3.6 Very serious problem5. No clothing allowance 1.8 Less serious problem6. No meal allowance 2.0 Less serious problem
  74. 74. Job-related problems Mean Degree of seriousness7. No transportation allowance 3.0 serious problem8. No productivity pay 3.9 Very serious problem9. No length of service pay 1.7 Less serious problem10. No midyear bunos 3.2 serious problem11. No year end bunos 3.0 serious problem12. No cash gift 3.4 serious problem13. Delay in giving fringe 3.7 Very serious problem benefits
  75. 75. Using weighted mean, the results showed that the mean score of job-related problems met by staff nurses of private and government hospitals in Iloilo City in relation with hospital facilities ranged from 1.3 to 3.4 or “not a problem at all” to “ serious problem”. These items are item 2, “out molded apparatus used in the hospital” and item 12, “lack of nurse’s quarter”.
  76. 76. Job-related problems Mean Degree of seriousness1. Outmoded equipment used 2.1 Less serious problem in the hospital.2. Outmoded apparatus used in 1.3 Not a problem at all the hospital3. Poor sanitation and 2.8 serious problem quarantine in the hospital4. Lack of supplies and 2.4 Less serious problem medicine5. Lack of equipment, 3.0 serious problem apparatus, and instrument.
  77. 77. Job-related problems Mean Degree of seriousness6. Dilapidated buildings 3.2 serious problem7. Lack of rooms for patients 2.4 Less serious problem8. Lack of beds for patients 2.3 Less serious problem9. Lack of comfort rooms 2.1 Less serious problem10. Poor room ventilation 3.3 serious problem11. Poor water supply 3.1 serious problem12. Lack of nurse’s quarter 3.4 serious problem13. No fire escapes in the 3.0 serious problem hospital14. Lack of vehicles 3.2 serious problem
  78. 78. Using weighted mean, the results showed that the mean score of job-related problems met by staff nurses of private and government hospitals in Iloilo City in relation with job hazards ranged from 1.2 to 4.0 or “not a problem at all” to “ very serious problem”. These items are item 10, “no staffing pattern in the hospital” and item 3, “expose to contagious disease while on duty”.
  79. 79. Job-related problems Mean Degree of seriousness1. Heavy work load 3.0 serious problem2. Expose to radiation while on 2.1 Less serious problem duty3. Expose to contagious disease 4.0 Very serious problem while on duty4. No rest after strenuous work 3.2 serious problem5. Under staff in the hospital 3.9 Very serious problem6. Overlapping of assigned task 1.4 Not a problem at all
  80. 80. Job-related problems Mean Degree of seriousness7. Perform functions of other category yet 1.3 Not a problem at all neglects functions actually assigned8. No recognition of outstanding 3.8 Very serious problem performance of staff nurses9. Other members of the nursing staff 1.4 Not a problem at all trespass the assigned task of her colleagues10. No staffing pattern in the hospital 1.2 Not a problem at all11. Rampant professional jealousy 2.4 Less serious problem12. No grievance committee in the 1.3 Not a problem at all hospital13. No incentive given to staff nurses 3.6 Very serious problem
  81. 81. Itrecapitulate the results of chapter four. If there are four specific research questions in chapter 1 and answered in chapter 4, hence, there are only four summary of findings.
  82. 82.  Forinstance, the sample research problem on “Correlation between job related problems and job performance of staff nurses in private and government hospitals in Iloilo City” has four specific research problems in chapter 1 and they are answered in chapter 4, hence there are 4 summary of findings in chapter 5 but no table or graph.
  83. 83.  Based on the result of the study, the researcher summarized the following findings:1. The degree of seriousness of job related problems met by the staff nurses in private and government hospitals in Iloilo City in relation to administration of top management very serious problem was “lack of support to staff nurses to grow professionally”.
  84. 84. Similar with the relation to themiddle management very seriousproblem was “lack of support torecommend staff nurses to attendseminar-workshops, training andgrow professionally” as well as inlower management very seriousproblem was “lack of support torecommend staff nurses to attendseminars, training and workshops.
  85. 85. In relation to communicationserious problem was “vagueinstruction physicians who giveorder,” financial condition veryserious problem was “low salary”hospital facilities very seriousproblem was “lack of nurse’squarters” and job hazards veryserious problem was “expose tocontagious disease while on duty”.
  86. 86. 2. The mean performance of the staff nurses in the private and government hospitals in Iloilo City was satisfactory.3. There was negative high relationship between job related problems and job performance of staff nurses in private and government hospitals in Iloilo City. This meant the higher the job related problems met the staff nurses, the lower was the performance and the lesser the job related problems met the staff nurses, the higher was the performance.
  87. 87. 4. There was significant difference existed on the job related problems met by the staff nurses in private and government hospitals in Iloilo City when they are classified as to civil status, age, and length of nursing practice. This meant that the job related problems met by staff nurse in private and government hospitals in Iloilo City really differ with each other.
  88. 88. Conclusions are based on the findings of the study. If there are four summarized findings there are also four conclusions.Likewise, conclusions are arranged as they appear in the summary of findings. In addition, rejection and acceptance of hypothesis are described in “conclusions”.
  89. 89. 1. Staff nurses in private and government hospitals in Iloilo City met serious problems and very very serious job related problems in relation to administration of top management, administration of middle management, administration of lower management, communication, financial condition, hospital facilities, and job hazards. Hence, the null hypothesis is rejected.
  90. 90. 2. The mean job performance of staff nurses in private and government hospitals in Iloilo City was satisfactory. Thus the null hypothesis is rejected.3. There was negative high relationship between job related problems and job performance of staff nurses in private and government hospitals in Iloilo City. So, the null hypothesis is rejected.
  91. 91. 4. significant difference existed on the job- related problems met by the staff nurses in private and government hospitals in Iloilo City when they are classified as to civil status, age, and length of nursing experience because the married staff nurses have more very serious problems than single staff nurses; older staff nurses have also many serious problems than the younger ones; and the longer the nursing practice, the more serious problems met. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected.
  92. 92.  Recommendation should dovetail with the conclusions. Presentation of recommendations is arranged based on the sequence of the conclusions. However, further research is included in the recommendation. In other words, it there are four conclusions and in addition of for further research, hence, there are five recommendation in all.
  93. 93. 1. The top, middle, and lower managers must support the staff nurses to grow professionally and let them attend seminars, workshops and training to keep track with the current trends and practices in nursing health care.
  94. 94. Physicians who gave order must be clear, brief and concise in order not to mislead the instruction by staff nurses. Salary of staff nurses must be increase in order to retain efficient and effective staff nurses and no way to apply abroad. Adequate nurses’ quarter must be provided and protection on the exposure of contagious diseases while on duty of staff nurses must be given due attention by the top, middle and lower managers.
  95. 95. 2. Top, middle, and lower managers must take action on the serious to very serious job related problems met by the staff nurses in order to improve their performance.3. Top, middle, and lower managers must solve the job related problems met by the staff nurses in order that relationship between job related problems and job performance must be positively low.
  96. 96. 4. The married, older and longer in the nursing practice staff nurses must be given due5. For further research, another study similar to this study must be conducted in other hospital situated in other regions or cities to determine the similarities and differences of the findings.
  97. 97. It is a concluding section of the research paper, thesis and dissertation where listing of source materials are alphabetically arranged. Bibliography is placed after the recommendations, but in the middle heading format presentation to determine that it is a separate section in a research paper, thesis, and dissertation.
  98. 98. To give the reader the scope of research behind the paper.To determine if particular source material has been used.To provide reader basis for further research.
  99. 99.  Toallow the reader to discover easily the full bibliographic information for materials referred to in parenthetical notes where only the username of author and year are given, for example, (Calmorin,2007) Togive necessary descriptive details for the source materials as a whole in order that original statements can be located and consulted by the reader.
  100. 100.  Literature cited this refers to list of source materials actually cited within the text or content of a paper. This is commonly used for paper publication and is placed middle heading of the paper in all capital letters, i.e., LITERATURE CITED. The surname of the principal author are arranged in alphabetical order.
  101. 101. References this refers to list of sourcematerials cited and not cited inthe text and commonly used innatural science paper andexperimental research. This isplaced in middle heading of thepaper in all capital letters, forinstance, REFERENCES.
  102. 102. Bibliography this refers to the list of source materials cited and not cited in the text. This is commonly used in education, social science, psychology, sociology, and descriptive research.
  103. 103.  An appendix is the second to last section of the research paper, thesis or dissertation. Appendix material include the research instrument, letter of transmittal, verbatim comments of the respondents, original data, summary, tabulations and computations, computer print outs, tables that contains data of lesser importance, supporting legal documents such as department orders, circulars, memoranda and many others. It also includes illustrative materials, and very lengthy quotations.
  104. 104. Is the last section of the research paper, thesis or dissertation. This includes all the listing of personal data and achievements of the researcher.

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