Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı
Mehmet Akif Ersoy Primary School
            Malatya
ECLIPSE OF THE SUN
SOLAR ECLIPSES

• GÜNEŞTUTULMASI
• é’clipse de soleil
• eclisse di sole
ECLIPSE AND CULTURE

      •   Across the centuries, the
        Sun’s eclipse has been
        considered as an evil or a...
ECLIPSE AND CULTURE
• Despite the awareness of the true nature
of this natural phenomena in contemporary
living, many people continue to beat
...
WHAT IS AN ECLIPSE OF THE SUN?

• The total eclipse of the Sun is the most
spectacular event in all of Nature!

• Few peop...
THE MOON



• The Moon is a cold ,rocky body about 2.160 miles
(3.476 km) in diameter. It has no light of its own but
shin...
WHY DO ECLIPSES OCCUR?

• Phases of the Moon



• New Moon>New Crescent>First
Quarter>Waxıng Gibbous>Full Moon >
Waning Gi...
• An eclipse of the Sun (or solar eclipse) can only
occur at NEW MOON when the Moon passes
between Earth and the Sun.

• I...
WHY DO SOLAR ECLIPSES
   NOT OCCUR EVERY MONTH?

• Since New Moon occurs every 29 ½ days you
may think that we should have...
• At least twice a year ,the geometry lines up just
right so that some part of the Moon’s shadow
falls on Earth’s surface ...
THE MOON’S SHADOW
ACTUALLY HAS TWO PARTS
• 1.PENUMBRA
• The Moon’s faint outer shadow.
• Partial solar eclipses are visibl...
TYPES OF ECLIPSES

•   PARTIAL
•   TOTAL
•   ANNULAR
•   HYBRID
PARTIAL ECLIPSES

• When the Moon’s penumbral shadow strikes
Earth, we see a partial eclipse of Sun from that
region.

• P...
TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSES AND
      PATH OF TOTALITY

• If the Moon’s inner or umbral shadow
sweeps across Earth’s surface ,the...
WHY IS A TOTAL ECLIPSE ONLY SEEN
   OVER A SMALL AREA ON EARTH?
• It is typically 10.000 miles long only about 100
miles w...
STEPS OF TOTALITY
STEPS OF TOTALITY

FIRST CONTACT


            Partial eclipse : twelve minutes
          into the eclipse almost 1/5 of t...
STEPS OF TOTALITY


                    Partial eclipse : Nearly ½ of the
                   Sun’s disk is eclipsed.


   ...
DIAMOND RING AT 2 ND CONTACT


                     Before totality begins, the corona
                     appears during...
OUTER                           VISUAL
CORONA                          CORONA




  (TSE of 1999 August 11 Lake Hazar Turk...
FINAL DIAMOND RING




          (TSE of 1999 August 11 Lake Hazar Turkey)

  At 3rd contact the diamond ring effect heral...
Partial eclipse : Nearly 4/5 of the Sun’s diameter
is still covered by the Moon.
Partial eclipse : Half of the Sun’s diameter is
still covered 40 minutes after the totality ends.
Partial eclipse : The final 20% of the Sun remains
covered by the Moon.
Animation of TSE
ANNULAR SOLAR ECLIPSES
• Unfortunately, not every eclipse of the Sun is a
total eclipse. Sometimes the Moon is too small t...
ANNULAR SOLAR ECLIPSE
THE HYBRID ECLIPSE
• A hybrid ,or annular/total, eclipse is an eclipse
which is seen as annular by some parts of the
Earth...
• The Moon is just far
enough from the Earth
that umbra can’t reach
the ‘sides’ of the Earth
so, as the eclipse begins,
th...
• As the eclipse path
Moves on, the umbra has
less for to travel to reach
the Earth, and is just long
enough to reach the
...
HOW TO VIEW AN ECLIPSE

• EYE SAFETY
• Do not try to view the Sun directly with the
naked eye or through an optical equipm...
HOW TO VIEW AN ECLIPSE
• Partical eclipses, annular eclipses and the
partial phases of total eclipses are never safe to
watch without taking spec...
HOW TO MAKE A SIMPLE PINHOLE
   PROJECTOR TO VIEW TSE SAFELY
  There are safe ways to view the sun. The
simplest requires ...
HOW TO MAKE A SIMPLE PINHOLE
   PROJECTOR TO VIEW TSE SAFELY

2. Cut a hole in the center of one end of the box.
3. Tape a...
HOW TO MAKE A SIMPLE PINHOLE
   PROJECTOR TO VIEW TSE SAFELY


5. Cut a viewing hole in the side of the box.




6. Put a ...
HOW TO MAKE A SIMPLE PINHOLE
PROJECTOR TO VIEW TSE SAFELY

         Point the end of the box with the
      pinhole at the...
TSE THAT WE OBSERVED
         IN TURKEY ON 29 th
            MARCH 2006



  On Wednesday, 29th March 2006, the shadow of ...
MOON’S SHADOW ON THE EARTH
SKY DURING THE ECLIPSE
SHADOWS
SHADOWS




  Projected images of the Sun may be seen on the ground in the small
openings created by interlacing fingers, ...
MAP OF ECLIPSES
SOURCES

•   http://astronomy.science.ankara.edu.tr
•   http://www.tug.tubitak.gov.tr
•   http://derman.science.ankara.edu...
Coordinator : Şengül ARSLAN

E-Mail : sengularslan1@hotmail.com

Phone Number : +90 532 515 79 71




   MAE Primary Schoo...
Eclipse 5
Eclipse 5
Eclipse 5
Eclipse 5
Eclipse 5
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Eclipse 5

  1. 1. Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı Mehmet Akif Ersoy Primary School Malatya
  2. 2. ECLIPSE OF THE SUN
  3. 3. SOLAR ECLIPSES • GÜNEŞTUTULMASI • é’clipse de soleil • eclisse di sole
  4. 4. ECLIPSE AND CULTURE • Across the centuries, the Sun’s eclipse has been considered as an evil or a bad omen. • The early cultures saw the Sun as a life-giver in its unfailing everyday appearance.So, something that could actually undo the Sun was naturally reckoned as terribly bad event filled with foreboding.
  5. 5. ECLIPSE AND CULTURE
  6. 6. • Despite the awareness of the true nature of this natural phenomena in contemporary living, many people continue to beat drums, gongs, pots and pans or fire guns into the air or simply hide indoors. The event has been associated with calamities ranging from wars,floods and famines to political upheavals and personal misfortunes.
  7. 7. WHAT IS AN ECLIPSE OF THE SUN? • The total eclipse of the Sun is the most spectacular event in all of Nature! • Few people have ever witnessed one, but once seen it is an experience never to be forgetten. The Moon’s dark shadow plunges you into an eerie twilight and the Sun’s mysterious and incredibly beautiful corona is revealed.
  8. 8. THE MOON • The Moon is a cold ,rocky body about 2.160 miles (3.476 km) in diameter. It has no light of its own but shines by sunlight reflected from its surface. • The Moon orbits the Earth about once every 29 and a half days. • As it circles our planet ,the changing position of the Moon with respect to the Sun causes our natural satellite to cycle through a series of phases.
  9. 9. WHY DO ECLIPSES OCCUR? • Phases of the Moon • New Moon>New Crescent>First Quarter>Waxıng Gibbous>Full Moon > Waning Gibbous>Last Quarter>Old Crescent>New Moon (again)
  10. 10. • An eclipse of the Sun (or solar eclipse) can only occur at NEW MOON when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun. • If the Moon’s shadow happens to fall upon Earth’s surface at that time we see some portion of the sun’s disk covered or ‘eclipsed’ by the Moon.
  11. 11. WHY DO SOLAR ECLIPSES NOT OCCUR EVERY MONTH? • Since New Moon occurs every 29 ½ days you may think that we should have a solar eclipse about once a month. • Unfortunately this does not happen. Because the Moon’s orbit around Earth is tilted 5 degrees to Earth’s orbit around the Sun. As a result, it passes above or below our planet at New Moon.
  12. 12. • At least twice a year ,the geometry lines up just right so that some part of the Moon’s shadow falls on Earth’s surface and an eclipse of the Sun is seen in that region. Geometry of the Sun, Earth and Moon During an Eclipse of the Sun
  13. 13. THE MOON’S SHADOW ACTUALLY HAS TWO PARTS • 1.PENUMBRA • The Moon’s faint outer shadow. • Partial solar eclipses are visible from within the penumbral shadow. • 2.UMBRA • The Moon’s dark inner shadow. • Total solar eclipses are visible from within the umbral shadow.
  14. 14. TYPES OF ECLIPSES • PARTIAL • TOTAL • ANNULAR • HYBRID
  15. 15. PARTIAL ECLIPSES • When the Moon’s penumbral shadow strikes Earth, we see a partial eclipse of Sun from that region. • Partial eclipses are dangerous to look at because un-eclipsed part of the Sun is still very bright. You must use special filters or home made pinhole projector to safely watch a partial eclipse of the Sun.
  16. 16. TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSES AND PATH OF TOTALITY • If the Moon’s inner or umbral shadow sweeps across Earth’s surface ,then a total eclipse of the Sun is seen. • The track of the Moon’s umbral shadow across Earth is called the ‘Path of totality’.
  17. 17. WHY IS A TOTAL ECLIPSE ONLY SEEN OVER A SMALL AREA ON EARTH? • It is typically 10.000 miles long only about 100 miles wide. It covers less than %1 of Earth’S entire surface area. In order to see the Sun become completely eclipsed by the Moon,you must be somewhere inside the narrow path of totality. • The phase of a solar eclipse is very brief. It rarely lasts more than several minutes. The Corona can only be seen during the few brief minutes of totality.
  18. 18. STEPS OF TOTALITY
  19. 19. STEPS OF TOTALITY FIRST CONTACT Partial eclipse : twelve minutes into the eclipse almost 1/5 of the sun’s diameter is obscurred.
  20. 20. STEPS OF TOTALITY Partial eclipse : Nearly ½ of the Sun’s disk is eclipsed. Partial eclipse : 18 minutes before total eclipse begins about 80% of the Sun’s diameter is gone! (TSE of 1999 August 11 Lake Hazar Turkey)
  21. 21. DIAMOND RING AT 2 ND CONTACT Before totality begins, the corona appears during diamond ring effect. (TSE of 1999 August 11 Lake Hazar Turkey)
  22. 22. OUTER VISUAL CORONA CORONA (TSE of 1999 August 11 Lake Hazar Turkey)
  23. 23. FINAL DIAMOND RING (TSE of 1999 August 11 Lake Hazar Turkey) At 3rd contact the diamond ring effect heralds the end of totality.
  24. 24. Partial eclipse : Nearly 4/5 of the Sun’s diameter is still covered by the Moon.
  25. 25. Partial eclipse : Half of the Sun’s diameter is still covered 40 minutes after the totality ends.
  26. 26. Partial eclipse : The final 20% of the Sun remains covered by the Moon.
  27. 27. Animation of TSE
  28. 28. ANNULAR SOLAR ECLIPSES • Unfortunately, not every eclipse of the Sun is a total eclipse. Sometimes the Moon is too small to cover the entire Sun’s disk . • When the Moon is near side of its orbit, the Moon appears larger than the Sun. • If an eclipse occurs at that time, it will be total eclipse. However, if an eclipse occurs while the Moon is on the far side of its orbit, the Moon appears smaller than the Sun and can’t completely cover it. If an eclipse occurs at that time it will be ‘Annular Solar Eclipse’.
  29. 29. ANNULAR SOLAR ECLIPSE
  30. 30. THE HYBRID ECLIPSE • A hybrid ,or annular/total, eclipse is an eclipse which is seen as annular by some parts of the Earth, and total by others (and also as a partial eclipse over a much larger area) • This image illustrates how a hybrid eclipse can occur.
  31. 31. • The Moon is just far enough from the Earth that umbra can’t reach the ‘sides’ of the Earth so, as the eclipse begins, the western portions of the Earth see an annular eclipse as the day begins, in the diagram, observers in the ‘outer’parts of the eclipse track, coloured green, see an annular eclipse.
  32. 32. • As the eclipse path Moves on, the umbra has less for to travel to reach the Earth, and is just long enough to reach the ‘’centre’’ so observes in the area coloured blue above see a total eclipse. • People standing near, but not in, the annular/ total eclipse track, would see a normal partial eclipse.
  33. 33. HOW TO VIEW AN ECLIPSE • EYE SAFETY • Do not try to view the Sun directly with the naked eye or through an optical equipment without proper solar filter. • Human eye does not sense any pain in case of a direct sunlight! • The Sun can be viewed safely with naked eye only during the total solar eclipse.
  34. 34. HOW TO VIEW AN ECLIPSE
  35. 35. • Partical eclipses, annular eclipses and the partial phases of total eclipses are never safe to watch without taking special precautions. • Even when 99% of the Sun’s surface is obscured during a partial phases of a total eclipse, the remaining photospheric crescent is intensely bright and cannot be viewed safety without eye protection. • Do not attempt to observe the partial or annular phases of any eclipse with the naked eye.
  36. 36. HOW TO MAKE A SIMPLE PINHOLE PROJECTOR TO VIEW TSE SAFELY There are safe ways to view the sun. The simplest requires only a long box (at least 6 feet long), a piece of aluminum foil, a pin, and a sheet of white paper. 1. Find or make a long box or tube
  37. 37. HOW TO MAKE A SIMPLE PINHOLE PROJECTOR TO VIEW TSE SAFELY 2. Cut a hole in the center of one end of the box. 3. Tape a piece of foil over the hole. 4. Poke a small hole in the foil with a pin.
  38. 38. HOW TO MAKE A SIMPLE PINHOLE PROJECTOR TO VIEW TSE SAFELY 5. Cut a viewing hole in the side of the box. 6. Put a piece of white paper inside the end of the box near the viewing portal.
  39. 39. HOW TO MAKE A SIMPLE PINHOLE PROJECTOR TO VIEW TSE SAFELY Point the end of the box with the pinhole at the sun so that you see a round image on the paper at the other end. If you are having trouble pointing, look at the shadow of the box on the ground. Move the box so that the shadow looks like the end of the box (so the sides of the box are not casting a shadow). The round spot of light you see on the paper is a pinhole image of the sun. Do not look through the pinhole at the sun! Look only at the image on the paper.
  40. 40. TSE THAT WE OBSERVED IN TURKEY ON 29 th MARCH 2006 On Wednesday, 29th March 2006, the shadow of the Moon swept a band starting from Brazil, through Atlantic Ocean, Gold Coast of Africa, Saharan Dessert, Mediterranean Sea, Turkey, Black Sea, Georgia, Russian Federation, northern shores of Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan; ending in Mongolia. The duration of totality was less than 2 minutes near the sunrise and sunset limits, but as long as 4 minutes and 7 seconds in Libya, at the moment of greatest eclipse. The path of totality was 180 kilometers wide at that moment. It was observed over many regions in Turkey. March 29th, 2006 Total Solar Eclipse had a duration of totality of about 4 minutes in Antalya.
  41. 41. MOON’S SHADOW ON THE EARTH
  42. 42. SKY DURING THE ECLIPSE
  43. 43. SHADOWS
  44. 44. SHADOWS Projected images of the Sun may be seen on the ground in the small openings created by interlacing fingers, or in the dappled sunlight beneath a leafy tree. Binoculars can also be used to project a magnified image of the Sun on a white card, but you must avoid the temptation of using these instruments for direct viewing.
  45. 45. MAP OF ECLIPSES
  46. 46. SOURCES • http://astronomy.science.ankara.edu.tr • http://www.tug.tubitak.gov.tr • http://derman.science.ankara.edu.tr • http://www.koeri.boun.edu.tr/astronomy • Fred Espenak’s web site(nasa) • http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/solar.html • http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/solar.html • http://www.exploratorium.edu/eclipse/how.html • http://www.colorsofindia.com/eclipse/ecliseculture.html
  47. 47. Coordinator : Şengül ARSLAN E-Mail : sengularslan1@hotmail.com Phone Number : +90 532 515 79 71 MAE Primary School - 2008

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