United States Status After WWI After WWI US is considered Isolationist by many, because of the desire to stay out of international politics (not a member of League of Nations…Wilson and Republicans) Few international treaties: Washington Naval Conference-limits naval armaments Kellogg-Briand Pact-outlaws war Dawes Plan- reorganizes German WWI debt payments Trade drives American motives Reduction of interference in Latin America (Good Neighbor) Above all- popular opinion in US is to stay out of foreign wars!
FDR and Foreign Affairs Similar to Wilson, FDR wanted to use power to maintain order Moral and just principles However, must abide by public opinion which is Isolationist Appoints Cordell Hull as Secretary of State Basic views: Isolation is not a lasting policy Technology impacts distance of oceans Important to maintain American interests Reciprocal Reduction of Tariffs- will help the economy= countries that reduce tariffs, US will also reduce tariffs= more trade for both partners
“Good Neighbor” Policy FDR wanted to continue the cordial relations with the world and Latin America in particular Continued attempt begun with Hoover Cooperation and non-interventionist Example: 1933 Montivideo International Conference- Uruguay Repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine Withdrew troops from Haiti Did not send troops to Cuba 1936 FDR visited Buenos Aires, arranged meeting of LA nations supporting peace movement
Mussolini-Italian Right Wing Dictator Came to power in 1922 Right Wing, anti-Socialist and Communist Wanted greatness like the Roman Empire for Italy Repressive but not too extreme- (no concentration camps) Nationalist Invades Somalia (1935) and Ethiopia in 1936
Hitler Rises to Power Germany has problems Economic Depression Conflict with Socialist/Communists against Right Wing Groups- Nazis are one group Nazis gain significant power in Reichstag (German legislature) 1933 and Hitler ascends to Chancellor (similar to Prime Minister-executive branch)
Factors that Contributed to Hitler’s Rise Economic depression Treaty of Versailles (Peace Treaty Germany and Allies World War I) Striped Germany of land (East Prussia, Danzig and empire) Striped Germany of military, navy, air force Allies had a right to intervene (Saar Basin Rhineland, many resources) German had to take explicit blame for the war Pay War Repartitions Socialists/Communists vs Right Wing groups were fighting for control Created conditions for popularity of Nazis for some German voters
Hitler and Hindenburg New Chancellor and Old President of Weimar Republic
Hitler-Once in Power Hitler vows to make Germany great again To “Claim its rightful place in the Sun.” Reichstag fire = Hitler has emergency powers Hitler begins to implement his plan- (found in his book Mein Kampf) Rearm Germany Unite the German people in one country (all German speaking people; 1938 Anschluss- political unity between Austria and Germany, later (Sudetenland) Czechoslovakia and East Prussia (part of Poland) Ethnically Cleanse German Territory (all non-Aryan…Jews, Gypsies) Expand East “Lebensraub”- into Russian lands, Destroy communists
European Appeasement One of the huge lessons of World War II that is brought up again and again is the idea of Appeasement (giving in to demands as an expedient to avoid a conflict or difficult struggle) The powers of France, Great Britain and others in Europe have been accused of appeasing Hitler when they should have stopped his early demands. The idea is that perhaps Hitler could have been stopped. Before he was too powerful. By giving in to Hitler’s demands, it encouraged him to push further and brought another Global War British Prime Minister Nevielle Chamberlain will always be remembered for his appeasement of Hitler. (“Peace in Our Time”) Munich Agreement
Why did the Allies appease Hitler? Treaty of Versailles- Peace was too harsh All consuming desire for peace Rearmament Nationalism- create one nation, racial, ethnic homogeneity, with strength and a traditional spiritual location Anschluss- Chamberlain and Munich= Sudetenland, 1939 Poland and the Polish Corridor-Danzig- Nazi- Soviet Non-aggression Pact 1941 Lebensraum and Operation Barbarossa-
Failure of the League of Nations Recall the League of Nations was designed to prevent war Problems: US is not part of It did not have an enforcement capability- especially could not use force Only weapon was economic embargo and public pressure When Japan, then Italy, and later Germany pursue aggression invading other countries (Manchuria, Somalia, Ethiopia, Spanish Civil War, and Czchoslovakia) The international body will have little or no effect
China Still Weak After WWI China remains weak “Open Door” Reinforced Nationalists (Kuomintang) Sun-Yat Sen and Chiang Kai-shek- Friendly to United States Fighting over control with Communist forces of Mao Tse Tung
Japan Wanted to expand it’s empire similar to France, Britain, and the US. Want to control China’s abundant natural resources Japan was angry regarding the Washington Naval Conference (1921- Harding Admin, set limit for Japanese Navy, subordinate position to US and Britain, reinforced the “Open Door” policy, all nations can trade with China. Japanese nationalists rise in power and asserted that power in Manchuria
Japan invades Manchuria 1931 Russo-Japanese War- begins Japanese interest in Manchuria (Rivals of Russians, and economic interests, raw materials) Japanese military asserted rights to Manchuria Military- incident with Chinese forces is an excuse for full takeover of Manchuria, new name is Manchukuo. Later to further weaken China, Japan will bomb Shanghai- over a boycott of Japanese goods
Results of Japanese invasion of Manchuria US President was Hoover (1932) Hoover responds with the Stimson Doctrine- (Secretary of State under Hoover) refusing to acknowledge results of gains made by aggression- US will not recognize territorial changes- League of Nations condemns the attack on China Japan subsequently withdraws from League of Nations (League is essentially ignored) No country wants war and China will suffer greatly when Japan attacks full scale invasion 1936(caution very graphic see Rape of Nanjing) 200,000 civilians killed Japan proclaims new order in Asia, and essentially closes the “Open Door”
Chinese Fight Chiang Kai-shek resists the Japanese and moves capital to Chunking and even unites with the the Communists- Mao Tse Tung for the duration of the war.
American Neutrality The Neutrality Act of 1935- members of congress, wanted to keep America out of war Popular idea, US entered WWI because of bankers and industrialists Imposed an embargo on warring nations Forbade American sale of war goods and ships from transporting munitions to belligerent countries Gave president power to prohibit Americans traveling on belligerent ships Neutrality Act 1936- forbade loans to belligerent countries Neutrality Act 1937- response to the Spanish Civil War Goods from the US to warring nations had to be paid for in cash (2 years only)
More Neutrality Many groups in America wanted Isolation Irish, German- Americans Midwesterners, Anti-Communists, Anti-Semites, liberals who wanted continue reform, and pacifists Ludlow Amendment- Isolationist support was so great that- an amendment to Constitution was proposed, that only in case of attack or invasion could US declare war. (not approved)
Spanish Civil War Loyalists-Democratically elected Socialists are attacked by Francisco Franco- Insurgents- Generalissimo Francisco Franco- Nazis and Italian Fascists support with 50,000 troops, planes, and tanks. Loyalists are supported by Soviet Union and International Brigades (Foreign volunteers- For Whom the Bell Tolls) American Neutrality Acts – hurt the loyalist cause FDR wanted to help but was hampered by isolationist law makers
Picasso’s painting of German bombing ofancient city of Gurenica, during Span Civ War-
German-Soviet Non Aggression Pact August 23, 1939- Hitler and Stalin sign a secret agreement to partition Poland- Germans invade Poland in the West Russians invade Poland in the East World War II in Europe begins- France and Britain had guaranteed Polish sovereignty US responds with a renewed Neutrality act 1939- “cash and carry” would aid allies alone
Non Aggression Pact Germans and Soviets share Poland-1939
The “Phony War” Refers to the period between Poland’s Surrendar and the attack on France and Britain. September 1939-April 1940 Germany rapidly beat Poland “Blitzkrieg” France and Britain mobilized and waited for attack April 1940 Denmark, Norway, May 1940 Belgium and France Dunkirk- 300,000 British troops escape the continent- Churchill now in charge Paris Falls June 1940 England stands alone “Battle of Britain”
Battle of Britain Brits were alone as of June 1940 Winston Churchill, the new prime minister summed up the British attitude: “We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and the oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.”
What will “…in Gods good time, the New World, with all its power and might, steps forth to the rescue and the liberation of the old."
United States Reacts to War Debate 1940: Isolationist or Internationalist Isolationists Internationalists America First Committee Committee to Defend Charles A Lindberg America “Intervention is Best way to keep US out detrimental to American of war is to Help allies interests” fight the Germans Roosevelt is sympathetic
FDR Aids the Allies Summer 1940 FDR asks congress to allow trade of 50 destroyers in exchange for 99 year leases for bases in the Atlantic Although population does not want to enter the war, 73% support aid to Britain.
1941 Lend Lease 1941 Lend Lease: Program to offer aid to Brits FDR in a “Fireside Chat” “If a neighbor’s home were on fire…” “lease, lend or otherwise dispose of” any items not vital to the nation’s defense. US is closer to the War- (US Ships secretly were supporting the British Navy by searching and reporting on U-boat locations) Hitler afraid to attack American Ships
Election of 1940 then the Draft FDR decides to Run for a third term The Nation Needs emergency situation: War in Europe Problems in Asia Wants to protect New Deal reforms Ran against Wendell Willkie FDR Wins- then begins the process Prepare for War: Draft Armament build up
Selective Service Act Sept. 1930 TIME (September 23, 1940) Last week Congress passed the conscription bill. This week the President sighed it. A new thing had entered U.S. life: although the U.S. had conscripted its citizens in two wars, never before had it conscripted them in peace. Some 16,500.000 men, aged 21 to 36, forthwith became liable to compulsory military service. How, when, whether conscription would actually touch them was prescribed in 1) the bill, and 2) the selective system which the Army & Navy had long since prepared against a martial day. The Bill laid down the general philosophy, rules, scope of conscription: No more than 900,000 conscripts can be called in any one year (the Army plans to call 800,000 a year). They will be kept in training for one year, will then enter an enlisted reserve where they will be subject to recall for emergency service for ten years or until they are 45. They will not be subject to periodic recalls for further training. But if Congress finds the nation in peril before their initial years service ends, they can be held under arms indefinitely.
Roosevelt’s Four Freedom’s Speech January 1941 To congress, State of the Union, focus on war preparedness “…the future of all the American Republics is today in serious danger. That is why this Annual Message to the Congress is unique in our history. The need of the moment is that our actions and our policy should be devoted primarily-almost exclusively--to meeting this foreign peril. For all our domestic problems are now a part of the great emergency. Just as our national policy in internal affairs has been based upon a decent respect for the rights and the dignity of all our fellow men within our gates, so our national policy in foreign affairs has been based on a decent respect for the rights and dignity of all nations, large and small. And the justice of morality must and will win in the end.
Four Freedoms Continued “The first is freedom of speech and expression--everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way--everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want--which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants- everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear--which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor--anywhere in the world.”
Significance of “Four Freedoms” Speech Represents FDR’s view that America needs to prepare for war and support Britain. FDR Prepares for War Increased Military appropriations Aliens are fingerprinted Peace time draft to raise 2 million troops
America’s Response to War US had started to prepare 1940 Airplane production/design Draft/Selective Service-1940 Build the “Arsenal of Democracy”-Harness the Industrial and Economic power of the US- and focus it toward War. Focus on building War material- Speficially Air power, Bombers, B17, B24, B29 Germany was the biggest threat, Focus of first phase of War Then Japan
Meeting Before the War Before US enters War: August, 1941 Newfoundland Secret, FDR and Churchill meet to coordinate Create the Atlantic Charter (a statement of principles agreed upon) Condemned Aggression Endorsed National Self Determination
Pearl Harbor American Reaction to Pearl Harbor was swift and violent. Immediate calls for war and revenge were heard throughout the country. Congress declared war and thousands of soldiers volunteered to fight. Americans were mad and they would never forget the treachery of the Japanese.
Japan Offensive Hitler and Mussolini both declared war on the United States as a sign of support for the Japanese. Japan Attacks Polynesian Asia Immediately following the attack on Pearl Harbor Japanese forces began a systematic invasion of the Pacific. Malaysia, Singapore, Burma, French Indochina, and the Philippines were overrun. American forces in the Philippines were outnumbered and overwhelmed by Japanese forces. 12,000 American prisoners were taken in the fall of the last Philippine strong hold called Bataan. “Bataan Death March”
American “Arsenal of Democracy” America Mobilizes for War= (WPB) War Production Board- goal is to transform industrial production to War production, organize all industrial output Board had much power to control resources: Limited civilian goods- Rationing of food, fuel… Cars stopped being produced Conservation and recycle movement, rubber, metal, grease,
“Arsenal of Democracy” $320 Billion government spending- 1940-1945 Huge amount was 6 times that of Roosevelt’s first two terms.
Financing the War Taxes increase Income 1941 7 million people file taxes 1944 42 million people file taxes Government starts a withholding $ from workers Loans/War Bonds $100 billion in bonds sold
Problem of Inflation Prices rise with full inflation Full employment: GDP Doubles 1940-1945 to $211.9 billion Office of Price Administration is created to manage prices Freezes prices Rations- Gas, tires, meat, sugar, shoes, coffee, canned goods (Ration books-needed coupons to purchase goods)
The Size of Government Explodes Hundreds of agencies created: National War Labor Boards- to manage labor practices and prevent strikes Office of War Mobilization- to help coordinate agencies Local Draft Boards
Internment of Japanese Americans Japanese immigrants had increased in the United States with the since early 1900 When Japan bombed Pearl Harbor a great backlash was directed at Japanese Americans
Japanese Relocation Due to the fear of Japanese espionage (spying) some wanted to move the Immigrants out of major cities. Some people, racist, and wanted to use the opportunity to take Japanese land February 1942 FDR signed an executive order “Remove any and all persons who might pose a threat to national security.” Camps were set up in the deserts
Japanese Internment Camps Japanese were relocated in Camps: Some Japanese sued for their rights: Korematus v. the United States Supreme Court upheld the Internment of the Japanese
Japanese internmentIn the entire course of the war, 10 people were convicted ofspying for Japan, all of whom were Caucasian.Roosevelt interned 120,000 Japanese2/3 were American citizens and had never shown disloyalty
Japanese American Heroes 33,000 Japanese Americans served Volunteers The 442 Combat Regiment Team received more medals than any other unit in US military history. Some survivors swear its because they were kept in combat longer than white units.
War in Europe Allies agreed that Europe was first priority June 6, 1944 D-Day- Allied Invasion of Normandy France, the Second Front is opened. December 16, 1944 Battle of the Bulge (German counter attack in the Ardennes Forrest, 200K Germans attack Allies) May 7, 1945 Germany Surrenders (Hitler is dead, Russians conquer Berlin)
War in the Pacific Strategy of Island Hopping: bypass some islands controlled by Japanese and attack specific islands, to obtain air bases in an effort to bomb Japan more efficiently and to build up forces in an effort to invade Japan. 1942 Major victory at Midway Island US takes out Japanese aircraft carriers
African Americans and the War A. Phillip Randolph Segregation in Military End of segregation in War Industries, Presidential Executive Order 8802
Women and the War Rosie the Riveter: Women go to work in munitions factories, other jobs, and the military
Propaganda Did the US engage in propaganda during this war? How and who was involved? Can you cite some examples?
Wartime Conferences FDR (and later Truman) will coordinate the effort with Allied leaders Churchill, and later Stalin Casablanca-1943 FDR, Churchill, agreed on war aims: Sicily invasion, Unconditional Surrender- of Japan and Germany Teheran-1943 The “Big Three” discussed 2nd front in Europe (France), Postwar Germany Yalta-February 1945 “Big Three” Discussed the fate of Poland, Stalin asserted need for “Buffer Zone” and sphere of influence; planned for the division of Germany after the war (FDR is dying and will be criticized for being manipulated by Stalin and “selling out” Eastern Europe to the Russians. Potsdam- Germany, July 1945, FDR dead, Truman, Churchill gone, new Brit- Clement Atlee, Stalin- discussed boundaries for Germany, German resources would pay for the war
“GI Bill of Rights” GI is the term used for American soldiers in WWII. (G.I. means General Issue) The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act Provided veterans a series of benefits: Low interest loans for homes, business, and farms Aid for education
FDR Dies April 12, 1945 FDR dies and Harry Truman takes over FDR was elected to an unprecedented 4 terms He was a extremely beloved leader. “Roosevelt had filled their lives through depression and war for more than a dozen years, allying their years and giving them hope. Now he was gone…” Election of 1944 running mate Harry S. Truman, from Missouri, a Democratic Senator, becomes President.
Atomic Bomb Production FDR authorized a secret program code named “Manhattan Project” 1943, J. Robert Oppenheimer, led the team of physicists to develop and atomic weapon, to spit the atom Los Alamos, New Mexico July 1945, the bomb was ready (Truman had no idea any bomb like this was being worked on, when he took office)