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Technical report writing كتابة التقارير التقنية

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Technical Report Writing_ كتابة التقارير التقنية
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Technical report writing كتابة التقارير التقنية

  1. 1. November 12, 2014 1 Zagazig UniversityZagazig University Faculty of EngineeringFaculty of Engineering Waterand waterWaterand water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 11NovemberNovember1212,, 20142014LectureNo.LectureNo. 11 ByBy Prof. Dr.Prof. Dr. Magdy MowafyMagdy Mowafy Dr.Dr. ElEl--Sayed MukhtarSayed Mukhtar TECHNICAL REPORTS WRITINGTECHNICAL REPORTS WRITING
  2. 2. November 12, 2014 2 Zagazig UniversityZagazig University Faculty of EngineeringFaculty of Engineering Waterand waterWaterand water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 22NovemberNovember1212,, 20142014LectureNo.LectureNo. 11 OutlineOutline 22.. Subjet TargetSubjet Target 11. Introduction. Introduction 3. Diff. Between Reports and Others3. Diff. Between Reports and Others 44. Importance of Writen Reports. Importance of Writen Reports 55. Characteristics of Good Report. Characteristics of Good Report
  3. 3. November 12, 2014 3 Zagazig UniversityZagazig University Faculty of EngineeringFaculty of Engineering Waterand waterWaterand water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 33NovemberNovember1212,, 20142014LectureNo.LectureNo. 11 11. Introduction. Introduction ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬:: ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻫﻮ‬‫ﻫﻮ‬‫وﺴﻴﻟﺔ‬‫وﺴﻴﻟﺔ‬‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬‫ﺑﻮﺻﻒ‬‫ﺑﻮﺻﻒ‬‫ﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬‫ﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻦ‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻦ‬‫وﻳﺘﻀﻣﻦ‬‫وﻳﺘﻀﻣﻦ‬‫ﺣﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬‫ﺣﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫وﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬‫وﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬‫وﻤﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫وﻤﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫ﺗﻌﺮض‬‫ﺗﻌﺮض‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫اﻠﻗﺎرئ‬‫اﻠﻗﺎرئ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﺠﻞ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺠﻞ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺗﺨﺎد‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺗﺨﺎد‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﺔ‬‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﺔ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ار‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ار‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻘ‬‫وﻫﻲ‬‫وﻫﻲ‬‫اﻤﺎ‬‫اﻤﺎ‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬ ‫ﺗﻛﻮن‬‫ﺗﻛﻮن‬‫ﺸﻔﻬﻴﺔ‬‫ﺸﻔﻬﻴﺔ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻳﺔ‬‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻳﺔ‬‫ﻠﺪا‬‫ﻠﺪا‬‫ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬‫ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬‫وﺛﻴﻗﺔ‬‫وﺛﻴﻗﺔ‬‫إدارﻳﺔ‬‫إدارﻳﺔ‬‫ﻠﻼﺗﺼﺎل‬‫ﻠﻼﺗﺼﺎل‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﻲ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﻲ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺷﻔﻬﻲ‬‫اﻠﺷﻔﻬﻲ‬‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻟﻒ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘﻟﻒ‬‫اﻠﻣﺳﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬‫اﻠﻣﺳﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬..
  4. 4. November 12, 2014 4 Zagazig UniversityZagazig University Faculty of EngineeringFaculty of Engineering Waterand waterWaterand water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 44NovemberNovember1212,, 20142014LectureNo.LectureNo. 11 ‫ـﺘﺎﺑﻲ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬‫اﻻﺗﺼﺎل‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﻲ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬‫اﻻﺗﺼﺎل‬‫اﻠﻟﻔﻈﻲ‬‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬‫اﻻﺗﺼﺎل‬‫اﻠﻟﻔﻈﻲ‬‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬‫اﻻﺗﺼﺎل‬‫اﻠﺷﻔﻮي‬‫اﻻﺗﺼﺎل‬‫اﻠﺷﻔﻮي‬‫اﻻﺗﺼﺎل‬ ‫ﯾﺴﮭﻞ‬‫اﻟﺮﺟﻮع‬‫إﻟﯿﺔ‬‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮﻟﯿﺎت‬. ‫ﯾﻮﺛﻖ‬‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻔﺎدة‬‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬. ‫ﯾﻀﻤﻦ‬‫ﻧﻘﻞ‬‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺪد‬‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﯿﻦ‬. ‫ﯾﻮﺿﺢ‬‫ردود‬‫اﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬‫اﻟﻌﻜﺴﯿﺔ‬. ‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻟﺮوح‬‫اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮظﻔﯿﻦ‬‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬‫أن‬‫اﻷﻓﻌﺎل‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﺪث‬‫ﺑﺼﻮت‬‫أﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎت‬. ‫ﻟﮫ‬‫أﺛﺮه‬‫اﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ‬‫ﻟﺪى‬‫اﻟﻤﻮظﻔﯿﻦ‬ ‫ذوي‬‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءات‬‫و‬‫اﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬. ‫ﯾﻘﻮي‬‫روح‬‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎون‬‫واﻟﺼﺪاﻗﺔ‬. ‫ﯾﺰﯾﻞ‬‫اﻟﺘﻮﺗﺮ‬‫واﻟﻀﻐﻮط‬. ‫ﯾﺸﺠﻊ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺗﺒﺎدل‬‫اﻻﺳﺌﻠﮫ‬‫وﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﮭﻮ‬‫ﻓﻌﺎل‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺐ‬‫اﻟﻤﻔﺎھﯿﻢ‬. ‫ﯾﺴﺮع‬‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬‫ﺗﺒﺎدل‬‫اﻷﻓﻜﺎر‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬‫و‬‫اﻵراء‬‫ﻓﮭﻮ‬‫ﯾﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬‫واﻟﺠﮭﺪ‬. ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬: ‫اﻟﻤﺬﻛﺮات‬ ،‫اﻟﺘﻘﺎرﯾﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﺎوي‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﻨﺸﻮرات‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻮﺣﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺼﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻹﯾﻀﺎح‬ ‫وﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻼت‬‫اﻟﺤﺎﺋﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬: ‫اﻹﯾﻤﺎءات‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺒﯿﺮات‬‫اﻟﻮﺟﮫ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﻔﻌﺎل‬ ،‫اﻟﻐﻀﺐ‬ ،‫اﻟﺴﻜﻮت‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﯿﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻼم‬ ‫اﻻﺑﺘﺴﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬: ‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻼت‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻔﻮﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻜﺎﻟﻤﺎت‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮات‬ ‫واﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺠﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺎﺿﺮات‬ ‫ـﺎل‬‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺼ‬‫اﻻﺗ‬ ‫ﻧﻮاع‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ـﺎل‬‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺼ‬‫اﻻﺗ‬ ‫ﻧﻮاع‬ ٔ‫ا‬
  5. 5. November 12, 2014 5 Zagazig UniversityZagazig University Faculty of EngineeringFaculty of Engineering Waterand waterWaterand water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 55NovemberNovember1212,, 20142014LectureNo.LectureNo. 11 ‫ـﺘﺎﺑﻲ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬‫ـﺎل‬‫ـ‬‫ﺼ‬‫اﻻﺗ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﻲ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬‫ـﺎل‬‫ـ‬‫ﺼ‬‫اﻻﺗ‬:: ‫ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬‫ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬‫اﻻﺗﺼﺎل‬‫اﻻﺗﺼﺎل‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﻲ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﻲ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﺑﺮز‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺑﺮز‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻت‬‫اﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻت‬‫اﻠﺮﺴﻣﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﺮﺴﻣﻴﺔ‬‫ﺴﻮاء‬‫ﺴﻮاء‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﻄﺮق‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﻄﺮق‬ ‫اﻠﺘﻗﻟﻴﺪﻳﺔ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﻟﻴﺪﻳﺔ‬‫اﻠﺪارﺠﺔ‬‫اﻠﺪارﺠﺔ‬))‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫اﻠﻮرق‬‫اﻠﻮرق‬((‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﻄﺮق‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﻄﺮق‬‫اﻠﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ‬‫اﻠﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ‬‫ـﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻹﻠ‬‫ـﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻹﻠ‬..‫وﻤﻦ‬‫وﻤﻦ‬‫ﺑﺮز‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺑﺮز‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻧﻮاع‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻧﻮاع‬ ٔ‫ا‬ ‫اﻻﺗﺼﺎل‬‫اﻻﺗﺼﺎل‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﻲ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﻲ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬‫ـﺜﺮ‬‫ﻜ‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫ـﺜﺮ‬‫ﻜ‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬ً‫اﺴﺘﺨﺪاﻤﺎ‬ً‫اﺴﺘﺨﺪاﻤﺎ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ت‬ ٓ‫ﻤﻨﺷﺎ‬‫ت‬ ٓ‫ﻤﻨﺷﺎ‬‫ﻋﻣﺎل‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫ﻋﻣﺎل‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬::‫اﻠﻣﺬﻜﺮة‬‫اﻠﻣﺬﻜﺮة‬‫اﻠﺪاﺧﻟﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﺪاﺧﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫،اﻠﺮﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬‫،اﻠﺮﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬‫اﻠﺨﺎرﺠﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﺨﺎرﺠﻴﺔ‬‫،واﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫،واﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ووﺛﺎﺋﻖ‬‫ووﺛﺎﺋﻖ‬‫اﻻﺠﺘﻣﺎﻋﺎت‬‫اﻻﺠﺘﻣﺎﻋﺎت‬..
  6. 6. November 12, 2014 6 Zagazig UniversityZagazig University Faculty of EngineeringFaculty of Engineering Waterand waterWaterand water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 66NovemberNovember1212,, 20142014LectureNo.LectureNo. 11 22. Subjet Target. Subjet Target ‫اﻠﻣﻗﺮر‬ ‫ﻫﺪاف‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﻣﻗﺮر‬ ‫ﻫﺪاف‬ ٔ‫ا‬:: ‫اﻠﺘﻌﺮف‬‫اﻠﺘﻌﺮف‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫اﻫﻣﻴﺔ‬‫اﻫﻣﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﺘﻮاﺻﻞ‬‫اﻠﺘﻮاﺻﻞ‬‫اﻠﺟﻴﺪ‬‫اﻠﺟﻴﺪ‬.. ‫ﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬‫ﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬‫وﺴﻣﺎت‬‫وﺴﻣﺎت‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺟﻴﺪ‬‫اﻠﺟﻴﺪ‬.. ‫اك‬‫ر‬‫إد‬‫اك‬‫ر‬‫إد‬‫اﻠﻨﻮاﺣﻲ‬‫اﻠﻨﻮاﺣﻲ‬‫اﻠﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻠ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬.. ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬‫اﺣﻞ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬‫اﺣﻞ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬‫إﻋﺪاد‬‫إﻋﺪاد‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬.. ‫ﺗﻔﺎدي‬‫ﺗﻔﺎدي‬‫اﻻﺧﻄﺎء‬‫اﻻﺧﻄﺎء‬‫اﻠﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ‬‫اﻠﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫إﻋﺪاد‬‫إﻋﺪاد‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬.. ‫ﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬‫ﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬‫ﻧﻮاع‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻧﻮاع‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬..
  7. 7. November 12, 2014 7 Zagazig UniversityZagazig University Faculty of EngineeringFaculty of Engineering Waterand waterWaterand water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 77NovemberNovember1212,, 20142014LectureNo.LectureNo. 11 ‫ﻜﺳﺎب‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻜﺳﺎب‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﻄﺎﻠﺐ‬‫اﻠﻄﺎﻠﺐ‬‫ات‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠﺨﺒ‬‫ات‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠﺨﺒ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫ﺗﻣﻛﻨﺔ‬‫ﺗﻣﻛﻨﺔ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬:: ••‫ﺧﺘﻴﺎر‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺧﺘﻴﺎر‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻃﺮﻳﻗﺔ‬‫ﻃﺮﻳﻗﺔ‬‫اﻠﺘﻮاﺻﻞ‬‫اﻠﺘﻮاﺻﻞ‬‫اﻠﻣﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬.. ••‫إﻳﺼﺎل‬‫إﻳﺼﺎل‬‫ﻓﻛﺎرة‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻓﻛﺎرة‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﺋﺔ‬‫ر‬ ٓ‫وا‬‫اﺋﺔ‬‫ر‬ ٓ‫وا‬‫ﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬ ٓ‫ﻠﻼ‬‫ﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬ ٓ‫ﻠﻼ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﺧﻼل‬‫ﺧﻼل‬‫ﺗﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﺗﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﺠﻴﺪ‬‫ﺠﻴﺪ‬.. ••‫إﻘﻨﺎع‬‫إﻘﻨﺎع‬‫ﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬ ٓ‫اﻻ‬‫ﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬ ٓ‫اﻻ‬‫ﻓﻴﻣﺎ‬‫ﻓﻴﻣﺎ‬‫ﻳﻌﺮﺿﺔ‬‫ﻳﻌﺮﺿﺔ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬.. ••‫اك‬‫ر‬‫إد‬‫اك‬‫ر‬‫إد‬‫ات‬‫ر‬‫ﻤﻬﺎ‬‫ات‬‫ر‬‫ﻤﻬﺎ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬‫وﻋﺮض‬‫وﻋﺮض‬‫اﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬‫اﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬.. ••‫إﻋﺪاد‬‫إﻋﺪاد‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺑﻣﻬﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﺑﻣﻬﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﻋﺎﻠﻴﺔ‬‫ﻋﺎﻠﻴﺔ‬.. ••‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬‫اﻠﻀﺮورﻳﺔ‬‫اﻠﻀﺮورﻳﺔ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫ﻳﺟﺐ‬‫ﻳﺟﺐ‬‫ان‬‫ان‬‫ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻳﻬﺎ‬‫ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻳﻬﺎ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬..
  8. 8. November 12, 2014 8 Zagazig UniversityZagazig University Faculty of EngineeringFaculty of Engineering Waterand waterWaterand water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 88NovemberNovember1212,, 20142014LectureNo.LectureNo. 11 33. Diff. Between Reports and Others. Diff. Between Reports and Others ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬::‫ﻋﺮض‬‫ﻋﺮض‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﻲ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﻲ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﻤﺳﺟﻞ‬‫ﻤﺳﺟﻞ‬‫ﻠﺤﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬‫ﻠﺤﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬‫ﺛﻢ‬‫ﺛﻢ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺼﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺼﻲ‬‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬‫واﺧﺘﻴﺎرﻫﺎ‬‫واﺧﺘﻴﺎرﻫﺎ‬‫ﺛﻢ‬‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫اﻠﺨﺮوج‬‫اﻠﺨﺮوج‬‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬‫ﺑﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬‫ﺑﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬‫وﺗﻮﺻﻴﺎت‬‫وﺗﻮﺻﻴﺎت‬.. ‫ـﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺴ‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫اﻠﺪ‬‫ـﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺴ‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫اﻠﺪ‬::‫ﺗﻮﺠﻪ‬‫ﺗﻮﺠﻪ‬‫ﻋﻟﻣﻲ‬‫ﻋﻟﻣﻲ‬‫ﻳﺪرس‬‫ﻳﺪرس‬‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮة‬‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮة‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻤﺷﻛﻟﺔ‬‫ﻤﺷﻛﻟﺔ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻘﻀﻴﺔ‬‫ﻘﻀﻴﺔ‬‫وﻳﺨﺮج‬‫وﻳﺨﺮج‬‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬‫ﺑﻣﺎ‬‫ﺑﻣﺎ‬‫ﻘﺪ‬‫ﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺎﻠﺟﻬﺎ‬‫ﻳﻌﺎﻠﺟﻬﺎ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻹﻃﺎر‬‫اﻹﻃﺎر‬‫اﻠﻣﻄﻟﻮب‬‫اﻠﻣﻄﻟﻮب‬.. ‫اﻠﺮﺴﺎﻠﺔ‬‫اﻠﺮﺴﺎﻠﺔ‬::‫ﻫﻲ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬‫ﺑﺤﺚ‬‫ﺑﺤﺚ‬‫ﻤﻌﺮوف‬‫ﻤﻌﺮوف‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻻﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎت‬‫اﻻﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎت‬‫اﻠﻼزﻤﺔ‬‫اﻠﻼزﻤﺔ‬‫ﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮع‬‫ﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮع‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻦ‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻦ‬‫ﻜﻴﺪ‬ ٔ‫وﺗﺎ‬‫ﻜﻴﺪ‬ ٔ‫وﺗﺎ‬ ‫اﻠﺘﻗﻮﻳﻢ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﻮﻳﻢ‬‫اﻠﺤﻗﻴﻗﻲ‬‫اﻠﺤﻗﻴﻗﻲ‬‫ﻠﻣﺎدة‬‫ﻠﻣﺎدة‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬‫اﻠﺮﺴﺎﻠﺔ‬‫اﻠﺮﺴﺎﻠﺔ‬.. ‫اﻠﺨﻄﺎب‬‫اﻠﺨﻄﺎب‬::‫ﻫﻲ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬‫وﺴﻴﻟﺔ‬‫وﺴﻴﻟﺔ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫وﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬‫وﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬‫اﻻﺗﺼﺎل‬‫اﻻﺗﺼﺎل‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﻲ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﻲ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬‫ﺗﻗﻮم‬‫ﺗﻗﻮم‬‫ﻤﻗﺎم‬‫ﻤﻗﺎم‬‫اﻠﻣﺨﺎﻃﺒﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﺨﺎﻃﺒﺔ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﻣﻗﺎﺑﻟﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻗﺎﺑﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻠﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬..
  9. 9. November 12, 2014 9 Zagazig UniversityZagazig University Faculty of EngineeringFaculty of Engineering Waterand waterWaterand water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 99NovemberNovember1212,, 20142014LectureNo.LectureNo. 11 ‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫اﻠﻌﻟﻣﻲ‬‫اﻠﻌﻟﻣﻲ‬::‫ﻫﻲ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬‫ﻤﺤﺎوﻠﺔ‬‫ﻤﺤﺎوﻠﺔ‬‫ﻋﻟﻣﻴﺔ‬‫ﻋﻟﻣﻴﺔ‬‫ـﺘﻮﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ـﺘﻮﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺑﺼﻮرة‬‫ﺑﺼﻮرة‬‫دﻘﻴﻗﺔ‬‫دﻘﻴﻗﺔ‬‫ﻧﺎﻓﺬة‬‫ﻧﺎﻓﺬة‬‫ﻠﻟﺘﻮﺻﻞ‬‫ﻠﻟﺘﻮﺻﻞ‬‫إﻠﻰ‬‫إﻠﻰ‬‫ﺣﻞ‬‫ﺣﻞ‬ ‫اﻠﻣﺷﻛﻼت‬‫اﻠﻣﺷﻛﻼت‬‫اﻠﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﻣﺟﺘﻣﻊ‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﻣﺟﺘﻣﻊ‬‫اﻹﻧﺳﺎﻧﻲ‬‫اﻹﻧﺳﺎﻧﻲ‬.. ‫اﻠﺤﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬‫اﻠﺤﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬::‫ﻫﻲ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻳﺘﻮﺻﻞ‬‫ﻳﺘﻮﺻﻞ‬‫إﻠﻴﻪ‬‫إﻠﻴﻪ‬‫اﻹﻧﺳﺎن‬‫اﻹﻧﺳﺎن‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬‫ﺣﺎﺴﺔ‬‫ﺣﺎﺴﺔ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ـﺜﺮ‬‫ﻜ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ـﺜﺮ‬‫ﻜ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﺣﻮاﺴﻪ‬‫ﺣﻮاﺴﻪ‬ ‫اﻠﺨﻣﺲ‬‫اﻠﺨﻣﺲ‬.. ‫اﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬‫اﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬::‫ﻫﻲ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬‫اﻠﻣﺎدة‬‫اﻠﻣﺎدة‬‫اﻠﺨﺎم‬‫اﻠﺨﺎم‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫ﻳﻣﻛﻦ‬‫ﻳﻣﻛﻦ‬‫اﻠﺤﺼﻮل‬‫اﻠﺤﺼﻮل‬‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫اﻧﺘﺎج‬‫اﻧﺘﺎج‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬ ‫وﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮﻫﺎ‬‫وﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮﻫﺎ‬.. ‫اﻠﻣﺬﻜﺮة‬‫اﻠﻣﺬﻜﺮة‬::‫ﻫﻲ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬‫ﻧﻮع‬‫ﻧﻮع‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻧﻮاع‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻧﻮاع‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫إﻻ‬‫إﻻ‬‫ﻧﻬﺎ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻧﻬﺎ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺗﺘﻗﻴﺪ‬‫ﺗﺘﻗﻴﺪ‬‫اءات‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺑﺈﺠ‬‫اءات‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺑﺈﺠ‬‫ﺸﻛﻟﻴﺔ‬‫ﺸﻛﻟﻴﺔ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻫﻴﻛﻟﻴﺔ‬‫ﻫﻴﻛﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﻜﺎﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫وﻘﺪ‬‫وﻘﺪ‬‫ﺗﻌﺪ‬‫ﺗﻌﺪ‬‫ﻠﻣﺟﺮد‬‫ﻠﻣﺟﺮد‬‫إﺣﺎﻃﺔ‬‫إﺣﺎﻃﺔ‬‫اﻠﻗﺎرئ‬‫اﻠﻗﺎرئ‬‫ﺑﻣﻮﺿﻮع‬‫ﺑﻣﻮﺿﻮع‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻦ‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻦ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻠﻟﺘﺳﺟﻴﻞ‬‫ﻠﻟﺘﺳﺟﻴﻞ‬‫واﻠﺤﻔﻆ‬‫واﻠﺤﻔﻆ‬..
  10. 10. November 12, 2014 10 Zagazig UniversityZagazig University Faculty of EngineeringFaculty of Engineering Waterand waterWaterand water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 1010NovemberNovember1212,, 20142014LectureNo.LectureNo. 11 ‫اﺣﺎت‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻻﻘﺘ‬‫اﺣﺎت‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻻﻘﺘ‬::‫وﻫﻲ‬‫وﻫﻲ‬‫وﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬‫وﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬‫ﻤﻮاﺠﻬﺔ‬‫ﻤﻮاﺠﻬﺔ‬‫ﺛﺎر‬ ٓ‫اﻻ‬‫ﺛﺎر‬ ٓ‫اﻻ‬‫ﺗﺒﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠﻣﺘ‬‫ﺗﺒﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠﻣﺘ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫ﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬‫ﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻤﺷﻛﻟﺔ‬‫ﻤﺷﻛﻟﺔ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺑﻬﺪف‬‫ﺑﻬﺪف‬ ‫اﻠﻗﻀﺎء‬‫اﻠﻗﻀﺎء‬‫ﻋﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬‫ﻋﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺤﺪ‬‫اﻠﺤﺪ‬‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬.. ‫اﻠﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎت‬‫اﻠﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎت‬::‫ﻫﻮ‬‫ﻫﻮ‬‫ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬‫ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬‫وﺿﻊ‬‫وﺿﻊ‬‫اﺣﺎت‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻻﻘﺘ‬‫اﺣﺎت‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻻﻘﺘ‬‫ﻤﻮﺿﻊ‬‫ﻤﻮﺿﻊ‬‫اﻠﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬‫اﻠﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬.. ‫ﻘﻮال‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫ﻘﻮال‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬::‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻳﺮد‬‫ﻳﺮد‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫ﻠﺳﺎن‬‫ﻠﺳﺎن‬‫اﻠﻔﺮد‬‫اﻠﻔﺮد‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻘﻮال‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻘﻮال‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬‫و‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺗﺮﻘﻰ‬‫ﺗﺮﻘﻰ‬‫إﻠﻰ‬‫إﻠﻰ‬‫ﺗﺒﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺗﺒﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬‫اﻠﺤﻗﻴﻗﺔ‬‫اﻠﺤﻗﻴﻗﺔ‬.. ‫اء‬‫ر‬ ٓ‫اﻻ‬‫اء‬‫ر‬ ٓ‫اﻻ‬::‫وﻫﻲ‬‫وﻫﻲ‬‫ﻏﺎﻠﺒﺎ‬‫ﻏﺎﻠﺒﺎ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﺗﺪور‬‫ﺗﺪور‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺗﻔﻛﻴﺮ‬‫ﺗﻔﻛﻴﺮ‬‫واﻋﺘﻗﺎد‬‫واﻋﺘﻗﺎد‬‫اﻠﺷﺨﺺ‬‫اﻠﺷﺨﺺ‬،،‫وﺗﻔﺘﻗﺮ‬‫وﺗﻔﺘﻗﺮ‬‫ﻏﺎﻠﺒﺎ‬‫ﻏﺎﻠﺒﺎ‬‫ﻠﻟﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬‫ﻠﻟﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﺘﺼﻞ‬‫وﺗﺘﺼﻞ‬‫ﻏﺎﻠﺒﺎ‬‫ﻏﺎﻠﺒﺎ‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﻣﺷﺎﻋﺮ‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﻣﺷﺎﻋﺮ‬‫اﻠﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬‫إﻳﺟﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬‫إﻳﺟﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺴﻟﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﺴﻟﺒﻴﺔ‬.. ‫اﻠﻨﺘﻴﺟﺔ‬‫اﻠﻨﺘﻴﺟﺔ‬::‫وﺗﺘﻨﺎول‬‫وﺗﺘﻨﺎول‬‫اﻠﺘﻌﻟﻴﻖ‬‫اﻠﺘﻌﻟﻴﻖ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫اﻠﺤﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬‫اﻠﺤﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬‫اﻠﻮاردة‬‫اﻠﻮاردة‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻔﺼﻴﻼت‬‫اﻠﺘﻔﺼﻴﻼت‬‫اﻠﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬‫اﻠﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬.. ‫اﻻﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎج‬‫اﻻﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎج‬::‫اﻻﺴﺘﻨﺒﺎط‬‫اﻻﺴﺘﻨﺒﺎط‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬‫اﻠﻌﻗﻞ‬‫اﻠﻌﻗﻞ‬‫واﻠﻣﻨ‬‫واﻠﻣﻨ‬‫ﻄﻖ‬‫ﻄﻖ‬‫و‬‫و‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺗ‬‫ﺗ‬‫ﺮﻘﻰ‬‫ﺮﻘﻰ‬‫إﻠﻰ‬‫إﻠﻰ‬‫ﺗﺒﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺗﺒﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬‫اﻠﺤﻗﻴﻗﺔ‬‫اﻠﺤﻗﻴﻗﺔ‬‫ﻻن‬‫ﻻن‬ ‫اﻻﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎج‬‫اﻻﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎج‬‫ﻳﺤﺘﺎج‬‫ﻳﺤﺘﺎج‬‫إﻠﻰ‬‫إﻠﻰ‬‫دﻠﻴﻞ‬‫دﻠﻴﻞ‬..
  11. 11. November 12, 2014 11 Zagazig UniversityZagazig University Faculty of EngineeringFaculty of Engineering Waterand waterWaterand water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 1111NovemberNovember1212,, 20142014LectureNo.LectureNo. 11 44. Importance of Writen Reports. Importance of Writen Reports ‫ـﺘﻮﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠﻣ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﻫﻣﻴﺔ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ـﺘﻮﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠﻣ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﻫﻣﻴﺔ‬ ٔ‫ا‬:: ‫ﻧﻗﻞ‬‫ﻧﻗﻞ‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫ـﺜﺮ‬‫ﻜ‬ ٔ‫ﻻ‬‫ـﺜﺮ‬‫ﻜ‬ ٔ‫ﻻ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﺸﺨﺺ‬‫ﺸﺨﺺ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻤﺎﻜﻦ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻤﺎﻜﻦ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻤﺨﺘﻟﻔﺔ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘﻟﻔﺔ‬‫وﺗﻮﻘﻴﺖ‬‫وﺗﻮﻘﻴﺖ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘﻟﻒ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘﻟﻒ‬.. ‫ﻳﻌﻄﻲ‬‫ﻳﻌﻄﻲ‬‫ﻓﺮﺻﺔ‬‫ﻓﺮﺻﺔ‬‫ﻠﻗﺎرئ‬‫ﻠﻗﺎرئ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻠﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬‫ﻠﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬‫وﻘﺘﺔ‬‫وﻘﺘﺔ‬‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬‫ﻳﻣﻛﻦ‬‫ﻳﻣﻛﻦ‬‫اءة‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻘ‬‫اءة‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻘ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ي‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ي‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫وﻘﺖ‬‫وﻘﺖ‬.. ‫ﺣﻔﻆ‬‫ﺣﻔﻆ‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺔ‬‫ﻠﻼﺴﺘﻔﺎدة‬‫ﻠﻼﺴﺘﻔﺎدة‬‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻠﻣﺳﺘﻗﺒﻞ‬‫اﻠﻣﺳﺘﻗﺒﻞ‬‫وﺿﻣﺎن‬‫وﺿﻣﺎن‬‫ﻋﺪم‬‫ﻋﺪم‬‫ار‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺗﻛ‬‫ار‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺗﻛ‬‫اﻻﺧﻄﺎء‬‫اﻻﺧﻄﺎء‬‫ﻫﺪار‬ ٔ‫وا‬‫ﻫﺪار‬ ٔ‫وا‬‫اﻠﻮﻘﺖ‬‫اﻠﻮﻘﺖ‬.. ‫ﻳﻌﻄﻲ‬‫ﻳﻌﻄﻲ‬‫ﻓﺮﺻﺔ‬‫ﻓﺮﺻﺔ‬‫ﻠﻟﻗﺎرئ‬‫ﻠﻟﻗﺎرئ‬‫اءة‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺑﻗ‬‫اءة‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺑﻗ‬‫اﻠﺟﺰء‬‫اﻠﺟﺰء‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺨﺎص‬‫اﻠﺨﺎص‬‫ﺑﺔ‬‫ﺑﺔ‬‫ﻓﻗﻂ‬‫ﻓﻗﻂ‬.. ‫ﻳﻣﻛﻦ‬‫ﻳﻣﻛﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫اﻻﺴﺘﻌﺪاد‬‫اﻻﺴﺘﻌﺪاد‬‫ﻠﻟﻣﻨﺎﻘﺷﺔ‬‫ﻠﻟﻣﻨﺎﻘﺷﺔ‬‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬‫ﻳﻣﻛﻦ‬‫ﻳﻣﻛﻦ‬‫ﺗﻮزﻳﻊ‬‫ﺗﻮزﻳﻊ‬‫ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‬‫ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‬‫ﻤﺷﺮوع‬‫ﻤﺷﺮوع‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻘﺒﻞ‬‫ﻘﺒﻞ‬‫اﻻﺠﺘﻣﺎع‬‫اﻻﺠﺘﻣﺎع‬.. ‫ﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬‫ﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬‫و‬‫و‬‫اﺴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫د‬‫اﺴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫د‬‫اﻤﻮر‬‫اﻤﻮر‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻳﻣﻛﻦ‬‫ﻳﻣﻛﻦ‬‫ﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﺸﻔﺎﻫﺔ‬‫ﺸﻔﺎﻫﺔ‬‫ﻤﺜﻞ‬‫ﻤﺜﻞ‬‫رﻘﺎم‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫رﻘﺎم‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫واﻠﺤﺳﺎﺑﺎت‬‫واﻠﺤﺳﺎﺑﺎت‬.. ‫ـﺜﺮ‬‫ﻜ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ـﺜﺮ‬‫ﻜ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻣﺎ‬‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻣﺎ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺷﻔﻬﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﺷﻔﻬﻴﺔ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺣﺘﻮاﺋﺔ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺣﺘﻮاﺋﺔ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫اﻻﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬‫اﻻﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬‫واﻠﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎت‬‫واﻠﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎت‬.. ‫ﻳﻣﻛﻦ‬‫ﻳﻣﻛﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﺴﺘﺨﺪام‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺴﺘﺨﺪام‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫دوات‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫دوات‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺠﻴﺪة‬‫ﺠﻴﺪة‬‫ﻠﻌﺮض‬‫ﻠﻌﺮض‬‫اﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮع‬‫اﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮع‬‫ﻤﺜﻞ‬‫ﻤﺜﻞ‬‫اﻠﺟﺪاول‬‫اﻠﺟﺪاول‬‫واﻠﺮﺴﻮم‬‫واﻠﺮﺴﻮم‬‫اﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬..
  12. 12. November 12, 2014 12 Zagazig UniversityZagazig University Faculty of EngineeringFaculty of Engineering Waterand waterWaterand water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 1212NovemberNovember1212,, 20142014LectureNo.LectureNo. 11 55. Characteristics of Good Report. Characteristics of Good Report ‫اﻠﺟﻴﺪ‬ ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ـﺎت‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬‫ﺴ‬‫اﻠﺟﻴﺪ‬ ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ـﺎت‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬‫ﺴ‬:: ‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮي‬‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮي‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫اﻠﻼزﻤﺔ‬‫اﻠﻼزﻤﺔ‬‫ﻠﻔﻬﻢ‬‫ﻠﻔﻬﻢ‬‫ﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬‫ﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻦ‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻦ‬.. ‫ﻤﻨﻈﻣﺔ‬‫ﻤﻨﻈﻣﺔ‬‫وﻤﻗﺳﻣﺔ‬‫وﻤﻗﺳﻣﺔ‬‫إﻠﻲ‬‫إﻠﻲ‬‫ﻘﺳﺎم‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻘﺳﺎم‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺑﺤﻴﺚ‬‫ﺑﺤﻴﺚ‬‫ﻳﺳﻬﻞ‬‫ﻳﺳﻬﻞ‬‫اﻠﻮﺻﻮل‬‫اﻠﻮﺻﻮل‬‫اﻠﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻴﺔ‬.. ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻟﺔ‬‫ﻃﻮﻳﻟﺔ‬//‫ﻘﺼﻴﺮة‬‫ﻘﺼﻴﺮة‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﻗﺪر‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﻗﺪر‬‫اﻠﻛﺎﻓﻲ‬‫اﻠﻛﺎﻓﻲ‬‫واﻠﻣﻌﺘﺎد‬‫واﻠﻣﻌﺘﺎد‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻠﻣﺆﺴﺳﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﺆﺴﺳﺔ‬.. ‫ﻻ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮي‬‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮي‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‬‫ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‬‫ﺧﺎرج‬‫ﺧﺎرج‬‫اﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮع‬‫اﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮع‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻤﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫ﻤﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺗﻬﻢ‬‫ﺗﻬﻢ‬‫اﻠﻣﺘﻟﻗﻲ‬‫اﻠﻣﺘﻟﻗﻲ‬.. ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ‬‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ‬‫ﻋﺪاد‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻋﺪاد‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫واﻠﺟﻬﺔ‬‫واﻠﺟﻬﺔ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫ﻋﺪﺗﺔ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻋﺪﺗﺔ‬ ٔ‫ا‬.. ‫ﺗﺳﺘﺨﺪم‬‫ﺗﺳﺘﺨﺪم‬‫اﻠﻮﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬‫اﻠﻮﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬‫اﻠﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬‫واﻠﻣﻗﺒﻮﻠﺔ‬‫واﻠﻣﻗﺒﻮﻠﺔ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻠﻣﺆﺴﺳﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﺆﺴﺳﺔ‬.. ‫ـﺘﻮﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ـﺘﻮﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺑﺎﺴﻟﻮب‬‫ﺑﺎﺴﻟﻮب‬‫واﺿﺢ‬‫واﺿﺢ‬‫وﺑﻟﻐﺔ‬‫وﺑﻟﻐﺔ‬‫ﺴﻟﻴﻣﺔ‬‫ﺴﻟﻴﻣﺔ‬‫وﻤﻔﻬﻮﻤﺔ‬‫وﻤﻔﻬﻮﻤﺔ‬.. ‫ـﺘﻮﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ـﺘﻮﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻤﺎﻧﺔ‬ ٔ‫ﺑﺎ‬‫ﻤﺎﻧﺔ‬ ٔ‫ﺑﺎ‬..
  13. 13. November 12, 2014 13 Zagazig UniversityZagazig University Faculty of EngineeringFaculty of Engineering Waterand waterWaterand water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 1313NovemberNovember1212,, 20142014LectureNo.LectureNo. 11 ‫ﺠﻴﺪ‬‫ﺑﺷﻛﻞ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﻫﻣﻴﺔ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺠﻴﺪ‬‫ﺑﺷﻛﻞ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﻫﻣﻴﺔ‬ ٔ‫ا‬:: ‫ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ‬‫ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ‬‫اﻠﻮﻘﺖ‬‫اﻠﻮﻘﺖ‬‫واﻠﺟﻬﺪ‬‫واﻠﺟﻬﺪ‬‫ﻠﻟﺷﺨﺺ‬‫ﻠﻟﺷﺨﺺ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺟﻬﺔ‬‫اﻠﺟﻬﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﺨﺎﻃﺐ‬‫اﻠﻣﺨﺎﻃﺐ‬‫ﺑﻬﺎ‬‫ﺑﻬﺎ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬.. ‫ﺗﺰوﻳﺪ‬‫ﺗﺰوﻳﺪ‬‫ﻤﺆﺴﺳﺎت‬‫ﻤﺆﺴﺳﺎت‬‫اﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‬‫اﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻠﻣﺟﺘﻣﻊ‬‫اﻠﻣﺟﺘﻣﻊ‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫ﺗﺪﻋﻢ‬‫ﺗﺪﻋﻢ‬‫ﺗﺨﺎد‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺗﺨﺎد‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ار‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠﻗ‬‫ار‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠﻗ‬.. ‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﺴﺎت‬‫ر‬‫اﻠﺪ‬‫اﺴﺎت‬‫ر‬‫اﻠﺪ‬‫واﻻﺑﺤﺎث‬‫واﻻﺑﺤﺎث‬‫اﻠﻌﻟﻣﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻌﻟﻣﻴﺔ‬‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ‬‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ‬‫اﻠﻮﻘﺖ‬‫اﻠﻮﻘﺖ‬‫واﻠﺟﻬﺪ‬‫واﻠﺟﻬﺪ‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫اﻠﺒﺎﺣﺜﻴﻦ‬‫اﻠﺒﺎﺣﺜﻴﻦ‬.. ‫ﺗﻌﻣﻞ‬‫ﺗﻌﻣﻞ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫ﺗﻟﺨﺺ‬‫ﺗﻟﺨﺺ‬‫ـﺘﺐ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬‫ـﺘﺐ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬‫واﻠﻨﺪوات‬‫واﻠﻨﺪوات‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫اء‬‫ﺮ‬‫إﺛ‬‫اء‬‫ﺮ‬‫إﺛ‬‫اﻠﻗﺎرئ‬‫اﻠﻗﺎرئ‬‫واﻠﻣﺳﺘﻣﻊ‬‫واﻠﻣﺳﺘﻣﻊ‬.. ‫ﺗﻌﺮف‬‫ﺗﻌﺮف‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺒﺎﺣﺜﻴﻦ‬‫اﻠﺒﺎﺣﺜﻴﻦ‬‫اﻠﻣﺒﺘﺪﺋﻴﻦ‬‫اﻠﻣﺒﺘﺪﺋﻴﻦ‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﺨﻄﻮات‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﺨﻄﻮات‬‫اﻻﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬‫اﻻﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬‫ﻠﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬‫ﻠﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬‫اﻠﻌﻟﻣﻲ‬‫اﻠﻌﻟﻣﻲ‬.. ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﻌﻟﻣﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻌﻟﻣﻴﺔ‬““‫اﻻﺑﺤﺎث‬‫اﻻﺑﺤﺎث‬‫اﻠﻌﻟﻣﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻌﻟﻣﻴﺔ‬””‫ﺗﻮﺠﺔ‬‫ﺗﻮﺠﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﺟﺘﻣﻌﺎت‬‫اﻠﻣﺟﺘﻣﻌﺎت‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫اﻠﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﺳﻟﻮﻜﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﺳﻟﻮﻜﻴﺔ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬ ‫اﻻﻘﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ‬‫اﻻﻘﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻻﺠﺘﻣﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬‫اﻻﺠﺘﻣﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬.. ‫س‬‫س‬::‫ﺧﺮي؟‬ ٔ‫ا‬ ‫اﻠﻲ‬‫ﺠﻬﺔ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫اﻠﺟﻴﺪ‬ ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺘﻟﻒ‬‫ﻫﻞ‬‫ﺧﺮي؟‬ ٔ‫ا‬ ‫اﻠﻲ‬‫ﺠﻬﺔ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫اﻠﺟﻴﺪ‬ ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺘﻟﻒ‬‫ﻫﻞ‬
  14. 14. November 12, 2014 14 Zagazig UniversityZagazig University Faculty of EngineeringFaculty of Engineering Waterand waterWaterand water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 1414NovemberNovember1212,, 20142014LectureNo.LectureNo. 11 ThanksThanks QuestionsQuestions ????????
  15. 15. November 12, 2014 1 ZagazigUniversityZagazigUniversity Facultyof EngineeringFacultyof Engineering Water and waterWater and water structures Engstructures Eng..DepartmentDepartment 11NovemberNovember 1212,, 20142014Lecture No.Lecture No. 22 ByBy Prof. Dr.Prof. Dr. Magdy MowafyMagdy Mowafy Dr.Dr. ElEl--Sayed MukhtarSayed Mukhtar TECHNICAL REPORTS WRITINGTECHNICAL REPORTS WRITING
  16. 16. November 12, 2014 2 ZagazigUniversityZagazigUniversity Facultyof EngineeringFacultyof Engineering Water and waterWater and water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 22NovemberNovember 1212,, 20142014Lecture No.Lecture No. 22 OutlineOutline 22.. Using of Template in Report WritingUsing of Template in Report Writing 1. Main Elements of Reports and Research1. Main Elements of Reports and Research 33. Reports Types. Reports Types 4. Objectives of Reports Writing4. Objectives of Reports Writing 55. Preparation Stages of Report. Preparation Stages of Report 66. Report Design. Report Design 7. Write Sentences in the Reports7. Write Sentences in the Reports
  17. 17. November 12, 2014 3 ZagazigUniversityZagazigUniversity Facultyof EngineeringFacultyof Engineering Water and waterWater and water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 33NovemberNovember 1212,, 20142014Lecture No.Lecture No. 22 1. Main Elements of Reports and Research1. Main Elements of Reports and Research ‫واﻻﺑﺤﺎث‬‫ﻠﻟﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺋﻴﺳﻴﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠ‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬‫واﻻﺑﺤﺎث‬‫ﻠﻟﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺋﻴﺳﻴﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠ‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬:: ‫ﺗﺨﺘﻟﻒ‬‫ﺗﺨﺘﻟﻒ‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬‫ﺋﻴﺳﻴﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠ‬‫ﺋﻴﺳﻴﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠ‬‫ﻠﻟﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﻠﻟﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﻃﺒﻗﺎ‬‫ﻃﺒﻗﺎ‬‫ﻠﺤﺟﻢ‬‫ﻠﺤﺟﻢ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫وﻤﺘﻄﻟﺒﺎت‬‫وﻤﺘﻄﻟﺒﺎت‬‫اﻠﻣﺆﺴﺳﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﺆﺴﺳﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻗﺪم‬‫اﻠﻣﻗﺪم‬‫ﻠﻬﺎ‬‫ﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬..‫اﻠﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬‫ﺋﻴﺳﻴﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠ‬‫ﺋﻴﺳﻴﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠ‬‫ﻠﻟﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﻠﻟﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﻄﻮﻳﻟﺔ‬‫اﻠﻄﻮﻳﻟﺔ‬))‫اﻠﻣﻛﻮﻧﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻛﻮﻧﺔ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ات‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻋﺷ‬‫ات‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻋﺷ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻤﯫت‬‫ﻤﯫت‬‫اﻠﺼﻔﺤﺎت‬‫اﻠﺼﻔﺤﺎت‬((‫ﻫﻲ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬:: ))‫اﻠﻌﻨﻮان‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﻮان‬,,‫اﻠﻣﻟﺨﺺ‬‫اﻠﻣﻟﺨﺺ‬,,‫اﻠﻣﻗﺪﻤﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻗﺪﻤﺔ‬,,‫ﻘﺎﺋﻣﺔ‬‫ﻘﺎﺋﻣﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬‫اﻠﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬,,‫ﻘﺎﺋﻣﺔ‬‫ﻘﺎﺋﻣﺔ‬‫ﺸﻛﺎل‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫ﺸﻛﺎل‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬,,‫ﻘﺎﺋﻣﺔ‬‫ﻘﺎﺋﻣﺔ‬‫اﻠﺟﺪاول‬‫اﻠﺟﺪاول‬,,‫ﺸﺮح‬‫ﺸﺮح‬ ‫ات‬‫ر‬‫اﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎ‬‫ات‬‫ر‬‫اﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎ‬‫واﻠﺮﻤﻮز‬‫واﻠﺮﻤﻮز‬,,‫اﻠﻣﻗﺪﻤﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻗﺪﻤﺔ‬,,‫ﻘﻟﺐ‬‫ﻘﻟﺐ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬))‫اﻠﻣﺤﺘﻮي‬‫اﻠﻣﺤﺘﻮي‬‫ﺴﺎﺴﻲ‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫ﺴﺎﺴﻲ‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫ﻠﻟﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻠﻟﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬((,, ‫ﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎت‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫ﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎت‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬,,‫اﻠﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎت‬‫اﻠﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎت‬,,‫اﺠﻊ‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠﻣ‬‫اﺠﻊ‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠﻣ‬,,‫واﻠﻣﻟﺤﻗﺎت‬‫واﻠﻣﻟﺤﻗﺎت‬((
  18. 18. November 12, 2014 4 ZagazigUniversityZagazigUniversity Facultyof EngineeringFacultyof Engineering Water and waterWater and water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 44NovemberNovember 1212,, 20142014Lecture No.Lecture No. 22 2. Using2. Using ofof TemplateTemplate in Report Writingin Report Writing ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻠﻨﻣﺎذج‬‫اﺴﺘﺨﺪام‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻠﻨﻣﺎذج‬‫اﺴﺘﺨﺪام‬:: ‫اﻏﻟﺐ‬‫اﻏﻟﺐ‬‫اﻠﻣﺆﺴﺳﺎت‬‫اﻠﻣﺆﺴﺳﺎت‬‫ﺗﺤﺘﻔﻆ‬‫ﺗﺤﺘﻔﻆ‬‫ﺑﻨﻣﺎذج‬‫ﺑﻨﻣﺎذج‬‫ﺠﺎﻫﺰة‬‫ﺠﺎﻫﺰة‬))‫ﻤﻌﺪﻩ‬‫ﻤﻌﺪﻩ‬‫ﺴﺎﺑﻗﺎ‬‫ﺴﺎﺑﻗﺎ‬((‫وﻳﻗﻮم‬‫وﻳﻗﻮم‬‫ﻤﻌﺪ‬‫ﻤﻌﺪ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬ٔ‫ﺑﻣﻼ‬ٔ‫ﺑﻣﻼ‬‫اﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬‫اﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫اﻠﻀﺮورﻳﺔ‬‫اﻠﻀﺮورﻳﺔ‬‫وﻠﻛﻦ‬‫وﻠﻛﻦ‬‫ﻫﺬا‬‫ﻫﺬا‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻳﻀﻣﻦ‬‫ﻳﻀﻣﻦ‬‫ان‬‫ان‬‫ﻳﻛﻮن‬‫ﻳﻛﻮن‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﺠﻴﺪا‬‫ﺠﻴﺪا‬‫اﻻ‬‫اﻻ‬‫إذا‬‫إذا‬‫ﻜﺎن‬‫ﻜﺎن‬‫ﻤﻌﺪ‬‫ﻤﻌﺪ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫اﻳﺔ‬‫ر‬‫د‬‫اﻳﺔ‬‫ر‬‫د‬‫ﻜﺎﻤﻟﺔ‬‫ﻜﺎﻤﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬‫واﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫واﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫ﻳﻌﺪ‬‫ﻳﻌﺪ‬‫ﺑﻬﺎ‬‫ﺑﻬﺎ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫وﻜﺬﻠﻚ‬‫وﻜﺬﻠﻚ‬‫ﻠﺪﻳﺔ‬‫ﻠﺪﻳﺔ‬‫ﺧﺒﺮة‬‫ﺧﺒﺮة‬‫ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫إﻋﺪاد‬‫إﻋﺪاد‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬,,‫ﻠﺬﻠﻚ‬‫ﻠﺬﻠﻚ‬‫ﻳﺷﺘﺮط‬‫ﻳﺷﺘﺮط‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻤﻌﺪ‬‫ﻤﻌﺪ‬‫ﺗﻟﻚ‬‫ﺗﻟﻚ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬:: ‫ان‬‫ان‬‫ﻳﻛﻮن‬‫ﻳﻛﻮن‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫اﻳﺔ‬‫ر‬‫د‬‫اﻳﺔ‬‫ر‬‫د‬‫وﻓﻬﻢ‬‫وﻓﻬﻢ‬‫ﻠﺘﻟﻚ‬‫ﻠﺘﻟﻚ‬‫اﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬‫اﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬‫واﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫واﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬ ‫ان‬‫ان‬‫ﻳﻛﻮن‬‫ﻳﻛﻮن‬‫ﻤﻟﻣﺎ‬‫ﻤﻟﻣﺎ‬‫ﺑﺘﻗﻨﻴﺎت‬‫ﺑﺘﻗﻨﻴﺎت‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻜ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺟﻴﺪ‬‫اﻠﺟﻴﺪ‬.. ‫ﻠﺪﻳﺔ‬‫ﻠﺪﻳﺔ‬‫اﻠﻗﺪرة‬‫اﻠﻗﺪرة‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ‬‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ‬‫ﺗﻟﻚ‬‫ﺗﻟﻚ‬‫اﻠﻨﻣﺎذج‬‫اﻠﻨﻣﺎذج‬‫وﺑﻨﺎء‬‫وﺑﻨﺎء‬‫ﻧﻣﺎذج‬‫ﻧﻣﺎذج‬‫ﺠﺪﻳﺪة‬‫ﺠﺪﻳﺪة‬..
  19. 19. November 12, 2014 5 ZagazigUniversityZagazigUniversity Facultyof EngineeringFacultyof Engineering Water and waterWater and water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 55NovemberNovember 1212,, 20142014Lecture No.Lecture No. 22 3. Reports Types3. Reports Types ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻧﻮاع‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻧﻮاع‬:: ‫ﺣﺳﺐ‬‫ﺣﺳﺐ‬‫ﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺗﻬﺎ‬‫ﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺗﻬﺎ‬:: ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺧﺒﺎرﻳﺔ‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫ﺧﺒﺎرﻳﺔ‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬ ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﺤﻟﻴﻟﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﺘﺤﻟﻴﻟﻴﺔ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫واﻠﻔﺤﺺ‬‫واﻠﻔﺤﺺ‬‫وﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬‫وﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬‫ات‬‫ر‬‫اﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎ‬‫ات‬‫ر‬‫اﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺳﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬‫اﻠﺳﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﻣﺎﻠﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﺎﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫دورﻳﺔ‬‫دورﻳﺔ‬‫اﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺸ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺸ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺗﺘﻨﺎول‬‫ﺗﺘﻨﺎول‬‫ﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت‬‫ﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬‫اﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬‫وﺗﺘﻀﻣﻦ‬‫وﺗﺘﻀﻣﻦ‬‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺻﻮرة‬‫ﺻﻮرة‬‫اﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬‫اﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬‫ﻜﻣﻴﺔ‬‫ﻜﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ادارﻳﺔ‬‫ادارﻳﺔ‬‫ﺗﺘﻌﻟﻖ‬‫ﺗﺘﻌﻟﻖ‬‫ﺑﻌﺮض‬‫ﺑﻌﺮض‬‫وﻤﻨﺎﻘﺷﺔ‬‫وﻤﻨﺎﻘﺷﺔ‬‫ﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت‬‫ﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت‬‫ادارﻳﺔ‬‫ادارﻳﺔ‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬
  20. 20. November 12, 2014 6 ZagazigUniversityZagazigUniversity Facultyof EngineeringFacultyof Engineering Water and waterWater and water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 66NovemberNovember 1212,, 20142014Lecture No.Lecture No. 22 ‫ﺣﺳﺐ‬‫ﺣﺳﺐ‬‫درﺠﺔ‬‫درﺠﺔ‬‫ﺸﻛﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﺸﻛﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬:: ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺮﺴﻣﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﺮﺴﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﻐﻴﺮ‬‫اﻠﻐﻴﺮ‬‫رﺴﻣﻴﺔ‬‫رﺴﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺳﺐ‬‫ﺣﺳﺐ‬‫ﺸﻛﻞ‬‫ﺸﻛﻞ‬‫اﻫﺎ‬‫ﺮ‬‫إﺧ‬‫اﻫﺎ‬‫ﺮ‬‫إﺧ‬ ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺷﻔﻬﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﺷﻔﻬﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ـﺘﻮﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ـﺘﻮﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺣﺳﺐ‬‫ﺣﺳﺐ‬‫اﻠﺟﻬﺔ‬‫اﻠﺟﻬﺔ‬‫اﻠﺼﺎدر‬‫اﻠﺼﺎدر‬‫اﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬‫اﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺪاﺧﻟﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﺪاﺧﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺨﺎرﺠﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﺨﺎرﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﻬﻨﺪﺴﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻬﻨﺪﺴﻴﺔ‬:: ‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬))‫ﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬‫ﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬‫ﻋﻗﺎر‬‫ﻋﻗﺎر‬--‫اﻧﻬﻴﺎر‬‫اﻧﻬﻴﺎر‬‫ﻤﻨﺷﺎ‬‫ﻤﻨﺷﺎ‬-- ‫ﺛﻴﺮ‬ ٔ‫ﺗﺎ‬‫ﺛﻴﺮ‬ ٔ‫ﺗﺎ‬‫ﺴﻴﻮل‬‫ﺴﻴﻮل‬--‫ات‬‫ر‬‫اﻧﻬﻴﺎ‬‫ات‬‫ر‬‫اﻧﻬﻴﺎ‬‫ﻃﺮق‬‫ﻃﺮق‬--‫ﺗﻗﻴﻴﻢ‬‫ﺗﻗﻴﻴﻢ‬‫ﺛﺮ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺛﺮ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺑﻴﺌﻲ‬‫ﺑﻴﺌﻲ‬(( ‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺗﺼﻣﻴﻢ‬‫ﺗﺼﻣﻴﻢ‬))ٔ‫ﻤﻨﺷﺎ‬ٔ‫ﻤﻨﺷﺎ‬‫ﺧﺮﺴﺎﻧﻲ‬‫ﺧﺮﺴﺎﻧﻲ‬--ٔ‫ﻤﻨﺷﺎ‬ٔ‫ﻤﻨﺷﺎ‬‫ﻤﻌﺪﻧﻲ‬‫ﻤﻌﺪﻧﻲ‬-- ‫ﺸﺒﻛﺎت‬‫ﺸﺒﻛﺎت‬‫ﺗﺮع‬‫ﺗﺮع‬‫وﻤﺼﺎرف‬‫وﻤﺼﺎرف‬--‫ﺧﻄﻮط‬‫ﺧﻄﻮط‬‫اﻤﺪاد‬‫اﻤﺪاد‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﻣﻴﺎة‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﻣﻴﺎة‬-- ‫ﻤﺤﻄﺎت‬‫ﻤﺤﻄﺎت‬‫ﺗﻨﻗﻴﺔ‬‫ﺗﻨﻗﻴﺔ‬‫ﻤﻴﺎة‬‫ﻤﻴﺎة‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻤﻌﺎﻠﺟﺔ‬‫ﻤﻌﺎﻠﺟﺔ‬‫ﺻﺮف‬‫ﺻﺮف‬‫ﺻﺤﻲ‬‫ﺻﺤﻲ‬(( ‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬‫ات‬‫ر‬‫اﺧﺘﺒﺎ‬‫ات‬‫ر‬‫اﺧﺘﺒﺎ‬))‫ﻤﻛﻌﺒﺎت‬‫ﻤﻛﻌﺒﺎت‬‫ﺧﺮﺴﺎﻧﺔ‬‫ﺧﺮﺴﺎﻧﺔ‬-- ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺎت‬‫ﻋﻴﻨﺎت‬‫دﻤﻚ‬‫دﻤﻚ‬‫ﺗﺮﺑﺔ‬‫ﺗﺮﺑﺔ‬--‫ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ‬‫ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ‬‫ﻤﻴﺎة‬‫ﻤﻴﺎة‬--‫ﺗﺮﺑﺔ‬‫ﺗﺮﺑﺔ‬((
  21. 21. November 12, 2014 7 ZagazigUniversityZagazigUniversity Facultyof EngineeringFacultyof Engineering Water and waterWater and water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 77NovemberNovember 1212,, 20142014Lecture No.Lecture No. 22 44. Objectives of Reports Writing. Objectives of Reports Writing ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻜ‬‫اﻫﺪاف‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻜ‬‫اﻫﺪاف‬:: ‫ﻌﺪ‬ ُ‫ﺗ‬‫ﻌﺪ‬ ُ‫ﺗ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫وﺴﻴﻟﺔ‬‫وﺴﻴﻟﺔ‬‫ﻓﻌﺎﻠﺔ‬‫ﻓﻌﺎﻠﺔ‬‫ﻠﻼﺗﺼﺎل‬‫ﻠﻼﺗﺼﺎل‬‫وﻧﻗﻞ‬‫وﻧﻗﻞ‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬‫اﻠﻣﺳﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬‫اﻠﻣﺳﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬‫اﻹدارﻳﺔ‬‫اﻹدارﻳﺔ‬‫ووﺣﺪات‬‫ووﺣﺪات‬‫اﻠﻨﺷﺎط‬‫اﻠﻨﺷﺎط‬ ‫اﻠﻣﺨﺘﻟﻔﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﺨﺘﻟﻔﺔ‬‫داﺧﻞ‬‫داﺧﻞ‬‫ة‬ ٔ‫اﻠﻣﻨﺷﺎ‬‫ة‬ ٔ‫اﻠﻣﻨﺷﺎ‬،،‫وﻤﻦ‬‫وﻤﻦ‬‫ﻫﻢ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻫﻢ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬‫ﻫﺪاف‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫ﻫﺪاف‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻳﻟﻲ‬‫ﻳﻟﻲ‬:: ‫ﻤﺳﺎﻋﺪة‬‫ﻤﺳﺎﻋﺪة‬‫اﻹدارة‬‫اﻹدارة‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ‬‫ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ‬‫اﻠﺤﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬‫اﻠﺤﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬‫واﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫واﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬.. ‫اﻹﺴﻬﺎم‬‫اﻹﺴﻬﺎم‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺣﻞ‬‫ﺣﻞ‬‫اﻠﻣﺷﻛﻼت‬‫اﻠﻣﺷﻛﻼت‬‫اﻠﻗﺎﺋﻣﺔ‬‫اﻠﻗﺎﺋﻣﺔ‬.. ‫اﻠﻌﻣﻞ‬‫اﻠﻌﻣﻞ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫زﻳﺎدة‬‫زﻳﺎدة‬‫ـﻔﺎءة‬‫ﻜ‬‫ـﻔﺎءة‬‫ﻜ‬‫اﻠﻌﺎﻤﻟﻴﻦ‬‫اﻠﻌﺎﻤﻟﻴﻦ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻠﻣﺆﺴﺳﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﺆﺴﺳﺔ‬.. ‫ﺗﺤﻟﻴﻞ‬‫ﺗﺤﻟﻴﻞ‬‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮة‬‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮة‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬.. ‫ﻋﺮض‬‫ﻋﺮض‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻠﺟﻨﺔ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬ ‫إدارة‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻘﺳﻢ‬‫ات‬‫ز‬‫إﻧﺟﺎ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻠﺟﻨﺔ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬ ‫إدارة‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻘﺳﻢ‬‫ات‬‫ز‬‫إﻧﺟﺎ‬‫اﻠﻟﺟﺎن‬‫اﻠﻟﺟﺎن‬.. ‫ﺗﺤﻟﻴﻞ‬‫ﺗﺤﻟﻴﻞ‬‫ﻤﻌﺮﻓﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻠﻣﻄﻟﻮب‬‫واﻠﺤﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬‫اﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬‫ﻤﻌﺮﻓﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻠﻣﻄﻟﻮب‬‫واﻠﺤﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬‫اﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ‬.. ‫ﺗ‬‫ﺗ‬‫ﺤﺮﻳﻚ‬‫ﺤﺮﻳﻚ‬‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫ﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬ ٓ‫اﻻ‬‫ﺴﻟﻮك‬‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫ﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬ ٓ‫اﻻ‬‫ﺴﻟﻮك‬‫اﻹﻘﻨﺎع‬‫اﻹﻘﻨﺎع‬.. ‫إرﺸﺎد‬‫إرﺸﺎد‬‫ﻻﺗﺨﺎذ‬‫اﻠﻣﺳﺌﻮﻠﻴﻦ‬‫ﻻﺗﺨﺎذ‬‫اﻠﻣﺳﺌﻮﻠﻴﻦ‬‫ات‬‫ر‬‫ا‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠﻗ‬‫ات‬‫ر‬‫ا‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠﻗ‬..
  22. 22. November 12, 2014 8 ZagazigUniversityZagazigUniversity Facultyof EngineeringFacultyof Engineering Water and waterWater and water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 88NovemberNovember 1212,, 20142014Lecture No.Lecture No. 22 ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻳﺤﺪث‬‫ﺑﻣﺎ‬‫واﻠﻌﻟﻢ‬‫اﻹﺣﺎﻃﺔ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻳﺤﺪث‬‫ﺑﻣﺎ‬‫واﻠﻌﻟﻢ‬‫اﻹﺣﺎﻃﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻨﻈﻣﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻨﻈﻣﺔ‬.. ‫ﺗﺤﻟﻴﻞ‬‫ﺗﺤﻟﻴﻞ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫واﻠﻀﻌﻒ‬‫اﻠﻗﻮة‬‫ﻤﻮاﻃﻦ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫واﻠﻀﻌﻒ‬‫اﻠﻗﻮة‬‫ﻤﻮاﻃﻦ‬‫اﻠﻣﻨﻈﻣﻪ‬‫اﻠﻣﻨﻈﻣﻪ‬.. ‫اﻠﺮد‬‫اﻠﺮد‬‫ﻓﻛﺎر‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬ ‫وﺗﻗﺪﻳﻢ‬‫اﻠﺘﺳﺎؤﻻت‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫ﻓﻛﺎر‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬ ‫وﺗﻗﺪﻳﻢ‬‫اﻠﺘﺳﺎؤﻻت‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫اﻠﺟﺪﻳﺪة‬‫اﻠﺟﺪﻳﺪة‬.. ‫ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ‬‫ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫اﻠﻣﺮﺠﻌﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﺮﺠﻌﻴﺔ‬.. ‫اﻠﺘﻨﺳﻴﻖ‬‫اﻠﺘﻨﺳﻴﻖ‬‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬‫اﻠﻣﺷﺮوﻋﺎت‬‫اﻠﻣﺷﺮوﻋﺎت‬.. ‫اﻠﺘﻮﺛﻴﻖ‬‫اﻠﺘﻮﺛﻴﻖ‬‫و‬‫و‬‫اﻠﺘﺳﺟﻴﻞ‬‫اﻠﺘﺳﺟﻴﻞ‬.. ‫إﺻﺪار‬‫إﺻﺪار‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻄﻴﺎت‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬ ً‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬‫ات‬‫ر‬‫ا‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠﻗ‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻄﻴﺎت‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬ ً‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬‫ات‬‫ر‬‫ا‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠﻗ‬‫اﻠﻣﻴﺪاﻧﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻴﺪاﻧﻴﺔ‬.. ‫إﻋﻄﺎء‬‫إﻋﻄﺎء‬‫ﻻزﻤﺔ‬‫إدارﻳﺔ‬‫ﻤﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫ﻻزﻤﺔ‬‫إدارﻳﺔ‬‫ﻤﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫ﻠﻟﻌﻣﻞ‬‫ﻠﻟﻌﻣﻞ‬.. ‫ﺗﻔﺳﻴﺮ‬‫ﺗﻔﺳﻴﺮ‬‫ﺑﻣﺳﺘﻗﺒﻞ‬‫ﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮة‬‫ﺑﻣﺳﺘﻗﺒﻞ‬‫ﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮة‬‫اﻠﻌﻣﻞ‬‫اﻠﻌﻣﻞ‬.. ‫ﻋﺮض‬‫ﻋﺮض‬‫ﻠﺘﺤﺳﻴﻦ‬‫ﺠﺪﻳﺪة‬‫ﻓﻛﺎر‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻠﺘﺤﺳﻴﻦ‬‫ﺠﺪﻳﺪة‬‫ﻓﻛﺎر‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﻌﻣﻞ‬‫اﻠﻌﻣﻞ‬.. ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻫﺪاف‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺗﺘﻟﺨﺺ‬‫و‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻫﺪاف‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺗﺘﻟﺨﺺ‬‫و‬))‫اﻠﺘﺒﻟﻴﻎ‬‫اﻠﺘﺒﻟﻴﻎ‬--‫ﺛﻴﺮ‬ ٔ‫اﻠﺘﺎ‬‫ﺛﻴﺮ‬ ٔ‫اﻠﺘﺎ‬--‫اﻹﻘﻨﺎع‬‫اﻹﻘﻨﺎع‬--‫اﻠﺘﻐﻴﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻐﻴﺮ‬.(.(
  23. 23. November 12, 2014 9 ZagazigUniversityZagazigUniversity Facultyof EngineeringFacultyof Engineering Water and waterWater and water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 99NovemberNovember 1212,, 20142014Lecture No.Lecture No. 22 55. Preparation Stages of Reports. Preparation Stages of Reports ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫إﻋﺪاد‬‫اﺣﻞ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫إﻋﺪاد‬‫اﺣﻞ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬:: ‫ﺑﻌﺎدﻫﺎ‬ ٔ‫وا‬‫اﻠﻣﺷﻛﻟﺔ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮع‬‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬‫ﺑﻌﺎدﻫﺎ‬ ٔ‫وا‬‫اﻠﻣﺷﻛﻟﺔ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮع‬‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬.. ‫إﻋﺪاد‬‫إﻋﺪاد‬‫ﻠﻟﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﻌﺎم‬‫اﻠﻬﻴﻛﻞ‬‫ﻠﻟﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﻌﺎم‬‫اﻠﻬﻴﻛﻞ‬.. ‫ﺠﻣﻊ‬‫ﺠﻣﻊ‬‫ﺗﻴﺒﻬﺎ‬‫ﺮ‬‫وﺗ‬‫وﺗﻨﻈﻴﻣﻬﺎ‬‫واﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫ﺗﻴﺒﻬﺎ‬‫ﺮ‬‫وﺗ‬‫وﺗﻨﻈﻴﻣﻬﺎ‬‫واﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬.. ‫ﺗﺤﻟﻴﻞ‬‫ﺗﺤﻟﻴﻞ‬‫اﻠﻣﺟﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫واﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫وﺗﻔﺳﻴﺮ‬‫اﻠﻣﺟﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫واﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫وﺗﻔﺳﻴﺮ‬.. ‫ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ‬‫ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻠﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬‫واﻻﻫﺘﻣﺎم‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻠﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬‫واﻻﻫﺘﻣﺎم‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬.. ‫اج‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﺧ‬‫اج‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﺧ‬‫اﻠﺷﻛﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻠﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬‫واﻻﻫﺘﻣﺎم‬‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺐ‬‫ﺑﺷﻛﻞ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺷﻛﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻠﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬‫واﻻﻫﺘﻣﺎم‬‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺐ‬‫ﺑﺷﻛﻞ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬.. ‫اﻠﻣﻗﺘﺮﺣﺎت‬‫وﺿﻊ‬‫اﻠﻣﻗﺘﺮﺣﺎت‬‫وﺿﻊ‬‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫ﺑﻨﺎءا‬‫واﻠﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎت‬‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫ﺑﻨﺎءا‬‫واﻠﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎت‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬..))‫ﺑﻌﻴﺪة‬‫ﺑﻌﻴﺪة‬‫واﻻﺠﺘﻬﺎدات‬ ‫اء‬‫ر‬ ٓ‫واﻻ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺤﻴﺎز‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫واﻻﺠﺘﻬﺎدات‬ ‫اء‬‫ر‬ ٓ‫واﻻ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺤﻴﺎز‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫اﻠﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬(( ‫ﺗﺘﻟﺨﺺ‬‫ﺗﺘﻟﺨﺺ‬‫ﺧﻄﻮات‬‫ﺧﻄﻮات‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﺣﻞ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬‫اﺣﻞ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬‫إﻋﺪاد‬‫إﻋﺪاد‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﻓﻴﻣﺎ‬‫ﻓﻴﻣﺎ‬‫ﻳﻟﻲ‬‫ﻳﻟﻲ‬::‫اﻹﻋﺪاد‬‫اﻹﻋﺪاد‬--‫اﻠﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬‫اﻠﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬‫واﻠﺒﻨﺎء‬‫واﻠﺒﻨﺎء‬‫اﻠﻬﻴﻛﻟﻲ‬‫اﻠﻬﻴﻛﻟﻲ‬-- ‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬--‫اﺠﻌﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠﻣ‬‫اﺠﻌﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠﻣ‬--‫اﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬‫اﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬‫اج‬‫ﺮ‬‫واﻹﺧ‬‫اج‬‫ﺮ‬‫واﻹﺧ‬‫اﻠﻌﺎم‬‫اﻠﻌﺎم‬‫ﻠﻟﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻠﻟﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬..
  24. 24. November 12, 2014 10 ZagazigUniversityZagazigUniversity Facultyof EngineeringFacultyof Engineering Water and waterWater and water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 1010NovemberNovember 1212,, 20142014Lecture No.Lecture No. 22 55. Reports Design. Reports Design ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺗﺼﻣﻴﻢ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺗﺼﻣﻴﻢ‬:: ‫ﻘﺪ‬‫ﻘﺪ‬‫ﻳﺨﺘﻟﻒ‬‫ﻳﺨﺘﻟﻒ‬‫ﺗﺼﻣﻴﻢ‬‫ﺗﺼﻣﻴﻢ‬‫ﺗﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﺗﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫ﺧﺮ‬ ٓ‫ا‬‫ﺧﺮ‬ ٓ‫ا‬‫ﻃﺒﻗﺎ‬‫ﻃﺒﻗﺎ‬‫ﻠﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬‫ﻠﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫وﻃﻮﻠﺔ‬‫وﻃﻮﻠﺔ‬‫وﻜﺬﻠﻚ‬‫وﻜﺬﻠﻚ‬‫ﻘﺪ‬‫ﻘﺪ‬‫ﻳﺨﺘﻟﻒ‬‫ﻳﺨﺘﻟﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻣﻴﻢ‬‫ﺗﺼﻣﻴﻢ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﺆﺴﺳﺔ‬‫ﻤﺆﺴﺳﺔ‬‫ﺧﺮي‬ ٔ‫ﻻ‬‫ﺧﺮي‬ ٔ‫ﻻ‬‫وﻤﻦ‬‫وﻤﻦ‬‫ﺠﻬﺔ‬‫ﺠﻬﺔ‬‫ﺧﺮي‬ ٔ‫ﻻ‬‫ﺧﺮي‬ ٔ‫ﻻ‬,,‫وﻠﻛﻦ‬‫وﻠﻛﻦ‬‫ﻫﻨﺎك‬‫ﻫﻨﺎك‬‫ﻋﺪة‬‫ﻋﺪة‬‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬‫ﺿﺮورﻳﺔ‬‫ﺿﺮورﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻠﺒﻨﺎء‬‫ﻠﺒﻨﺎء‬‫وﺗﺼﻣﻴﻢ‬‫وﺗﺼﻣﻴﻢ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫واﻠﺘﻲ‬‫واﻠﺘﻲ‬‫ﻳﻣﻛﻦ‬‫ﻳﻣﻛﻦ‬‫ان‬‫ان‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻳﺘﻮاﺠﺪ‬‫ﻳﺘﻮاﺠﺪ‬‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ‬‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬ ‫اﻠﻗﺼﻴﺮة‬‫اﻠﻗﺼﻴﺮة‬.. ‫ﺴﻮف‬‫ﺴﻮف‬‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬‫اﻠﺘﻌﺮض‬‫اﻠﺘﻌﺮض‬ً‫ﻻﺣﻗﺎ‬ً‫ﻻﺣﻗﺎ‬‫ﻠﺘﺼﻣﻴﻢ‬‫ﻠﺘﺼﻣﻴﻢ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺑﺷﺊ‬‫ﺑﺷﺊ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫اﻠﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ‬‫اﻠﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ‬‫واﻠﺟﺪﻳﺮ‬‫واﻠﺟﺪﻳﺮ‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﺬﻜﺮ‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﺬﻜﺮ‬‫ان‬‫ان‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬‫اﻠﻣﺆﺴﺳﺎت‬‫اﻠﻣﺆﺴﺳﺎت‬‫ﺗﺷﺘﺮط‬‫ﺗﺷﺘﺮط‬‫ﻤﺘﻄﻟﺒﺎت‬‫ﻤﺘﻄﻟﺒﺎت‬‫ﻤﺤﺪدة‬‫ﻤﺤﺪدة‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬..
  25. 25. November 12, 2014 11 ZagazigUniversityZagazigUniversity Facultyof EngineeringFacultyof Engineering Water and waterWater and water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 1111NovemberNovember 1212,, 20142014Lecture No. 2Lecture No. 2 66. Write Sentences in Reports. Write Sentences in Reports ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻠﺟﻣﻞ‬‫اﺴﺘﺨﺪام‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻠﺟﻣﻞ‬‫اﺴﺘﺨﺪام‬:: ‫ﻤﻨﻄﻗﻲ‬‫ﺗﺳﻟﺳﻞ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‬‫ﻠﻣﺎ‬‫وﻤﺆدﻳﺔ‬‫ﻘﺒﻟﻬﺎ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻤﻊ‬‫ﻤﺘﻛﺎﻤﻟﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻨﻲ‬‫وﺗﺎﻤﺔ‬‫ﺑﺳﻴﻄﺔ‬‫ﺠﻣﻞ‬‫ﻤﻨﻄﻗﻲ‬‫ﺗﺳﻟﺳﻞ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‬‫ﻠﻣﺎ‬‫وﻤﺆدﻳﺔ‬‫ﻘﺒﻟﻬﺎ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻤﻊ‬‫ﻤﺘﻛﺎﻤﻟﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻨﻲ‬‫وﺗﺎﻤﺔ‬‫ﺑﺳﻴﻄﺔ‬‫ﺠﻣﻞ‬.. ‫ﻤﺨﺘﺼﺮة‬‫ﻤﺨﺘﺼﺮة‬‫اﺿﻴﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻻﻋﺘ‬‫اﻠﺟﻣﻞ‬‫وﺗﺟﻨﺐ‬‫ﺿﺮورﻳﺔ‬‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬‫ﻜﻟﻣﺎت‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮي‬‫ﻻ‬‫واﺿﺤﺔ‬‫اﺿﻴﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻻﻋﺘ‬‫اﻠﺟﻣﻞ‬‫وﺗﺟﻨﺐ‬‫ﺿﺮورﻳﺔ‬‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬‫ﻜﻟﻣﺎت‬‫ﻋﻟﻲ‬‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮي‬‫ﻻ‬‫واﺿﺤﺔ‬.. ‫ﻠﻟﻣﺟﻬﻮل‬‫اﻠﻣﺒﻨﻲ‬‫اﺴﺘﺨﺪام‬‫ـﺜﺮة‬‫ﻜ‬‫وﺗﺟﻨﺐ‬‫واﻠﺘﻬﻮﻳﻞ‬‫اﻠﻣﺒﺎﻠﻐﺔ‬ ‫ات‬‫ر‬‫ﻋﺒﺎ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫ﺑﻌﻴﺪﻩ‬‫ﻠﻟﻣﺟﻬﻮل‬‫اﻠﻣﺒﻨﻲ‬‫اﺴﺘﺨﺪام‬‫ـﺜﺮة‬‫ﻜ‬‫وﺗﺟﻨﺐ‬‫واﻠﺘﻬﻮﻳﻞ‬‫اﻠﻣﺒﺎﻠﻐﺔ‬ ‫ات‬‫ر‬‫ﻋﺒﺎ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫ﺑﻌﻴﺪﻩ‬.. ‫وﺗﻮارﻳﺦ‬‫واﺴﻣﺎء‬‫ارﻘﺎم‬ ‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻳﺔ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﺻﺤﺔ‬‫وﺗﻮارﻳﺦ‬‫واﺴﻣﺎء‬‫ارﻘﺎم‬ ‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻳﺔ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﺻﺤﺔ‬.. ‫ﺻﻟﻲ‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻃﻮل‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬‫اﻠﻣﻟﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﺴﺐ‬‫ﺻﻟﻲ‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻃﻮل‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬‫اﻠﻣﻟﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﺴﺐ‬.. ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اء‬‫ﺰ‬‫ﺠ‬ ٔ‫ا‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬‫اﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻮﺣﺪة‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اء‬‫ﺰ‬‫ﺠ‬ ٔ‫ا‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬‫اﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻮﺣﺪة‬.. ‫واﻠﺘﻨﺎول‬‫اﻠﺤﺟﻢ‬‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬‫اﺗﻣﻦ‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠﻔﻗ‬‫اء‬‫ﺰ‬‫ﺠ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬‫اﻠﻨﺳﺒﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻮازن‬‫واﻠﺘﻨﺎول‬‫اﻠﺤﺟﻢ‬‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬‫اﺗﻣﻦ‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻠﻔﻗ‬‫اء‬‫ﺰ‬‫ﺠ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬‫اﻠﻨﺳﺒﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻮازن‬.. ‫اﻠﻄﻮل‬‫ﻤﺘﻮﺴﻄﺔ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ات‬‫ر‬‫ﻋﺒﺎ‬‫اﻠﻄﻮل‬‫ﻤﺘﻮﺴﻄﺔ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ات‬‫ر‬‫ﻋﺒﺎ‬.. ‫واﻠﻐﻣﻮض‬‫اﻠﺘﻌﻗﻴﺪ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﺧﺎﻠﻴﺔ‬‫ﻓﺼﻴﺤﺔ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬‫اﻠﻔﺎظ‬‫واﻠﻐﻣﻮض‬‫اﻠﺘﻌﻗﻴﺪ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﺧﺎﻠﻴﺔ‬‫ﻓﺼﻴﺤﺔ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬‫اﻠﻔﺎظ‬.. ‫اﻠﻌﻟﻣﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﺼﻄﻟﺤﺎت‬‫وﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬‫واﺿﺤﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻠﻔﺎظ‬ ‫دﻻﻻت‬‫اﻠﻌﻟﻣﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﺼﻄﻟﺤﺎت‬‫وﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬‫واﺿﺤﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻠﻔﺎظ‬ ‫دﻻﻻت‬..
  26. 26. November 12, 2014 12 ZagazigUniversityZagazigUniversity Facultyof EngineeringFacultyof Engineering Water and waterWater and water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 1212NovemberNovember 1212,, 20142014Lecture No.Lecture No. 22 ‫ﺧﻄﻮات‬‫ﺧﻄﻮات‬‫اﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‬‫اﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻠﻟ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻠﻟ‬::‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬‫اﻠﻬﺪف‬‫اﻠﻬﺪف‬ ‫ﻳﺟﺐ‬‫ﻳﺟﺐ‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻳﻛﻮن‬‫ﻳﻛﻮن‬‫اﻠﻛﺎﺗﺐ‬‫اﻠﻛﺎﺗﺐ‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ﻘﺎد‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ﻘﺎد‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬‫اﻠﻬﺪف‬‫اﻠﻬﺪف‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﻴﺎ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﻴﺎ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﺑﺟﻣﻟﺔ‬‫ﺑﺟﻣﻟﺔ‬‫ﻤﺤﺪدة‬‫ﻤﺤﺪدة‬..‫وﻳﺟﺐ‬‫وﻳﺟﺐ‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ـﺘﺐ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ـﺘﺐ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻳ‬‫اﻠﻬﺪف‬‫اﻠﻬﺪف‬‫ﺑﻮﺿﻮح‬‫ﺑﻮﺿﻮح‬ ‫ﺗﺎم‬‫ﺗﺎم‬‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬‫ﻳﺳﺎﻋﺪ‬‫ﻳﺳﺎﻋﺪ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫اﻠﺳﻴﻄﺮة‬‫اﻠﺳﻴﻄﺮة‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ـﺘﺐ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ـﺘﺐ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻳ‬‫وﻋﺪم‬‫وﻋﺪم‬‫اﻠﺘﻮﺴﻊ‬‫اﻠﺘﻮﺴﻊ‬‫اﻠﻐﻴﺮ‬‫اﻠﻐﻴﺮ‬‫ﻤﺮﻏﻮب‬‫ﻤﺮﻏﻮب‬،‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬،‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬‫واﻠﺬي‬‫واﻠﺬي‬‫ﻘﺪ‬‫ﻘﺪ‬‫ﻳﺆدي‬‫ﻳﺆدي‬‫ﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ‬ ٔ‫ا‬ ‫إﻠﻰ‬‫إﻠﻰ‬‫ﺗﺷﻌﺒﺎت‬‫ﺗﺷﻌﺒﺎت‬‫وإﺧﻼل‬‫وإﺧﻼل‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﻣﻌﻨﻰ‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﻣﻌﻨﻰ‬‫اﻠﺬي‬‫اﻠﺬي‬‫ﻳﺮﻳﺪﻩ‬‫ﻳﺮﻳﺪﻩ‬‫اﻠﻛﺎﺗﺐ‬‫اﻠﻛﺎﺗﺐ‬.. ‫ﺧﻄﻮات‬‫ﺧﻄﻮات‬‫اﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‬‫اﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻠﻟ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻠﻟ‬::‫اﻠﺘﻌﺮف‬‫اﻠﺘﻌﺮف‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫اﻠﻗﺎرئ‬‫اﻠﻗﺎرئ‬))‫اﻠﻣﺳﺘﻗﺒﻞ‬‫اﻠﻣﺳﺘﻗﺒﻞ‬(( ‫واﻫﺘﻣﺎﻤﺎت‬ ‫وﺸﻌﻮر‬‫ﻤﻴﻮل‬‫ﻠﺪﻳﻬﻢ‬‫ﻤﺜﻟﻨﺎ‬‫ﺸﺨﺎص‬ ٔ‫ﻻ‬‫ـﺘﺐ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻧ‬ ‫ﻧﻨﺎ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻧﺪرك‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻳﺟﺐ‬‫واﻫﺘﻣﺎﻤﺎت‬ ‫وﺸﻌﻮر‬‫ﻤﻴﻮل‬‫ﻠﺪﻳﻬﻢ‬‫ﻤﺜﻟﻨﺎ‬‫ﺸﺨﺎص‬ ٔ‫ﻻ‬‫ـﺘﺐ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻧ‬ ‫ﻧﻨﺎ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻧﺪرك‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻳﺟﺐ‬.. ‫اﺣﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺗﻬﻢ‬‫اﺣﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺗﻬﻢ‬..‫اﻫﺘﻣﺎﻤﺎﺗﻬﻢ‬‫اﻫﺘﻣﺎﻤﺎﺗﻬﻢ‬..‫ﺑﺎﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮع‬‫إﻠﻣﺎﻤﻬﻢ‬‫وﻤﺪى‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮع‬‫إﻠﻣﺎﻤﻬﻢ‬‫وﻤﺪى‬.. ‫ﻠﻟﻣﻮﺿﻮع‬ ‫اﻠﻗﺎرئ‬‫ﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬‫ﺑﺪرﺠﺔ‬‫ﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﺤﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬‫ﻤﺪﻋﻣﺔ‬‫ـﺘﻮﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠﻣ‬‫اﻠﻣﺎدة‬‫ﺗﻛﻮن‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻳﺟﺐ‬‫ﻠﻟﻣﻮﺿﻮع‬ ‫اﻠﻗﺎرئ‬‫ﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬‫ﺑﺪرﺠﺔ‬‫ﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﺤﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬‫ﻤﺪﻋﻣﺔ‬‫ـﺘﻮﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠﻣ‬‫اﻠﻣﺎدة‬‫ﺗﻛﻮن‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻳﺟﺐ‬.. ‫ﻋﺮض‬‫إﻠﻰ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻤﻌﺪ‬‫ﻳﺤﺘﺎج‬‫ﻘﺪ‬‫ﻋﺮض‬‫إﻠﻰ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻤﻌﺪ‬‫ﻳﺤﺘﺎج‬‫ﻘﺪ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬‫ﻠﺟﻨﺔ‬‫ﻤﺎم‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻃﻟﺐ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﺎم‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬‫ﻠﺟﻨﺔ‬‫ﻤﺎم‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻃﻟﺐ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﺎم‬ ٔ‫ا‬:: ‫ﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬ ٓ‫اﻻ‬‫إﻠﻰ‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺔ‬‫ﻠﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ‬‫اﻠﻣﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬‫اﻠﻮﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻋﺪد‬‫اﺴﺘﺨﺪام‬‫ﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬ ٓ‫اﻻ‬‫إﻠﻰ‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺔ‬‫ﻠﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ‬‫اﻠﻣﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬‫اﻠﻮﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻋﺪد‬‫اﺴﺘﺨﺪام‬.. ‫ﺑﺷﻛﻞ‬ ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺮض‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻳﺘﻣﻛﻦ‬‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻠﻟﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﺘﻟﻗﻴﻦ‬‫ﻋﻗﻟﻴﺎت‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫اﻠﺘﻌﺮف‬‫ﺑﺷﻛﻞ‬ ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺮض‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻳﺘﻣﻛﻦ‬‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻠﻟﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﺘﻟﻗﻴﻦ‬‫ﻋﻗﻟﻴﺎت‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫اﻠﺘﻌﺮف‬‫ﻓﻌﺎل‬‫ﻓﻌﺎل‬..
  27. 27. November 12, 2014 13 ZagazigUniversityZagazigUniversity Facultyof EngineeringFacultyof Engineering Water and waterWater and water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 1313NovemberNovember 1212,, 20142014Lecture No.Lecture No. 22 ‫ﺧﻄﻮات‬‫ﺧﻄﻮات‬‫اﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‬‫اﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻠﻟ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻠﻟ‬::‫ﺗﻴﺐ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺗ‬‫ﺗﻴﺐ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺗ‬‫اﻠﻣﺤﺘﻮي‬‫اﻠﻣﺤﺘﻮي‬ ‫ﺗﻴﺐ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺗ‬‫ﺗﻴﺐ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺗ‬‫ﻓﻛﺎر‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫ﻓﻛﺎر‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬,,‫اﻠﺘﺳﻟﺳﻞ‬‫اﻠﺘﺳﻟﺳﻞ‬‫اﻠﻣﻨﻄﻗﻲ‬‫اﻠﻣﻨﻄﻗﻲ‬,,‫ﺋﺔ‬‫ﺰ‬‫ﺗﺟ‬‫ﺋﺔ‬‫ﺰ‬‫ﺗﺟ‬‫اﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮع‬‫اﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮع‬‫إﻠﻰ‬‫إﻠﻰ‬،‫ات‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻓﻗ‬،‫ات‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻓﻗ‬‫ﻜﻞ‬‫ﻜﻞ‬‫ﻓﻗﺮة‬‫ﻓﻗﺮة‬‫ﺗﻨﻔﺮد‬‫ﺗﻨﻔﺮد‬‫ﺑﻔﻛﺮة‬‫ﺑﻔﻛﺮة‬،‫ﻤﺤﺪدة‬،‫ﻤﺤﺪدة‬‫وﻜﻞ‬‫وﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻗﺮة‬‫ﻓﻗﺮة‬‫ﺋﺔ‬‫ﺰ‬‫ﻤﺟ‬‫ﺋﺔ‬‫ﺰ‬‫ﻤﺟ‬‫إﻠﻰ‬‫إﻠﻰ‬‫ﺠﻣﻞ‬‫ﺠﻣﻞ‬‫ﻤﻔﻴﺪة‬‫ﻤﻔﻴﺪة‬..‫وﻠﺘﺳﻬﻴﻞ‬‫وﻠﺘﺳﻬﻴﻞ‬‫ﻓﻬﻢ‬‫ﻓﻬﻢ‬‫اﻠﻗﺎرئ‬‫اﻠﻗﺎرئ‬،‫ﻠﻟﺟﻣﻟﺔ‬،‫ﻠﻟﺟﻣﻟﺔ‬‫ﻳﺟﺐ‬‫ﻳﺟﺐ‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺗﻛﻮن‬‫ﺗﻛﻮن‬‫اﻠﺟﻣﻟﺔ‬‫اﻠﺟﻣﻟﺔ‬‫ﻘﺼﻴﺮة‬‫ﻘﺼﻴﺮة‬‫وﻤﻔﻴﺪة‬‫وﻤﻔﻴﺪة‬..‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻠﺔ‬‫ﺣﺎﻠﺔ‬‫اﺴﺘﺨﺪام‬‫اﺴﺘﺨﺪام‬‫ﺠﻣﻟﺔ‬‫ﺠﻣﻟﺔ‬،‫ﻃﻮﻳﻟﺔ‬،‫ﻃﻮﻳﻟﺔ‬‫ﻳﺟﺐ‬‫ﻳﺟﺐ‬‫اﺴﺘﺨﺪام‬‫اﺴﺘﺨﺪام‬‫ﻋﻼﻤﺎت‬‫ﻋﻼﻤﺎت‬‫اﻠﺘﺮﻘﻴﻢ‬‫اﻠﺘﺮﻘﻴﻢ‬‫ﻜﺎﻠﻨﻗﻄﺔ‬‫ﻜﺎﻠﻨﻗﻄﺔ‬‫واﻠﻔﺎﺻﻟﺔ‬‫واﻠﻔﺎﺻﻟﺔ‬‫ﻤﺜﻼ‬‫ﻤﺜﻼ‬‫ﺑﺷﻛﻞ‬‫ﺑﺷﻛﻞ‬‫ﺴﻟﻴﻢ‬‫ﺴﻟﻴﻢ‬.. ‫اﻻﻫﺘﻣﺎم‬‫اﻻﻫﺘﻣﺎم‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﻨﺎﺣﻴﺘﻴﻦ‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﻨﺎﺣﻴﺘﻴﻦ‬‫اﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬‫واﻠﺷﻛﻟﻴﺔ‬‫واﻠﺷﻛﻟﻴﺔ‬‫ﻠﻟﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻠﻟﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬.. ‫اﻠﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬‫واﻠﺷﻛﻟﻴﺔ‬‫واﻠﺷﻛﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬‫ﻠﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬‫ﻠﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﺷﻛﻟﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﺷﻛﻟﻴﺔ‬::‫اﻠﻮرق‬‫اﻠﻮرق‬‫اﻠﻣﺳﺘﺨﺪم‬‫اﻠﻣﺳﺘﺨﺪم‬,,‫اﻠﻬﻮاﻤﺶ‬‫اﻠﻬﻮاﻤﺶ‬‫واﻠﻣﺳﺎﻓﺎت‬‫واﻠﻣﺳﺎﻓﺎت‬,,‫ﺑﻨﻂ‬‫ﺑﻨﻂ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻠ‬.. ‫اﻠﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬::‫اﻠﻮﺿﻮح‬‫اﻠﻮﺿﻮح‬,,‫اﻠﺪﻘﺔ‬‫اﻠﺪﻘﺔ‬,,‫اﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎر‬‫اﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎر‬,,‫اﻠﻟﻄﺎﻓﺔ‬‫اﻠﻟﻄﺎﻓﺔ‬,,‫اﻠﺘﺤﻴﺰ‬‫ﻋﺪم‬‫اﻠﺘﺤﻴﺰ‬‫ﻋﺪم‬..
  28. 28. November 12, 2014 14 ZagazigUniversityZagazigUniversity Facultyof EngineeringFacultyof Engineering Water and waterWater and water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 1414NovemberNovember 1212,, 20142014Lecture No.Lecture No. 22 ThanksThanks QuestionsQuestions ????????
  29. 29. November 12, 2014 1 ZagazigUniversityZagazigUniversity Facultyof EngineeringFacultyof Engineering Water and waterWater and water structures Engstructures Eng..DepartmentDepartment 11November12, 2014November12, 2014Lecture No.Lecture No. 22 ByBy Prof. Dr.Prof. Dr. Magdy MowafyMagdy Mowafy Dr.Dr. ElEl--Sayed MukhtarSayed Mukhtar TECHNICAL REPORTS WRITINGTECHNICAL REPORTS WRITING
  30. 30. November 12, 2014 2 ZagazigUniversityZagazigUniversity Facultyof EngineeringFacultyof Engineering Water and waterWater and water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 22NovemberNovember 1212,, 20142014Lecture No.Lecture No. 22 OutlineOutline 11. Report Design. Report Design 1.1. CoverCover 2.2. Title PageTitle Page 3.3. Abstract or SummaryAbstract or Summary 4.4. Table of contentsTable of contents 5.5. List of FiguresList of Figures 6.6. List of TablesList of Tables 7.7. List of Symbols or AbbreviationList of Symbols or Abbreviation
  31. 31. November 12, 2014 3 ZagazigUniversityZagazigUniversity Facultyof EngineeringFacultyof Engineering Water and waterWater and water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 33NovemberNovember 1212,, 20142014Lecture No.Lecture No. 22 ‫اﻠﻌﻨﻮان‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﻮان‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬Title PageTitle Page ‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﻮان‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﻮان‬‫ﻫﻲ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬‫ول‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ول‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺎت‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺎت‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫وﻫﺬﻩ‬‫وﻫﺬﻩ‬‫اﻠﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬‫اﻠﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬‫ﺗﻣﻛﻨﻨﺎ‬‫ﺗﻣﻛﻨﻨﺎ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬‫ﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬‫ﻤﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫ﻤﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫ﺑﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬‫ﺑﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬.. ‫ﻠﺬﻠﻚ‬‫ﻠﺬﻠﻚ‬‫ﻓﺈن‬‫ﻓﺈن‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﻮان‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﻮان‬‫ﻻﺑﺪ‬‫ﻻﺑﺪ‬‫وان‬‫وان‬‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮي‬‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮي‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬:: ¥¥‫ا‬‫ا‬‫ﺴﻢ‬‫ﺴﻢ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬––‫اﺧﺘﺮ‬‫اﺧﺘﺮ‬‫اﺴﻢ‬‫اﺴﻢ‬‫واﺿﺢ‬‫واﺿﺢ‬‫وﻤﻌﺒﺮ‬‫وﻤﻌﺒﺮ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫ﻤﺤﺘﻮى‬‫ﻤﺤﺘﻮى‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬.. ¥¥‫اﺴ‬‫اﺴ‬‫ﻢ‬‫ﻢ‬‫ﻌﺪ‬ ُ‫ﻤ‬‫ﻌﺪ‬ ُ‫ﻤ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬.. ¥¥‫و‬‫و‬‫ﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬‫ﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬‫ﻌﺪ‬ ُ‫ﻤ‬‫ﻌﺪ‬ ُ‫ﻤ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻤﺜﻞ‬‫ﻤﺜﻞ‬‫ﻃﺎﻠﺐ‬‫ﻃﺎﻠﺐ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻠﺳﻨﺔ‬‫اﻠﺳﻨﺔ‬‫وﻠﻰ‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫وﻠﻰ‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻤﻬﻨﺪس‬‫ﻤﻬﻨﺪس‬‫ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ‬‫ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻤﺪﻳﺮ‬‫ﻤﺪﻳﺮ‬‫ﻤﺼﻨﻊ‬‫ﻤﺼﻨﻊ‬..‫اﻠﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬‫اﻠﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬‫ﺗﻮﺿﻊ‬‫ﺗﻮﺿﻊ‬‫ﺴﻔﻞ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺴﻔﻞ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﺴﻢ‬‫اﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﻌﺪ‬ ُ‫ﻤ‬‫ﻌﺪ‬ ُ‫ﻤ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬ ¥¥‫اﺴﻢ‬‫اﺴﻢ‬‫اﻠﻣﺆﺴﺳﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﺆﺴﺳﺔ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺟﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬‫اﻠﺟﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫ﺻﺪر‬‫ﺻﺪر‬‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬‫ﻫﺬا‬‫ﻫﺬا‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫ﻳﻨﺘﻣﻲ‬‫ﻳﻨﺘﻣﻲ‬‫إﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬‫إﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬‫ﻌﺪ‬ ُ‫ﻤ‬‫ﻌﺪ‬ ُ‫ﻤ‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬..‫اﺴﻢ‬‫اﺴﻢ‬‫اﻠﻣﺆﺴﺳﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﺆﺴﺳﺔ‬‫ﻘﺪ‬‫ﻘﺪ‬‫ﻳﻛﻮن‬‫ﻳﻛﻮن‬ ‫ﻤﻛﻮن‬‫ﻤﻛﻮن‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻳﻦ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺰ‬‫ﺠ‬‫ﻳﻦ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺰ‬‫ﺠ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻋﺪة‬‫ﻋﺪة‬‫اء‬‫ﺰ‬‫ﺠ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اء‬‫ﺰ‬‫ﺠ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻤﺜﻞ‬‫ﻤﺜﻞ‬‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬‫ﻜﺬا‬‫ﻜﺬا‬--‫ﻘﺳﻢ‬‫ﻘﺳﻢ‬‫ﻜﺬا‬‫ﻜﺬا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺸﺮﻜﺔ‬‫ﺸﺮﻜﺔ‬‫ﻜﺬا‬‫ﻜﺬا‬--‫إدارة‬‫إدارة‬‫ﻜﺬا‬‫ﻜﺬا‬ 11. Report Design. Report Design
  32. 32. November 12, 2014 4 ZagazigUniversityZagazigUniversity Facultyof EngineeringFacultyof Engineering Water and waterWater and water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 44NovemberNovember 1212,, 20142014Lecture No.Lecture No. 22 ¥¥‫اﺴﻢ‬‫اﺴﻢ‬‫اﻠﺟﻬﺔ‬‫اﻠﺟﻬﺔ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺴﺘﺎذ‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫ﺴﺘﺎذ‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫اﻠﺬي‬‫اﻠﺬي‬‫ﺴﻴﻗﺪم‬‫ﺴﻴﻗﺪم‬‫ﻠﻪ‬‫ﻠﻪ‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬––‫ﺗﺳﺘﺨﺪم‬‫ﺗﺳﺘﺨﺪم‬ً‫ا‬‫ﺮ‬‫ـﺜﻴ‬‫ﻜ‬ً‫ا‬‫ﺮ‬‫ـﺜﻴ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﺴﻴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻠﺪ‬‫اﺴﻴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻠﺪ‬‫ﺳﺘﺨﺪم‬ ُ‫وﺗ‬‫ﺳﺘﺨﺪم‬ ُ‫وﺗ‬‫ﺑﺷﻛﻞ‬‫ﺑﺷﻛﻞ‬‫ﻘﻞ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻘﻞ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﻌﻣﻞ‬‫اﻠﻌﻣﻞ‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ﻻ‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ﻻ‬ً‫ا‬‫ﺮ‬‫ـﺜﻴ‬‫ﻜ‬ً‫ا‬‫ﺮ‬‫ـﺜﻴ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﻌﻣﻞ‬‫اﻠﻌﻣﻞ‬‫اﻠﺪاﺧﻟﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﺪاﺧﻟﻴﺔ‬‫ﺗﻛﻮن‬‫ﺗﻛﻮن‬‫ﻤﻮﺠﻬﺔ‬‫ﻤﻮﺠﻬﺔ‬‫ـﺜﺮ‬‫ﻜ‬ ٔ‫ﻻ‬‫ـﺜﺮ‬‫ﻜ‬ ٔ‫ﻻ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﺪﻳﺮ‬‫ﻤﺪﻳﺮ‬‫ـﺜﺮ‬‫ﻜ‬ ٔ‫وا‬‫ـﺜﺮ‬‫ﻜ‬ ٔ‫وا‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫إدارة‬‫إدارة‬.. ¥¥‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ‬‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ‬‫إﺻﺪار‬‫إﺻﺪار‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬.. ‫ﻻﺣﻆ‬‫ﻻﺣﻆ‬:: ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﺴﻴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻠﺪ‬‫اﺴﻴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻠﺪ‬‫ﻘﺪ‬‫ﻘﺪ‬‫ﻳﻀﺎف‬‫ﻳﻀﺎف‬‫اﺴﻢ‬‫اﺴﻢ‬‫اﻠﻣﺎدة‬‫اﻠﻣﺎدة‬‫اﺴﻴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻠﺪ‬‫اﺴﻴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻠﺪ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺪرﺠﺔ‬‫اﻠﺪرﺠﺔ‬‫اﻠﻌﻟﻣﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻌﻟﻣﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬‫ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ا‬ ً‫ﺠﺰء‬‫ا‬ ً‫ﺠﺰء‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﺘﻄﻟﺒﺎﺗﻬﺎ‬‫ﻤﺘﻄﻟﺒﺎﺗﻬﺎ‬.. ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﻌﻣﻞ‬‫اﻠﻌﻣﻞ‬‫ﻘﺪ‬‫ﻘﺪ‬‫ﻳﻀﺎف‬‫ﻳﻀﺎف‬‫ﻘﺎﺋﻣﺔ‬‫ﻘﺎﺋﻣﺔ‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﺟﻬﺎت‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﺟﻬﺎت‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺸﺨﺎص‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫ﺸﺨﺎص‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫اﻠﺬﻳﻦ‬‫اﻠﺬﻳﻦ‬‫ﺴﻴﺘﻢ‬‫ﺴﻴﺘﻢ‬‫إرﺴﺎل‬‫إرﺴﺎل‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻠﻬﻢ‬‫ﻠﻬﻢ‬‫وﻘﺪ‬‫وﻘﺪ‬‫ﻳﻀﺎف‬‫ﻳﻀﺎف‬‫ﻜﺬﻠﻚ‬‫ﻜﺬﻠﻚ‬‫رﻘﻢ‬‫رﻘﻢ‬‫ﻜﻮدي‬‫ﻜﻮدي‬‫ﻠﻟﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻠﻟﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫و‬‫و‬ ‫ﻘﺪ‬‫ﻘﺪ‬‫ﻳﻮﺿﻊ‬‫ﻳﻮﺿﻊ‬‫اﻠﻣﻟﺨﺺ‬‫اﻠﻣﻟﺨﺺ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻲ‬‫ﻲ‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﻮان‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﻮان‬.. ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ٍ‫ـﺜﻴﺮ‬‫ﻜ‬ٍ‫ـﺜﻴﺮ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ﺗﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﻌﻣﻞ‬‫اﻠﻌﻣﻞ‬‫اﻠﻗﺼﻴﺮة‬‫اﻠﻗﺼﻴﺮة‬--‫ي‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ي‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﻣﻛﻮﻧﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻛﻮﻧﺔ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺘﻴﻦ‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺘﻴﻦ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺛﻼث‬‫ﺛﻼث‬––‫ﻻ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻳﻮﺿﻊ‬‫ﻳﻮﺿﻊ‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬‫ﻠﻟﻌﻨﻮان‬‫ﻠﻟﻌﻨﻮان‬‫وإﻧﻣﺎ‬‫وإﻧﻣﺎ‬‫ﺗﻮﺿﻊ‬‫ﺗﻮﺿﻊ‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫اﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬‫اﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬‫اﻠﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬‫وﻠﻰ‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫وﻠﻰ‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬.. ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬‫ﻤﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﻮان‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﻮان‬‫ﻻﺑﺪ‬‫ﻻﺑﺪ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫وﺠﻮدﻫﺎ‬‫وﺠﻮدﻫﺎ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ي‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ي‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺗﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﺗﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﺴﻮاء‬‫ﺴﻮاء‬‫وﺿﻌﺖ‬‫وﺿﻌﺖ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬‫ﻤﺳﺘﻗﻟﺔ‬‫ﻤﺳﺘﻗﻟﺔ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻠﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬‫اﻠﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬‫وﻠﻰ‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫وﻠﻰ‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬..‫ﻜ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﺬ‬‫ﺬ‬‫ﻠﻚ‬‫ﻠﻚ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻠﺔ‬‫ﺣﺎﻠﺔ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺎرﻳﺮ‬‫ـﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻹﻠ‬‫ـﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺔ‬‫ﻛ‬‫اﻹﻠ‬..
  33. 33. November 12, 2014 5 ZagazigUniversityZagazigUniversity Facultyof EngineeringFacultyof Engineering Water and waterWater and water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 55NovemberNovember 1212,, 20142014Lecture No.Lecture No. 22 ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬…….... ‫اﻠﻬﻨﺪﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻟﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻬﻨﺪﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻠﻣﻴﻛﺎﻧﻴﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻠﻬﻨﺪﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻘﺳﻢ‬‫اﻠﻣﻴﻛﺎﻧﻴﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻠﻬﻨﺪﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻘﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺴﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫اﻠﻣﺮﻜﺰﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻠﻄﺎردة‬ ‫اﻠﻣﻀﺨﺎت‬‫اوح‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫اﻠﻣﺆﺛﺮة‬ ‫اﻠﻗﻮى‬ ‫اﺴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫د‬‫ﺑﺎﺴﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫اﻠﻣﺮﻜﺰﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻠﻄﺎردة‬ ‫اﻠﻣﻀﺨﺎت‬‫اوح‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬‫اﻠﻣﺆﺛﺮة‬ ‫اﻠﻗﻮى‬ ‫اﺴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫د‬ ‫اﻠﺮﻘﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻠﻣﻮاﺋﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﻛﺎﻧﻴﻛﺎ‬‫اﻠﺮﻘﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻠﻣﻮاﺋﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﻛﺎﻧﻴﻛﺎ‬ ‫إﻋﺪاد‬‫إﻋﺪاد‬ ‫ﺣﻣﺪ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻤﺤﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻤﺢ‬‫ﺣﻣﺪ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻤﺤﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫إﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻗﺪم‬ ‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻫﺬا‬‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫إﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻗﺪم‬ ‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻫﺬا‬......‫درﺠﺔ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻠﺤﺼﻮل‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻄﻟﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻜﺟﺰء‬‫درﺠﺔ‬‫ﻋﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻠﺤﺼﻮل‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻄﻟﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻜﺟﺰء‬ ‫اﻠﻬﻨﺪﺴﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻌﻟﻮم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻠﻣﺎﺠﺳﺘﻴﺮ‬‫اﻠﻬﻨﺪﺴﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻌﻟﻮم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻠﻣﺎﺠﺳﺘﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ‬‫ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ‬20032003 ‫ﺸﺮﻜﺔ‬‫ﺸﺮﻜﺔ‬……………… ‫واﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‬ ‫اﻠﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫إدارة‬‫واﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‬ ‫اﻠﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫إدارة‬––‫اﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‬‫ﻘﺳﻢ‬‫اﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‬‫ﻘﺳﻢ‬ ‫اﻠﻌﻣﻼء‬ ‫ﺸﻛﺎوى‬‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫اﻠﺘﻌﺎﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫اﺴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫د‬‫اﻠﻌﻣﻼء‬ ‫ﺸﻛﺎوى‬‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫اﻠﺘﻌﺎﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫اﺴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫د‬ ‫إﻋﺪاد‬‫إﻋﺪاد‬:: ‫ﻤﺤﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻤﺢ‬‫ﻤﺤﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺳﻦ‬‫ﻓﺮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺳﻦ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻣﺪ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺴﺎﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻣﺪ‬ ٔ‫ا‬ ‫اﻠﻣﻟﺨﺺ‬‫اﻠﻣﻟﺨﺺ‬::‫ﻫﺬا‬‫ﻫﺬا‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻳﻮﺿﺢ‬‫ﻳﻮﺿﺢ‬‫اﺣﺎت‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻻﻘﺘ‬‫اﺣﺎت‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻻﻘﺘ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫ﺗﻢ‬‫ﺗﻢ‬‫اﻠﺘﻮﺻﻞ‬‫اﻠﺘﻮﺻﻞ‬‫إﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬‫إﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬‫ﻠﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻠﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬‫اﻠﺘﻌﺎﻤﻞ‬‫اﻠﺘﻌﺎﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬‫ﻤﻊ‬‫ﺸﻛﺎوى‬‫ﺸﻛﺎوى‬‫اﻠﻌﻣﻼء‬‫اﻠﻌﻣﻼء‬‫واﻠﺬي‬‫واﻠﺬي‬‫ﺗﻛﺮرت‬‫ﺗﻛﺮرت‬‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬‫ﻋﺪة‬‫ﻋﺪة‬‫ﻤﺷﺎﻜﻞ‬‫ﻤﺷﺎﻜﻞ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫وﻧﺔ‬ ٓ‫اﻻ‬‫وﻧﺔ‬ ٓ‫اﻻ‬‫ﺧﻴﺮة‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫ﺧﻴﺮة‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬..‫ﺗﻮﺻﻲ‬‫ﺗﻮﺻﻲ‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫اﺴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻠﺪ‬‫اﺴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻠﺪ‬‫ﺑﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬‫ﺑﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬‫ﺣﺪ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺣﺪ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﺣﻴﻦ‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻘﺘ‬‫اﺣﻴﻦ‬‫ﺮ‬‫اﻘﺘ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻜﻼﻫﻣﺎ‬‫ﻜﻼﻫﻣﺎ‬::‫ول‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫ول‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬--‫إﻧﺷﺎء‬‫إﻧﺷﺎء‬‫ﻤﺮﻜﺰ‬‫ﻤﺮﻜﺰ‬‫ﻠﺘﻟﻗﻲ‬‫ﻠﺘﻟﻗﻲ‬‫ﺸﻛﺎوى‬‫ﺸﻛﺎوى‬‫اﻠﻌﻣﻼء‬‫اﻠﻌﻣﻼء‬ ‫واﻠﺮد‬‫واﻠﺮد‬،‫ﻋﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬،‫ﻋﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬‫اﻠﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬‫اﻠﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬‫إﻧﺷﺎء‬‫إﻧﺷﺎء‬‫ـﺘﺐ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ـﺘﺐ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻤﺘﺨﺼﺺ‬‫ﻤﺘﺨﺼﺺ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻜﻞ‬‫ﻜﻞ‬‫ﻓﺮع‬‫ﻓﺮع‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻓﺮوﻋﻨﺎ‬‫ﻓﺮوﻋﻨﺎ‬‫ﻠﺘﻟﻗﻲ‬‫ﻠﺘﻟﻗﻲ‬‫ﺸﻛﺎوى‬‫ﺸﻛﺎوى‬ ‫اﻠﻌﻣﻼء‬‫اﻠﻌﻣﻼء‬‫وﻤﺤﺎوﻠﺔ‬‫وﻤﺤﺎوﻠﺔ‬‫إﻳﺟﺎد‬‫إﻳﺟﺎد‬‫اﻠﺤﻟﻮل‬‫اﻠﺤﻟﻮل‬.. ‫ﺑﺮﻳﻞ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺑﺮﻳﻞ‬ ٔ‫ا‬20062006 ‫اﻠﻌﻨﻮان‬‫ﻠﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬‫ﻤﺜﻟﺔ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﻮان‬‫ﻠﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬‫ﻤﺜﻟﺔ‬ ٔ‫ا‬::
  34. 34. November 12, 2014 6 ZagazigUniversityZagazigUniversity Facultyof EngineeringFacultyof Engineering Water and waterWater and water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 66NovemberNovember 1212,, 20142014Lecture No.Lecture No. 22 ‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ‬‫ﺗﺘﻌﻟﻖ‬‫ﺧﻄﺎء‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ‬‫ﺗﺘﻌﻟﻖ‬‫ﺧﻄﺎء‬ ٔ‫ا‬ ‫ﻳﺨﺺ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻳﺨﺺ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﻮان‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﻮان‬‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬:: ‫ﻏﻴﺎب‬‫ﻏﻴﺎب‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﻮان‬‫اﻠﻌﻨﻮان‬‫اﻠﻮاﺿﺢ‬‫اﻠﻮاﺿﺢ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺘﻪ‬‫ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺘﻪ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺻﻮرة‬‫ﺻﻮرة‬‫ﻋﺎﻤﺔ‬‫ﻋﺎﻤﺔ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‬‫ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‬ً‫ﻧﺳﺒﻴﺎ‬ً‫ﻧﺳﺒﻴﺎ‬.. ‫ﻏﻴﺎب‬‫ﻏﻴﺎب‬‫اﺴﻢ‬‫اﺴﻢ‬‫اﻠﺟﻬﺔ‬‫اﻠﺟﻬﺔ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫ﻋﺪت‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻋﺪت‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬ٔ‫واﻠﺨﻄﺎ‬ ٔ‫ا‬ٔ‫واﻠﺨﻄﺎ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﺴﻣﻬﺎ‬‫اﺴﻣﻬﺎ‬.. ‫ﻏﻴﺎب‬‫ﻏﻴﺎب‬‫اﺴﻢ‬‫اﺴﻢ‬‫اﻠﺟﻬﺔ‬‫اﻠﺟﻬﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻗﺪم‬‫اﻠﻣﻗﺪم‬‫إﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬‫إﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬ٔ‫اﻠﺨﻄﺎ‬ٔ‫اﻠﺨﻄﺎ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﺴﻣﻬﺎ‬‫اﺴﻣﻬﺎ‬.. ‫ذﻜﺮ‬‫ذﻜﺮ‬‫اﻹﺴﻢ‬‫اﻹﺴﻢ‬‫اﻠﺘﺟﺎري‬‫اﻠﺘﺟﺎري‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﻣﺨﺘﺼﺮ‬‫اﻠﻣﺨﺘﺼﺮ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟﺟﻬﺔ‬‫ﻟﺟﻬﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻗﺪم‬‫اﻠﻣﻗﺪم‬‫اﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬‫اﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬.. ‫ﻏﻴﺎب‬‫ﻏﻴﺎب‬‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ‬‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ‬‫ﺗﻗﺪﻳﻢ‬‫ﺗﻗﺪﻳﻢ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ذﻜﺮﻩ‬‫ذﻜﺮﻩ‬‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ً‫واﺿﺤﺎ‬ً‫واﺿﺤﺎ‬..
  35. 35. November 12, 2014 7 ZagazigUniversityZagazigUniversity Facultyof EngineeringFacultyof Engineering Water and waterWater and water structures Engstructures Eng.Department.Department 77NovemberNovember 1212,, 20142014Lecture No.Lecture No. 22 ‫اﻠﻣﻟﺨﺺ‬‫اﻠﻣﻟﺨﺺ‬Abstract or SummaryAbstract or Summary ‫اﻠﻣﻟﺨﺺ‬‫اﻠﻣﻟﺨﺺ‬‫ﻜﻣﺎ‬‫ﻜﻣﺎ‬‫ﻫﻮ‬‫ﻫﻮ‬‫واﺿﺢ‬‫واﺿﺢ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫اﻻﺴﻢ‬‫اﻻﺴﻢ‬‫ﻫﻮ‬‫ﻫﻮ‬‫ﻤﻟﺨﺺ‬‫ﻤﻟﺨﺺ‬‫ﻠﻣﺎ‬‫ﻠﻣﺎ‬‫ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻳﻪ‬‫ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻳﻪ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬.. ‫ﻠﻟﻣﻟﺨﺺ‬‫ﻠﻟﻣﻟﺨﺺ‬‫وﻇﻴﻔﺘﺎن‬‫وﻇﻴﻔﺘﺎن‬:: ‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻳﻌﻟﻢ‬‫ﻳﻌﻟﻢ‬‫اﻠﻗﺎرئ‬‫اﻠﻗﺎرئ‬‫إن‬‫إن‬‫ﻜﺎن‬‫ﻜﺎن‬‫ﻳﺤﺘﺎج‬‫ﻳﺤﺘﺎج‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻳﻗ‬ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻳﻗ‬‫ﻫﺬا‬‫ﻫﺬا‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫م‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫م‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻻ‬..‫ﻓﻗﺪ‬‫ﻓﻗﺪ‬‫ﻳﺟﺪ‬‫ﻳﺟﺪ‬‫اﻠﻗﺎرئ‬‫اﻠﻗﺎرئ‬‫اﻠﺬي‬‫اﻠﺬي‬‫ﻳﺒﺤﺚ‬‫ﻳﺒﺤﺚ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫ﺑﺤﺎث‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺑﺤﺎث‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻤﺟﺎل‬‫ﻤﺟﺎل‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﺑﺎﺴﺘﺨﺪام‬‫ﺑﺎﺴﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫اﻠﺘﺟﺎرب‬‫اﻠﺘﺟﺎرب‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻣﻟﻴﺔ‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻣﻟﻴﺔ‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫اﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫اﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫اﻠﺘﺤﻟﻴﻞ‬‫اﻠﺘﺤﻟﻴﻞ‬‫اﻠﻨﻈﺮي‬‫اﻠﻨﻈﺮي‬‫وﺑﺎﻠﺘﺎﻠﻲ‬‫وﺑﺎﻠﺘﺎﻠﻲ‬‫ﻳﻌﺮف‬‫ﻳﻌﺮف‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻫﺬا‬‫ﻫﺬا‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫اﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬‫ﻠﻴﺲ‬‫ﻠﻴﺲ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﺑﺤﺎث‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫ﺑﺤﺎث‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫ﻳﺮﻳﺪ‬‫ﻳﺮﻳﺪ‬ ‫اﻻﻃﻼع‬‫اﻻﻃﻼع‬،‫ﻋﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬،‫ﻋﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬‫وﻘﺪ‬‫وﻘﺪ‬‫ﻳﺟﺪ‬‫ﻳﺟﺪ‬‫اﻠﻣﺪﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﻣﺪﻳﺮ‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻳﺳﺟﻞ‬‫ﻳﺳﺟﻞ‬ً‫ﺣﺪاﺛﺎ‬ ٔ‫ا‬ً‫ﺣﺪاﺛﺎ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻧﺷﻄﺔ‬ ٔ‫وا‬‫ﻧﺷﻄﺔ‬ ٔ‫وا‬‫ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻬﺎ‬‫ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻬﺎ‬‫اﻠﻣﺪﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﻣﺪﻳﺮ‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ‬‫ﺑﺎﻠﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ‬‫ـﺘﻔﻲ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻓﻴ‬‫ـﺘﻔﻲ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻓﻴ‬‫ﺑﺤﻔﻆ‬‫ﺑﺤﻔﻆ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻟﻪ‬‫ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻟﻪ‬‫ﻠﺷﺨﺺ‬‫ﻠﺷﺨﺺ‬‫ﺧﺮ‬ ٓ‫ا‬‫ﺧﺮ‬ ٓ‫ا‬.. ‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻳﻌﺮف‬‫ﻳﻌﺮف‬‫اﻠﻗﺎرئ‬‫اﻠﻗﺎرئ‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫اﻠﻣﻌﻟﻮﻤﺎت‬‫ﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬‫ﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ٔ‫اﻻ‬ً‫ﺠﺪا‬ً‫ﺠﺪا‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻤﺜﻞ‬‫ﻤﺜﻞ‬‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬‫اﺴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻠﺪ‬‫اﺴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻠﺪ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻲ‬‫ﺠﺮﻳﺖ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﺠﺮﻳﺖ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫واﻠﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬‫واﻠﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬))‫اﻻﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎت‬‫اﻻﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎت‬(( ‫واﻠﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎت‬‫واﻠﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎت‬‫وﺑﺎﻠﺘﺎﻠﻲ‬‫وﺑﺎﻠﺘﺎﻠﻲ‬‫ﻘﺪ‬‫ﻘﺪ‬‫ـﺘﻔﻲ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ـﺘﻔﻲ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﺑﻪ‬‫ﺑﻪ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫اءة‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻘ‬‫اءة‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﺑﺎﻘﻲ‬‫ﺑﺎﻘﻲ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻳﻗﺮر‬‫ﻳﻗﺮر‬‫اءة‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻘ‬‫اءة‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻘ‬ٍ‫ﺠﺰء‬ٍ‫ﺠﺰء‬‫ﻤﺤﺪد‬‫ﻤﺤﺪد‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫اﻠﺘﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬.. ‫ﺗﺰداد‬‫ﺗﺰداد‬‫ﻫﻣﻴﺔ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫ﻫﻣﻴﺔ‬ ٔ‫ا‬‫اﻠﻣﻟﺨﺺ‬‫اﻠﻣﻟﺨﺺ‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ـﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﺗﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ﺗﻗﺮﻳﺮ‬‫ـﺜﺮ‬‫ﻜ‬ ٔ‫ﻻ‬‫ـﺜﺮ‬‫ﻜ‬ ٔ‫ﻻ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻘﺎرئ‬‫ﻘﺎرئ‬‫ـﺜﺮ‬‫ﻜ‬ ٔ‫وا‬‫ـﺜﺮ‬‫ﻜ‬ ٔ‫وا‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﻤﺪﻳﺮ‬‫ﻤﺪﻳﺮ‬‫ﺑﺎﻫﺘﻣﺎﻤﺎت‬‫ﺑﺎﻫﺘﻣﺎﻤﺎت‬‫ﻤﺨﺘﻟﻔﺔ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘﻟﻔﺔ‬..

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