Application of memletics and grasha riechmann learing style

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Grasha Riechmann, Memletics, and Learing Style

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Application of memletics and grasha riechmann learing style

  1. 1. Application of Memletics and Grasha Riechmann Learing Style Hangsapholyna Sar 1 ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT Grasha Riechmann The purpose of this study was to determine learning styles of students at Cambodian Memletics Mekong University in order to develop teaching and learning strategies about Collaborative effective learning styles. Another purpose of this study was to find out if there is a Competitive significant difference on learning preferences between students from different Major Avoidant Business English and Teaching English as a Foreign Language. The Memletics learning styles and Grasha-Riechmann learning style survey was used to assess the Participant learning style preferences of the students. The study was conducted during the Independent semester two of 2008-2009 academic year. Population of this study was students at Learing Style Cambodian Mekong University. Sample of this study was randomly selected 182 students consisted of 89 students from Business English, and 93 students from Teaching English as a Foreign Language will be chosen as the sample size in order to represent the whole population. Students prefer all six of the styles to some degree; no student prefers or adopts any one of the style six clusively. Instead they have learning style profiles that show varying strengths of preferences for each of the six styles. Students have different learning style, so the process of learning cannot just conduct with dependent learning style but it must attract by other thing such as collaborative, competitive, avoidant, participant, and independent learning style.I. Background and Significances of the Study student’s attitude toward the subject, the lesser he will learn. However, student who are good learners People take in and process information in have learned to adapt to a variety of teaching and different ways. Some may prefer to receive new learning styles. material in one specific way, while others may be Cambodian students and teachers (local and equally comfortable regardless of the modality in foreign) are happier when their styles match; there which information is delivered. For students who is better communication and understanding. This show a clear preference, knowing their learning might indicate that teaching style should adapt to style is crucial. An awareness of a student’s learner style. Therefore, the best learning learning style can help a teacher increase the child environments do necessarily conform to the understands in the classroom, and can help learner’s expectations. Accommodation to students make the most out of their educational contradictory experiences is important in experience by using study strategies geared development. If students are to become more towards their particular strengths. capable, then part of the purpose of education is Learning styles is a broad term that includes that they should broaden the range of their the cognitive, affective, and physiological learning styles. Where possible, helping learners to dimensions of learning. Our cognitive style is how understand their own learning processes will help students’ perceptive and process information. Our them to learn better and to become more affective style is how students feel about and value independent learners. This includes encouraging our learning experiences. Our physiological style learners to expand their learning styles. It is best to involves the environment for effective learning; the provide a variety of learning environments so that time of day they learn best, the lighting they a diversity of types of learners can thrive, and all require, and the position of the bodies. While all can attempt different styles. components of learning styles are interesting and Cambodian Mekong University is always important to understand (While Keefes, 1979).This looking for ways to make their educational research will have as its primary focus cognitive, initiatives more effective. CMU administrators and affective, and physiological learning style. Teacher instructors at all levels are constantly under generally teaches according to their own style of pressure to provide more effective and efficient learning. There is some evidence that the larger the services. Cambodian Mekong University, teaching divergence between the students’ learning and the serves as an important vehicle for achieving teacher’s teaching styles. The lower the student’s institutional goals of increased effectiveness, gain in achievement and the less position the efficiency, and the enhancement of student 1Email: lyna_it_eng73@yahoo.com Tel: (+855) 16 506 873
  2. 2. learning. As a result, todays highly successful actual learning. This hands-on activity can be used university is distinguished by the ability to have to encourage learners to stretch their learning their faculties continue to improve their efforts to styles. advance student learning. For many of todays and 2-2 Learner Strategies tomorrows students, success in a changing world Learner strategies are any specific actions or will require an ability to explore new opportunities behavior a student engages in, most often and learn from past successes and failures. These consciously, to improve his or her own learning. ideas are neither new nor controversial. Yet it is Whereas styles are general patterns, strategies are surprising that understanding how people learn, related to the task at hand (Cohen &Dornyei, 2002, which is so widely regarded as important, receives p.178). The good language learner is at the origin of little ongoing and explicit attention by educators the strategy concept: and their institutions. Too often there is a kind of When learning and using a second language, fatalism about learning; one either learns or one learners may employ a number of strategies which does not. The inability to consciously control and are usually aimed at improving their performance. manage the learning process in university and As it is important for learners to be in command of various classes in particular, lies in a lack of a rich and personalized repertoire of language understanding about the learning process itself and learning strategies and for their teachers to guide can serve as a substantial impediment to student the students in their development, it is useful to go learning and faculty arts, humanities and foreign beyond the well-known categorization of strategies languages. as cognitive, meta-cognitive, affective and socialII. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND (Chamot, 1987 & Oxford, 1990). Another helpful STUDIES distinction is between language learning and 2-1 Learning Styles communication strategies, the latter “referring to Learning styles are the overall patterns that strategies for using the language that has been give general direction to learning behavior. (Cohen learned, however incompletely” (Cohen &Dornyei, and Dornyei, 2002, p.176-177) underscore the well- 2002, p.178). In addition, strategies can be classified known fact that different learners approach according to the skill area to which they relate. The learning in a significantly different manner, and researcher give a brief sampling of these strategies that the concept of learning styles has been used to from which researcher quote the part referring to refer to these differences. Learning styles seem to vocabulary, as these strategies cross-cut the four be relatively stable, and, thus, teachers may not basic skills, for example, the receptive skills of have such a direct influence on this learner variable listening and reading and the productive skills of as with motivation. Furthermore, many learners do speaking and writing. Learning strategies are not favor one learning style to the exclusion of all defined by O’Malley &Chamot (1990, p.1) as others. Nonetheless, the identification of learning special thoughts or behaviors that individuals use style dimensions, generally in the form of to comprehend, learn, or retain new information. dichotomies, is useful to describe learners’ style (Oxford, 1994, p.1) defines them as actions, preferences. Propose the following list of style behaviors, steps, or techniques students use, often preferences which are considered particularly unconsciously, to improve their progress in relevant and useful to understanding the process of apprehending, internalizing, and using the second language learning: learning. There are a number of different names  Being visual, auditory or hands-on. and classification systems for learning strategies  Being more extroverted versus introverted. (Hsiao & Oxford, 2002). There are few rights and  Being more abstract and intuitive versus more wrongs in learning strategies taxonomies, but concrete and thinking in step by-step sequence. specific ways of organizing the strategies can be  Preferring to keep all options open versus being useful for different learning and teaching situations closure-oriented. Learning styles have more influence than you may  Being more global versus more particular. realize. Your preferred styles guide the way you  Being more synthesizing versus being more learn. They also change the way you internally analytic. represent experiences, the way you recall The researcher propose a reliable self-assessment information, and even the words you choose. The instrument and provide detailed explanations to researcher explores more of these features. illustrate what these style dimensions involve in Learning style uses different parts of the brain. By
  3. 3. involving more of the brain during learning, the central principle his experiential learning theory,learner remembers more of what they learn and use typically expressed as four-stage cycle of learning,brain-imaging technologies have been able to find in which immediate or concrete experiencesout the key areas of the brain responsible for each provide a basis for observations and reflections.learning style. These observations and reflections are assimilatedVisual: The occipital lobes at the back of the brain and distilled into abstract concepts producing newmanage the visual sense. Both the occipital and implications for action which can be actively testedparietal lobes manage spatial orientation. in turn creating new experiences. Kolb says thatAural: The temporal lobes handle aural content. ideally (and by inference not always) this processThe right temporal lobe is especially important for represents a learning cycle or spiral where themusic. learner touches all the bases. For instance; a cycleVerbal: The temporal and frontal lobes, especially of experiencing, reflecting, thinking, and acting.two specialized areas called Broca’s and Immediate or concrete experiences lead toWernicke’s areas (in the left hemisphere of these observations and reflections. These reflections aretwo lobes). then assimilated (absorbed and translated) intoPhysical: The cerebellum and the motor cortex (at abstract concepts with implications for action,the back of the frontal lobe) handle much of our which the person can actively test and experimentphysical movement. with, which in turn enable the creation of newLogical: The parietal lobes, especially the left side, experiences.drive our logical thinking. Kolbs model therefore works on two levels - a four-Social: The frontal and temporal lobes handle much stage cycle:of our social activities. The limbic system (not 1. Concrete Experience - (CE)shown apart from the hippocampus) also 2. Reflective Observation - (RO)influences both the social and solitary styles. The 3. Abstract Conceptualization - (AC)limbic system has a lot to do with emotions, moods 4. Active Experimentation - (AE)and aggression. and a four-type definition of learning styles, (eachSolitary: The frontal and parietal lobes, and the representing the combination of two preferredlimbic system, are also active with this style. styles, rather like a two-by-two matrix of the four- stage cycle styles, as illustrated below), for which Kolb used the terms: 1. Diverging (CE/RO) 2. Assimilating (AC/RO) 3. Converging (AC/AE) 4. Accommodating (CE/AE) Figure 1: Memletics learning styles 2.3 David Kolb Model Learning Styles Kolbs learning theory sets out four distinctlearning styles (or preferences), which are based ona four-stage learning cycle. (Which might also beinterpreted as a training cycle). In this respect Figure 2: David Kolb Model Learning StylesKolbs model is particularly elegant, since it offers Its often easier to see the construction ofboth a way to understand individual peoples Kolbs learning styles in terms of a two-by-twodifferent learning styles, and also an explanation of matrix. The diagram also highlights Kolbsa cycle of experiential learning that applies to terminology for the four learning styles; diverging,students. Kolb includes this cycle of learning as a assimilating, and converging, accommodating:
  4. 4. Thus, for example, a person with a dominant prefer readings, lectures, exploring analyticallearning style of doing rather than watching the models, and having time to think things through.task, and feeling rather than thinking about the  Converging (doing and thinking - AC/AE) -experience, will have a learning style which People with a Converging learning style can solvecombines and represents those processes, namely problems and will use their learning to findan Accommodating learning style, in Kolbs solutions to practical issues. They prefer technicalterminology. tasks, and are less concerned with people and interpersonal aspects. People with a Converging Table1: Kolbs Learning Styles - Matrix View learning style are best at finding practical uses for Watching ideas and theories. They can solve problems and Doing (Active (Reflective make decisions by finding solutions to questions Experimentation) Observation) and problems. People with a Converging learning style are more attracted to technical tasks and Feeling (Concrete Accommodating Diverging problems than social or interpersonal issues. A Experience) (CE/AE) (CE/RO) Converging learning style enables specialist and technology abilities. People with a Converging Thinking (Abstract Converging Assimilating style like to experiment with new ideas, to Conceptualization) (AC/AE) (AC/RO) simulate, and to work with practical applications.  Accommodating (doing and feeling - CE/AE) - The Accommodating learning style is hands-on,  Diverging (feeling and watching - CE/RO) - and relies on intuition rather than logic. TheseThese people are able to look at things from people use other peoples analysis, and prefer todifferent perspectives. They are sensitive. They take a practical, experiential approach. They areprefer to watch rather than do, tending to gather attracted to new challenges and experiences, and toinformation and use imagination to solve carrying out plans. They commonly act on gutproblems. They are best at viewing concrete instinct rather than logical analysis. People with ansituations several different viewpoints. Kolb called Accommodating learning style will tend to rely onthis style Diverging because these people perform others for information than carry out their ownbetter in situations that require ideas-generation, analysis. This learning style is prevalent and usefulfor example, brainstorming. People with a in roles requiring action and initiative. People withDiverging learning style have broad cultural an Accommodating learning style prefer to work ininterests and like to gather information. They are teams to complete tasks. They set targets andinterested in people, tend to be imaginative and actively work in the field trying different ways toemotional, and tend to be strong in the arts. People achieve an objective.with the Diverging style prefer to work in groups, 2-4 Honey and Mumfords Variation on the Kolbto listen with an open mind and to receive personal Systemfeedback. Various resources (including this one in the past)  Assimilating (watching and thinking - refer to the terms activist, reflector, theorist, andAC/RO) - The Assimilating learning preference is pragmatist (respectively representing the four keyfor a concise, logical approach. Ideas and concepts stages or learning steps) in seeking to explainare more important than people. These people Kolbs model. In fact, activist, reflector, theorist,require good clear explanation rather than practical and pragmatist are from a learning styles modelopportunity. They excel at understanding wide- developed by Honey and Mumford, whichranging information and organizing it a clear although based on Kolbs work, is different.logical format. People with an Assimilating Arguably therefore the terms activist, reflector,learning style are less focused on people and more theorist, and pragmatist effectively belong to theinterested in ideas and abstract concepts. People Honey and Mumford theory.with this style are more attracted to logically sound Peter Honey and Alan Mumford developedtheories than approaches based on practical value. their learning styles system as a variation on theThese learning style people are important for Kolb model while working on a project for theeffectiveness in information and science careers. In Chloride Corporation in the 1970s. Honey andformal learning situations, people with this style Mumford say of their system:
  5. 5. "Our description of the stages in the prefer to work alone on course projects than withlearning cycle originated from the work of David other students.Kolb. Kolb uses different words to describe the  Avoidant Learning Stylesstages of the learning cycle and four learning Avoidant students are not enthusiastic aboutstyles..."And, "...The similarities between his model learning content and attending class. They are slowand ours are greater than the differences…" (Honey to participate with students and teachers in the& Mumford,1995) classroom. They are uninterested and often In summary here are brief descriptions of overwhelmed by what goes on in class.the four Honey & Mumford key stages/styles,  Collaborative Learning Styleswhich incidentally are directly mutuallycorresponding and overlaid, as distinct from the Typical of students who feel they can learn byKolb model in which the learning styles are a sharing ideas and talents. They cooperate with theproduct of combinations of the learning cycle teacher and like to work with others.  Dependent Learning Stylesstages. The typical presentation of these Honey &Mumford styles and stages would be respectively Dependent students show little intellectualat north, east, south and west on a circle or four- curiosity and who learn only what is required.stage cyclical flow diagram. View teacher and peers as sources of structure and1. Having an Experience, and Activists: here and support and look to authority figures for specific now, gregarious, seek challenge and immediate guidelines on what to do. experience, open-minded, bored with  Competitive Learning Styles implementation. Students who learn material in order to2. Reviewing the Experience and Reflectors: perform better than others in the class. Believe they stand back, gather data, ponder and analyze, must compete with other students in a course for delay reaching conclusions, listen before the rewards that are offered. Like to be the center speaking, thoughtful. of attention and to receive recognition for their3. Concluding from the Experience and accomplishments in class. Theorists: think things through in logical steps,  Participant Learning Styles assimilate disparate facts into coherent Good citizens in class. Enjoy going to class and theories, rationally objective, and reject take part in as much of the course activities as subjectivity and flippancy. possible. Typically eager to do as much of the4. Planning the next steps and Pragmatists: seek required and optional course requirements as they and try out new ideas, practical, down-to-earth, can (Grasha.A, 1972, p.144-147). enjoy problem solving and decision-making III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY quickly, bored with long discussions. The study Application of Memletics and GrashaThere is arguably a strong similarity between the Riechmann Learing Style. The data of this researchHoney and Mumford styles/stages and the is primarily got from two sources of information:corresponding Kolb learning styles: the primary data and the secondary data.  Activist = Accommodating 3.1 Research Instruments and Data Questionnaires  Reflector = Diverging Based on the researched topic “Application of  Theorist = Assimilating Memletics and Grasha Riechmann Learing Style”,  Pragmatist = Converging it can be concluded that the researcher had the 2.5 Grasha Riechmann Learning Styles Scales purpose of assessing the students learning styles at Grasha-Reichmann’s Student Learning Styles Cambodian Mekong University. Its purpose is toScales focuses more on students’ preferences for find out the appropriated learning styles and newthe learning environment. It identifies six different techniques for teachers and students.styles; Independent, Avoidant, Collaborative, Questionnaires are conducted in order to exploreDependent, Competitive, and Participant (Grasha. the weak points and strong points of studentsA, 1996, p. 31-34& p.127) learning styles.  Independent Learning Styles 3.2 Identify the variablesStudents who like to think for themselves and are In order to make this research more meaningfulconfident in their learning abilities. Prefer to learn and clearly, the variables are identified clearlythe content that they feel is important and would before conducting the research. The researcher
  6. 6. divided the variables into two kinds, the Competitive, Collaborative, Avoidant, Participant,dependent variables and the independent Dependent, and Independent Learning Style Therefore,variables. the researcher will list and/or examine Memletics and Dependent Variable is the variable that is Grasha-Riechmann Model.affected by the result, or outcome of another IV. Resultsvariable. Dependent variable is something that 4.1 Analysis of the Findingdepends on other factors. In this research, the The 182 students (females-N=86, males- N=96)dependent variable is “Effective Students Learning responded and completed the learning stylesStyles”. It means that to be effective students or questionnaires. Responses to the questionnairesgood learner will be affected by the materials, were compared for demographic differences suchstudent them self, and teacher. as age and gender, both within the group and Independent Variables are the variables that where possible against the general norms.can have influences on the dependent variables. Significant differences were found in the followingThe cause variables, the one that identifies forces, measures.or conditions that act on something else isindependent variables. It is all the variables that Learning Style is important Totalinfluences on the Effective Students LearningStyles such as memletices and Grasha-Riechmann Age 40%-60% 60%-80% 80%-100%model toward the class.3.3 The Relationship between Dependent and 15-25 15 61 69 145Independent Variables 26-35 8 12 11 31 More 1 3 2 6 than 35 Total 24 76 82 182 Learning Style is important Age TEFL BE Total 15-25 71 74 145 26-35 19 12 31 Figure 3: The Relationship between Dependent & Independent Variables More 3 3 6 than 353.4 Collection of Data/Gathering Procedures Total 93 89 182Data were collected for the study during the academicyears 2008-2009. Firstly, relevant students were The Memletics Learning Stylesconducted questionnaires to collect data in the study.Secondly, Memletics and Grasha-Riechmann Modelwere gathered to see what type and which learning style Solitary Visualwere being used. Thirdly, researcher made observation 15% 15%on students learning styles to see the actualimplementation of teaching. Finally, researcher did thequestionnaires to collect data from both teacher and Social Verbalstudent in qualitative and quantity data. The procedures 14% 14%of collecting data are presented in the following sections. Memletics and Grasha-Riechmannis importantmodel in process of learning effectively. It is the material Logical Auralthat is used to make the process of learning effectively. 14% 14%Firstly, Memletics Modal includes: Visual, Verbal, PhysicalAural, Physical, Logical, Social, and Solitary Learning 14%Style. Secondly, Grasha-Riechmann Model includes:
  7. 7. Students while learning the subject mostly use all the elements at the same time. This survey shows that 3250 3200 Memletics learning style is commonly used by the 3150 students to learn a particular area of study. Therefore all 3100 the elements found on the Memlitics are correlated with 3050 each other and is working together to attain 3000 effectiveness in learning. 2950 Students prefer all six of the styles to some 2900 degree; no student prefers or adopts any one of the style 2850 six clusively. Instead they have learning style profiles 2800 that show varying strengths of preferences for each of the six styles. Students have different learning style, so the process of learning cannot just conduct with dependent learning style but it must attract by otherThe Grasha-Riechmann Learning Styles Scales thing such as collaborative, competitive, avoidant, participant, and independent learning style. In short, the researcher has discussed the significance learning styles in Cambodian Mekong Participant Independent University and provided some empirical evidence to 17% 17% indicate that CMU’s students exhibit distinctive learning style characteristics. To understand and respect individuals diverse learning styles, the researcher suggest that teachers employ instruments to identify Avoidant students learning styles and provide instructional Competitive 14% alternatives to address their differences, and that 17% teachers plan lessons to match students learning styles while at the same time encouraging students to diversify their learning style preferences. By doing this teacher can assist our students in becoming more effective language learners. Dependent Collaborative V. Conclusion 17% 18% Clearly these Cambodian Mekong University’s students prefer personalized learning where the instructor is well acquainted with the whole student,3500 where the student is actively involved with others, and3000 where the student is participating in the learning2500 activities. They also have good expectations of the grade2000 they will learn in the class in which they are enrolled. Conversely, these students prefer not to have their work1500 compared with others publicly, do not favor learning1000 activities involving mathematics, and prefer not to have 500 to read as a primary means of learning. Information about style can help faculty become 0 more sensitive to the differences students bring to the classroom. It can also serve as a guide in designing learning experiences that match or mismatch students styles, depending on the teachers purpose. Matching is particularly appropriate in working with poorly prepared students and with new college students, as the most attrition occurs in those situations. Some studies This part of the thesis is focusing much on the show that identifying a students style and thenresult of the research finding. The research presents that providing instruction consistent with that stylemost of the learning style, Memletics learning style that contribute to more effective learning. In other instances,can be used in process of leaning at Cambodian Mekong some mismatching may be appropriate so that studentsUniversity. Answering to last objective of the thesis, experiences help them to learn in new ways and to bringEvaluation the Memletics learning styles and Grasha- into play ways of thinking and aspects of the self notRiechmann learning styles; previously developed. Any mismatching, however, should be done with sensitivity and consideration for
  8. 8. students, because the experience of discontinuity can be Gerald Coles (1987). The Learning Mystique: A Critical Look atvery threatening, particularly when students are weak "Learning Disabilities. Accessed November 7, 2008.in these areas. Knowledge of learning style can thus help Grasha, A. (1972). Observations on relating teaching goals to student response styles and classroomfaculty design experiences appropriate for students in methods.American Psychologistterms of matching or mismatching and enable them to Grasha, A. (1996a). Teaching with style. Pittsburgh, PA:do so thoughtfully and systematically. Alliance.Recommendations Grasha, A. (1996b). Teaching with style: The integration of The most pressing need is to learn more about teaching and learning styles in the classroom. Teachingthe learning styles of Cambodian Mekong University’s Excellence, 7, 31-34.students a particularly important subject in the face of Greenberg, D. (1987), Free at Last, The Sudbury Valley School,participation and graduation rates that indicate higher Chapter 19, Learning. Herrmann, N (1990), The Creative Brain. Lake Lure, NC, Braineducation is not serving all students well. Changing Books.demographics portend an even more diverse student Honey, P & Mumford, A, (1982).The Manual of Learningbody in the future, with increasing numbers of Styles.Maidenhead, UK, Peter Honey PublicationsCambodian Mekong University. Instruments that take Honey, P & Mumford, A. (1983).Using Your Learningcultural differences into account need to be developed. Styles.Maidenhead, UK, Peter Honey PublicationsSecond, research is needed to clarify how much Hruska, S. and Grasha, A. (1982). The Grasha-Riechmanndifference it makes if teaching methods are incongruent student learning style scales. Student Learning Styles andwith a students style. Studies that speak to the role and Brain Behavior.potency of style, seen in conjunction with other Keefe, J. W. (1979) Learning Style: An Overview, in J. W. Keefe (ed.), Student learning styles: Diagnosing and prescribingimportant variables, would help teachers significantly. programs. NASSP.The development of better instrumentation to identify Kolb D. & Fry R. (1975).Towards an applied theory of experientialstyles should be a key part of such research. Third, learning 33-57 in C.Cooper Theories of Group Processesresearch is needed to illuminate the connections and Wiley, Londoninteraction between style, developmental stage, Kolb, D. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source ofdisciplinary perspectives, and epistemology. A better learning and development.Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-understanding of the link between them would provide Hala helpful framework for examining teaching Lumsdaine, M &Lumsdaine, E (1995).Thinking Preferences of Engineering Students: Implications for Curriculummethodologies, the role of learning in individual Restructuring.J. Engr. Education.development, and the use of the disciplines to promote Phipps, L.J., Osborne, E.W., Dyer, J.E., & Ball, A.L.more complex and integrative thinking. (2008).Handbook on agricultural education in publicLimitations schools. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Learning, Inc. On-going action research has built-in limitations Tennant, M. (1988).Psychology and adult learning.Routledge,related to time, place and particular individuals. In this Londoncase, this research focuses mainly on students and Witkin, H., Moore, C., Goodenough, D. and Cox, P.teaching approach on students who are studying (1977).Field-dependent and field-independent cognitiveBusiness English and Teaching English as a Foreign styles and their educational implications. Review ofLanguage in second year and third year Cambodian Educational Research 47 Mills, D. W. (2002). Applying what we know: Student learningMekong University in the academic year 2008-2009. styles. Retrieved July 07, 2009, from:Acknowledgements http://www.csrnet.org/csrnet/articles/student- I would like to pay my highly appreciation and learning-styles.htmlthankful for those people who have helped and VARK.(2001). The VARK Categories. Retrieved July 01, 2009,contributed so many useful resource, ideas, and time from:http://www.vark-learn.com/english/page.asptoward the completion of this thesis. Without their help, I Hartman, V.F. (1995). Teaching and learning style preferences:could not be able to finish. Transitions through technology. VCCA Journal 9, no. 2: 18-20.Dewey, J. (1938). Experience & education. New York: Macmillan.Dunn, R. and Dunn, K. (1978) Teaching Students through their individual learning styles: A practical approach. Reston, VA: Prentice-Hall.Dunn, R.S., & Dunn, K.J. (1979).Learning styles/teaching styles: Should they...can they...be matched? Educational Leadership,Felder, R.M. (1993) Reaching the Second Tier: Learning and Teaching Styles in College Science Education,J. Coll. Sci. Teaching.Felder, R.M.& Silverman , L.K. (1988). Learning Styles and Teaching Styles in Engineering Education.
  9. 9. Questionnaire for Students I. Students General Information: 1. Age:  A. 15-25  B. 26-35 C. more than 35 2. Sex:  A. M  B. F 3. Faculty of Arts, Humanities and Foreign Languages, which majoring are you in?  A. Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL)  B. English Business (EB) 4. To know your learning style is important for you?  A. 40%-60%  B.60%-80% C.80%-100% II. Students Learning Style: Answer each statement by ticking each answer box. Use these ratings as a guide when you answer each statement: 1=Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3= Undecided 4= Agree 5=Strongly Agree Statement 1 2 3 4 51. You have a personal or private interest or hobby that you like to do alone.2. You are happy in your own company. You like to some things alone and away from others.3. You are goal oriented and know the directions you are going.4. You would prefer to physically touch or handle something to understand how it works.5. You spend time alone to reflect and think about important aspects of your life6. You like to read everything. Books, newspapers, magazines, menus, signs, the milk carton etc.7. English, languages and literature were favourite subjects at school.8. You love telling stories, metaphors or anecdotes9. You have a great vocabulary, and like using the right word at the right time10. You easily express yourself, whether its verbal or written. You can give clear explanations to others.
  10. 10. 11. You can easily visualise objects, buildings, situations etc from plans or descriptions.12. In school you preferred art, technical drawing, geometry.13. You like using a camera or video camera to capture the world around you.14. You like books with lots of diagrams or illustrations.15. You have a good sense of colour.16. You like listening to music - in the car, studying, at work.17. Music was your favourite subject at school18. You use rhythm or rhyme to remember things, eg phone numbers…19. You hear small things that others dont.20. You can play a musical instrument or you can sing on (or close to) key21. You use lots of hand gestures or other physical body language when communicating with others.22. You like making models, or working out jigsaws.23. In school you liked sports, wood or metal working, craft, sculptures, pottery.24. You like the texture and feel of clothes, furniture and other objects.25. You like to think out ideas, problems, or issues while doing something physical.26. You can balance a chequebook, and you like to set budgets and other numerical goals.27. You like identifying logic flaws in other peoples words and actions.28. You use a specific step-by-step process to work out problems.29. You like to understand how and why things work. You keep up to date with science and technology.30. You easily work with numbers, and can do decent calculations in your head.31. You are OK with taking the lead and showing others the way ahead.32. You like getting out of the house and being with others at parties and other social events.33. You have a number of very close friends.
  11. 11. 34. You communicate well with others and often act as a mediator between them.35. You like to listen. People like to talk to you because they feel you understand them. Answer each statement by ticking each answer box. Use these ratings as a guide when you answer each statement: 1=Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3= Undecided 4= Agree 5=Strongly Agree Statement 1 2 3 4 51. I prefer to work by myself on assignments in my courses.2. I often daydream during class.3. Working with other students on class activities is something I enjoy doing.4. I like it whenever teachers clearly state what is required and expected.5. To do well, it is necessary to compete with other students for the teacher’sattention.6. I do whatever is asked of me to learn the content in my classes.7. My ideas about the content are often as good as those in the textbook.8. Classroom activities are usually boring.9. I enjoy discussing my ideas about the course content with other students.10. I rely on my teachers to tell me what is important for me to learn.11. It is necessary to compete with other students to get a good grade.12. Class sessions typically are worth attending.13. I study what is important to me and not always what the instructor says isimportant.14. I very seldom am excited about material covered in a course.15. I enjoy hearing what other students think about issues raised in class.16.I only do what I am absolutely required to do in my course.17. In class, I must compete with other students to get my ideas across.18. I get more out of going to class than staying at home.
  12. 12. 19. I learn a lot of the content in my classes on my own.20. I don’t want to attend most of my classes.21. Students should be encouraged to share more of their ideas with each other.22. I complete assignments exactly the way my teachers tell me to do them.23. Students have to be aggressive to do well in courses.24. It is my responsibility to get as much as I can out of a course.25. I feel very confident in my ability to learn on my own.26. Paying attention during class sessions is very difficult for me to do.27. I like to study for tests with other students.28. I do not like making choices about what to study or how to do assignments.29. I like to solve problems or answer questions before anyone else can.30. Classroom activities are interesting. Please add below any other comments you want to make about Learning Style in general ………………………………………………………………………..…………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………..……………………… …………………………………………………..………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………..… ………………………………………………………………………..…………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………..… Thank you for your time
  13. 13. Questionnaire for Teacher I. BIODATA 1. GENDER:  A. M  B. F 2. AGE: ........... II. TEACHING EXPERIENCE AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT 1. How many years have you been in the profession? ………………………………………………………………………………………..………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………..……………………………… ……………………………………………………… 2. If you are a foreign language teacher, have you stayed in a country where that language is spoken as a mother tongue?  A. YES  B. NO 3. Which in-service training sessions of any kind did you attend? ………………………………………………………………………………………..………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………..……………………………… ……………………………………………………… 4. Have you been involved in any language awareness project?  A. YES  B. NO 5. Following are a number of beliefs which some teachers consider important and other teachers consider not so important. There are no right or wrong answers. Each item is followed by a five-point scale. Indicate your judgment by ticking each answer box. Please answer all items.1=Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3= Undecided 4= Agree 5=Strongly Agree Statement 1 2 3 4 5 1. The Educational Authorities are doing their best to improve university ‘s quality of education. 2. I wish I had more homogeneous classes 3. I wish I could teach another subject
  14. 14. 4. I would like to have another job 5. I worry about mixed ability classes 6. My students’ achievements really motivate me to go on with my job 7. The Director and her/his team are doing an excellent job at our educational institution 8. I wish the Educational Authorities valued my job as I deserve 9. Introducing several languages in class is a waste of time 10. Language learning helped me to change my attitudes and personal beliefs towards other communities and cultures 11. I’m fully satisfied with my job 12. I share my personal feelings with my students 13. I show my students that I care for their personal problems 14. I allow students real choices about any aspect of the learning process 15. I regularly include tasks in my class that yield tangible, finished products 16. I always indicate my students that I believe in their capability to complete the tasks 17. I usually show my students that I care about their progress in the learning process 18. I share my personal interest in languages with my students 19. I usually notice and react to any positive contributions from my students Please add below any other comments you want to make about Students Learning Style ingeneral………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR PARTICIPATING!

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