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ASSG   2011
Developmentof best practiceand new technology for ...
Keep quality & Reduce wasteHarvest                                        Consumer
Keep quality & Reduce wasteSMEs    in theEuropean mussel industryResearch
Practices...            Companies...            Countries... different harvesting                           different CLIE...
Conditions of approval Scotland                   Specifications The system is approved for the purification of           ...
Conditions of approvalBulk bins require a minimumflow rate 6500L/h per bin for250kg of mussels...                         ...
Conditions of approvalBulk bins require a minimumflow rate 6500L/h per bin for250kg of mussels...                         ...
Can oxygen be maintainedabove 5 mg/L at flows lowerthan 6500 L/h?
Different Flows Regimes tested for 42 h                    2500L/h                                   3000L/h2500L/h       ...
How we did itCalculate the area of the hole to give aflow of 3000     L/h or 2500 L/hQ (m/s) = Area of the hole x√(2xg for...
Mussels were harvestedand graded as usual
… and placed in the bins         12.6 ̊C
12.6 ̊C
30 min90 min7 hours20 hours24 hours42 hours           Oxygen sampling
Top                       MC     Middle          Bottom            False FloorFF               Drain
ResultsOxygen (mg/L) at 12.6 ̊C                  9.0                  8.0             *                                   ...
Results                        7.8 mg/LOxygen (mg/L)                   7.3 mg/L       7.5 mg/L                            ...
Results                     87 %Oxygen (%)                    81 %           83%                                    83 %  ...
Can oxygen be maintained> 5 mg/L at flows lowerthan 6500 L/h?                    Yes, 2500 L/h and                    temp...
Transport with iceWhat is the temperature?                           Photo by Sara Barrento
Temperature during transportSimulated transport                               ICE                      Logger
Temperature during transport                   Simulated transport with ice                 14.0                 12.0     ...
Temperature inside the musselsSimulated transportFake mussel           Live mussel
Temperature C    2        4            6                 8                      10                                       ...
Temperature inside musselsSimulated 48h transport with ice and re-water at 11.7C                                         ...
Temperature inside mussels    Simulated 48h transport with ice and re-water at 11.7C                 18                 1...
Gaping out of water                40.0Weight Loss %                                      32.5                30.0    26.7...
vIDEO TRIALS
vIDEO TRIALS
MusselsAlive Project:  development of best practice and new technology for grading, handling, transportation, conditioning...
MusselsAlive Project:  development of best practice and new technology for grading, handling, transportation, conditioning...
MusselsAlive Project:  development of best practice and new technology for grading, handling, transportation, conditioning...
MusselsAlive Project:  development of best practice and new technology for grading, handling, transportation, conditioning...
MusselsAlive Project:  development of best practice and new technology for grading, handling, transportation, conditioning...
MusselsAlive Project:  development of best practice and new technology for grading, handling, transportation, conditioning...
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MusselsAlive Project: development of best practice and new technology for grading, handling, transportation, conditioning and storage

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... of mussels for SMEs in the European mussel industry. This power point and videos were presented by Sara Barrento during the Association of Scottish Shellfish Growers 2012 in Oban. In 2011 several mussel farmers were interviewed in Scotland, Ireland and Norway. This presentation addresses two questions raised by the mussel farmers:

1) Can oxygen be maintained above 5 mg/L at flows lower than 6500 L/h?

2)Transport with ice: What is the temperature inside mussels?

There are two videos the first video is on slide 34 and the caption is as follows Mussels can survive for extended periods out of water and can be traded for human consumption as live animals. Usually mussels are transported live without water. However, when exposed to air, mussels gape in an attempt to maintain oxygen levels. Gaping occurs when mussels are out of water and is basically the opening of the valves. In this video it can be seen that mussels gape intermittently, and the smaller mussels gape more often, loosing more water than bigger mussels. The footage was taken during a 48 h period, the dark images correspond to the night period. Mussels were kept out of the water in a temperature controlled room set to 18 degrees Celsius. The temperature was chosen because everything happens faster at higher temperatures. The same type of response was shown at 5 degrees, but instead of capturing images during 48 h, the time is then extended to one week, which further demonstrates the importance of keeping low temperatures.

The second video is on slide 35 and the caption is as follows: this video shows mussels in an aquarium that were given green microalgae. Mussels start filtrating immediately and at the same time it can be seen that mussels release pseudofaeces. Quite often the mussel foot comes out from the valves and extends. This video is ideal to show how fast mussels filtrate and the importance of filtration during depuration. Many physiological events can be explained and introduced with these images.

These videos were supported by The European Commission through the Collaborative Research Project ''MusselsAlive : Development of best Practice and new technology for grading, handling, transportation, conditioning and storage of mussels for SMEs in the European mussel industry".

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MusselsAlive Project: development of best practice and new technology for grading, handling, transportation, conditioning and storage

  1. 1. ASSG 2011
  2. 2. Developmentof best practiceand new technology for ...
  3. 3. Keep quality & Reduce wasteHarvest Consumer
  4. 4. Keep quality & Reduce wasteSMEs in theEuropean mussel industryResearch
  5. 5. Practices... Companies... Countries... different harvesting different CLIENTS different REGULATIONS TECHNIQUESdifferent TRANSPORT different COMMERCIAL different TRADE CHAINS conditions CHANNELS
  6. 6. Conditions of approval Scotland Specifications The system is approved for the purification of {species (latin name)} .The system shall consist of a tank measuring 1160 x 980 x 600mm internally containing a minimum water volume of X litres. The maximum capacity of the system shall be X species subject to the loading conditions given a 25 watt, or greater, UV below. The system must be fitted with steriliser. Conditions All shellfish must be alive and healthy before undergoing purification. Purification, without disturbance to shellfish, must be for a minimum period of 42 hours once the correct conditions of purification have been achieved. The total volume of water in the system must be recirculated through the UV lamps and evenly through the whole system at a rate of at least 20 litres per minute. After each purification cycle the tank must be drained down, without causing resuspension of sediment, before shellfish are disturbed or removed. Seawater should only enter the system via the operating UV system. Seawater should not normally be re-used for more than 2 consecutive weeks. However, extended re-use up to a maximum of one month is permitted where exceptional climatic or other circumstances dictate. UV lamps must be changed after every 2,500 hours of use. A record of UV usage must be kept for this purpose. UV lamps must be maintained free of slime and other substances which may impair efficiency of
  7. 7. Conditions of approvalBulk bins require a minimumflow rate 6500L/h per bin for250kg of mussels... to keep oxygen > 5mg/L or 50%
  8. 8. Conditions of approvalBulk bins require a minimumflow rate 6500L/h per bin for250kg of mussels... substantial pumping costs
  9. 9. Can oxygen be maintainedabove 5 mg/L at flows lowerthan 6500 L/h?
  10. 10. Different Flows Regimes tested for 42 h 2500L/h 3000L/h2500L/h 6500L/h 3000L/h 6500L/h
  11. 11. How we did itCalculate the area of the hole to give aflow of 3000 L/h or 2500 L/hQ (m/s) = Area of the hole x√(2xg force x height of the tank)For each flow we used two tanks as replica
  12. 12. Mussels were harvestedand graded as usual
  13. 13. … and placed in the bins 12.6 ̊C
  14. 14. 12.6 ̊C
  15. 15. 30 min90 min7 hours20 hours24 hours42 hours Oxygen sampling
  16. 16. Top MC Middle Bottom False FloorFF Drain
  17. 17. ResultsOxygen (mg/L) at 12.6 ̊C 9.0 8.0 * * 7.0 Oxygen (mg/L) 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 FF Bottom Middle MC Top Drain 2500 L/h 3000L/h 6000 L/h 6500 L/h
  18. 18. Results 7.8 mg/LOxygen (mg/L) 7.3 mg/L 7.5 mg/L 7.7 mg/L 7.1 mg/L 7.0 mg/L Drain 7.6 mg/L 6.5 mg/L
  19. 19. Results 87 %Oxygen (%) 81 % 83% 83 % 79 % 77 % Drain 85 % 72 %
  20. 20. Can oxygen be maintained> 5 mg/L at flows lowerthan 6500 L/h? Yes, 2500 L/h and temperature <12.6⁰C
  21. 21. Transport with iceWhat is the temperature? Photo by Sara Barrento
  22. 22. Temperature during transportSimulated transport ICE Logger
  23. 23. Temperature during transport Simulated transport with ice 14.0 12.0 Outside box 10.0 TopTemperature °C Middle 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 Hours
  24. 24. Temperature inside the musselsSimulated transportFake mussel Live mussel
  25. 25. Temperature C 2 4 6 8 10 14 1210:3211:1912:0612:5313:4014:2715:1416:0116:4817:3518:22 Simulated 24h transport without ice19:0919:5620:4321:3022:17 Temperature inside mussels23:0423:5100:3801:2502:1202:5903:4604:3305:2006:07 Live mussel Fake mussel06:5407:4108:2809:1510:02
  26. 26. Temperature inside musselsSimulated 48h transport with ice and re-water at 11.7C ICE Re-water 11.7C 48h simulated transport
  27. 27. Temperature inside mussels Simulated 48h transport with ice and re-water at 11.7C 18 16 14 12Temperature °C 10 Bottom mussel 8 6 Middle mussel 4 Top mussel 2 Environment 0 10:00 00:00 06:00 12:00 18:00 00:00 06:00 12:00 18:00 00:00 11:00 16:00 06:00 11/02/2012 12/02/2012 13/02/2012 14/02/2012
  28. 28. Gaping out of water 40.0Weight Loss % 32.5 30.0 26.7 20.0 10.0 1.8 0.0 45.5 mm 56.3 mm 68.3 mm Mussel Length (mm)
  29. 29. vIDEO TRIALS
  30. 30. vIDEO TRIALS

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