Duty:Report text About NaturalDisaster tsunami<br />By        : Azizah FitrianiClass   : XI IPA 8<br />
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami<br />The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, also known as the 2011 Tōhoku...
Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan said, "In the 65 years after the end of World War II, this is the toughest and the most ...
Many electrical generators were taken down, and at least three nuclear reactors suffered explosions due to hydrogen gas th...
Early estimates placed insured losses from the earthquake alone at US$14.5 to $34.6 billion. The Bank of Japan offered ¥15...
Earthquake<br />The 9.0-magnitude (MW) underseamegathrust earthquake occurred on 11 March 2011 at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) in...
The main earthquake was preceded by a number of large foreshocks, and hundreds of aftershocks were reported. The first maj...
Aftershocks follow Omori's Law, which states that the rate of aftershocks declines with the reciprocal of the time since t...
The warning for the general public was delivered about 8 seconds after the first P wave was detected, or about 31 seconds ...
Tsunami<br />The earthquake which was caused by 5 to 8 meters upthrust on a 180-km wide seabed at 60 km offshore from the ...
. <br />Chile's section of Pacific coast is one of the furthest from Japan, at about 17,000 km (11,000 mi) away, but still...
That'S all And Thank you.<br />
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Report by stunami azizah fitriani

  1. 1. Duty:Report text About NaturalDisaster tsunami<br />By : Azizah FitrianiClass : XI IPA 8<br />
  2. 2. 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami<br />The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, also known as the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake or the Great East Japan Earthquake, (Japanese: "Eastern Japan Great Earthquake Disaster" (東日本大震災, Higashi Nihon Daishinsai?)[fn 1]) was a magnitude 9.0 (Mw) underseamegathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday, 11 March 2011, with the epicenter approximately 70 kilometres (43 mi) east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately 32 km (20 mi). It was the most powerful known earthquake to have hit Japan, and one of the five most powerful earthquakes in the world overall since modern record-keeping began in 1900. The earthquake triggered extremely destructive tsunami waves of up to 40.5 metres (133 ft) in Miyako, Iwate, Tōhoku. In some cases traveling up to 10 km (6 mi) inland. In addition to loss of life and destruction of infrastructure, the tsunami caused a number of nuclear accidents, primarily the ongoing level 7meltdowns at three reactors in the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant complex, and the associated evacuation zones affecting hundreds of thousands of residents. <br />
  3. 3. Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan said, "In the 65 years after the end of World War II, this is the toughest and the most difficult crisis for Japan." The Japanese National Police Agency has confirmed 15,780 deaths, 5,929 injured, and 4,122 people missing across eighteen prefectures, as well as over 125,000 buildings damaged or destroyed. The earthquake and tsunami caused extensive and severe structural damage in Japan, including heavy damage to roads and railways as well as fires in many areas, and a dam collapse. Around 4.4 million households in northeastern Japan were left without electricity and 1.5 million without water.<br />
  4. 4. Many electrical generators were taken down, and at least three nuclear reactors suffered explosions due to hydrogen gas that had built up within their outer containment buildings after cooling system failure. Residents within a 20 km (12 mi) radius of the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant and a 10 km (6.2 mi) radius of the Fukushima II Nuclear Power Plant were evacuated. In addition, the U.S. recommended that its citizens evacuate up to 80 km (50 mi) of the plant.<br />
  5. 5. Early estimates placed insured losses from the earthquake alone at US$14.5 to $34.6 billion. The Bank of Japan offered ¥15 trillion (US$183 billion) to the banking system on 14 March in an effort to normalize market conditions. The overall cost could exceed US$300 billion, making it the most expensive natural disaster on record. <br />The earthquake moved Honshu 2.4 m (8 ft) east and shifted the Earth on its axis by estimates of between 10 cm (4 in) and 25 cm (10 in). <br />
  6. 6. Earthquake<br />The 9.0-magnitude (MW) underseamegathrust earthquake occurred on 11 March 2011 at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) in the western Pacific Ocean at a relatively shallow depth of 32 km (19.9 mi), with its epicenter approximately 72 km (45 mi) east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku, Japan, lasting approximately six minutes. The nearest major city to the quake was Sendai, on the main island of Honshu, 130 km (81 mi) away. The quake occurred 373 km (232 mi) from Tokyo.<br />
  7. 7. The main earthquake was preceded by a number of large foreshocks, and hundreds of aftershocks were reported. The first major foreshock was a 7.2 MW event on 9 March, approximately 40 km (25 mi) from the location of the 11 March quake, with another three on the same day in excess of 6.0 MW. Following the quake, a 7.0 MW aftershock was reported at 15:06 JST, followed by a 7.4 at 15:15 JST and a 7.2 at 15:26 JST. Over eight hundred aftershocks of magnitude 4.5 or greater have occurred since the initial quake. <br />
  8. 8. Aftershocks follow Omori's Law, which states that the rate of aftershocks declines with the reciprocal of the time since the main quake. The aftershocks will thus taper off in time but could continue for years. One minute before the earthquake was felt in Tokyo, the Earthquake Early Warning system, which includes more than 1,000 seismometers in Japan, sent out warnings of impending strong shaking to millions. It is believed that the early warning by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) saved many lives.<br />
  9. 9. The warning for the general public was delivered about 8 seconds after the first P wave was detected, or about 31 seconds after the earthquake occurred. However, the estimated intensities were smaller than the actual ones in some places in Kanto and Tohoku regions. This was thought to be because of smaller estimated earthquake magnitude, smaller estimated fault plane, shorter estimated fault length, not having considered the shape of the fault, etc. <br />Initially reported as 7.9 MW by the USGS, the magnitude was quickly upgraded to 8.8, then again to 8.9, and then finally to 9.0.<br />
  10. 10. Tsunami<br />The earthquake which was caused by 5 to 8 meters upthrust on a 180-km wide seabed at 60 km offshore from the east coast of Tōhoku resulted in a major tsunami which brought destruction along the Pacific coastline of Japan's northern islands and resulted in the loss of thousands of lives and devastated entire towns. The tsunami propagated across the Pacific, and warnings were issued and evacuations carried out. In many countries bordering the Pacific, including the entire Pacific coast of North and South America from Alaska to Chile; however, while the tsunami was felt in many of these places, it caused only relatively minor effects. <br />
  11. 11. . <br />Chile's section of Pacific coast is one of the furthest from Japan, at about 17,000 km (11,000 mi) away, but still was struck by tsunami waves 2 m (6.6 ft) high. A wave height of 38.9 meters (128 ft) was estimated at Omoe peninsula, Miyako city, Iwate prefecture. <br />
  12. 12. That'S all And Thank you.<br />

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