English AssiggmentName:Rama Ari FriyantoYogie PrakasaZulkarnain
Orangutans are large apes that live in southeast Asia (onthe islands of Borneo and Sumatra). These apes mostlylive in trees (they are arboreal) and swing from branch tobranch using their arms.The word orangutan means "man of the forest" in theMalay language. As its habitats are being usurped byman, the orangutans population is decreasing and it is ingrave danger of extinction.
ANATOMYOrangutans have a large, bulky body, a thick neck,very long, strong arms, short, bowed legs, and notail. Orangutans are about 2/3 the size of the gorilla.Hair:They are mostly covered with long reddish-brownhair.The Head:The orangutan has a large head with a prominentmouth area. Adult males have large cheek flaps(which get larger as the ape ages).
BEHAVIOR AND SOCIAL HABITSOrangutans are shy, solitary animals that are active during theday (they are diurnal). They live alone in large territories. This isprobably due to their eating habits; they need a large area inorder to get enough food and too many orangutans in one areamight lead to starvation.The only long-lasting orangutan social group is the mother andoffspring, who live together for about 7 years. When mating,the male and female orangutan stay together for only a fewdays.
HABITATOrangutans live in tropical rain forests.DISTRIBUTIONOrangutans live in Asia. They are the only great ape fromAsia. They are found in tropical rain forests in northernSumatra, Indonesia and in low-lying swamps in Borneo.REPRODUCTION AND BABY ORANGUTANSOrangutans are mature and capable of reproducingbeginning when they are 7 to 10 years old. Females arepregnant for 8.5 to 9 months and give birth to a singlebaby. Young orangutans are weaned from their mothersat about 6-7 years of age.
The National Monument (Indonesian: MonumenNasional (Monas)) is a 433 ft (132 metre) tower inthe centre of Merdeka Square, CentralJakarta, symbolizing the fight for Indonesiasindependence. Construction began in 1961 underthe direction of President Sukarno and themonument was opened to the public in 1975. It istopped by a flame covered with gold foil. Themonument and the museum is open daily from08.00 - 15.00 Western Indonesia Time(UTC+7), everyday throughout the week, except forthe last Monday of each month, when themonument is closed.
After the Indonesian government returned to Jakartafrom Yogyakarta in 1950 following the Dutch recognition ofIndonesian independence, President Sukarno began tocontemplate the construction of a national monumentcomparable to the Eiffel Tower on the square in front of thePresidential Palace. On 17 August 1954, a NationalMonument Committee was established and a designcompetition was held in 1955. This attracted 51 entries, but only one design, byFrederich Silaban, met any of the criteria determined by thecommittee, which included reflecting the character ofIndonesia in a building capable of lasting for centuries. Arepeat competition was held in 1960, but once again, none ofthe 136 entries met the criteria.
The chairman of the jury team then asked Silaban toshow his design to Sukarno. However, Sukarno did not like thedesign as he wanted the monument to be in the form of alinga and yoni. Silaban was asked to design such a monument,but his design was for a monument so large that it would havebeen unaffordable given the economic conditions at the time. Silaban refused to design a smaller monument,suggesting that construction be delayed until the Indonesianeconomy improved. Sukarno then asked the architect R.M.Soedarsono to continue with the design. Soedarsonoincorporated the numbers 17, 8 and 45, representing the 17August 1945 Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, in thedimensions of the monument.
Construction Construction proceeded in three stages. The first period, from1961/1962–1964/1965 began with the official start of construction on17 August 1961 with Sukarno ceremonially driving in the first concretepile. A total of 284 piles were used for the foundation block. A further360 piles were driven in for the museum foundations, with work beingcompleted in March 1962. The walls of the museum in the base werecompleted by October. Construction of the obelisk than commencedand was finished in August 1963. Work in the second stage, from 1966to 1968 was delayed by shortages of funding and the aftermath of the30 September Movement coup attempt. In the final phase, from 1969–1976, the dioramas for thehistorical museum were added. Problems remained once constructionwas complete, and work was needed to solve problems with waterleaking into the museum. The monument was officially opened to thepublic on 12 July 1975. The location of the construction site isknown as Merdeka Square
Designer PP Rama Ari Friyanto & assistenTerima Kasih ^^ Tak Lupa Kepada :Dan Pendidik –Materi Sumber Pendidik KamiTeman – Teman 17Agust 11 Google Search at Tersayang Keluarga Kami Tuhan Yang Maha EsaSeluruh Fans Kami Pengumpul Materi Zulkarnain Ide Kreatif Yogie Praksa