SMA NEGERI 2 MATARAM
MATA PELAJARAN BAHASA INGGRIS
KELAS XII SEMESTER I
UNIT 2 EXPLANATION
H.M. SARTONO, S.Pd.
First of all we wished to preface that in this part of Learning English Material Based
ICT, SMAN 2 Mataram designed firstly English Learning Material for Senior High School
grade X, XI, & XII Academic Year 2009 / 2010. They are written and designed by H.M.
Nowadays, Mastering English is a challenge for some people, this is because of the
Modern Technology which accelerates the development of any field including Education.
To fulfill the Standard of Competence these English Learning Materials, we have to concern
with Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan as it is legitimated by Peraturan Menteri No 22
Tahun 2006 and it is applied in KTSP SMA which is elaborated completely in Syllabus
The main teacher's roles are as mediator and facilitator. The students and the
teachers are to be active and creative . The students' activity is focused on four skills such
as Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing Skills. All skills enable the students to work
actively, while vocabulary Mastery is given indirectly in every task and also functional skills
which is available in orally that is intended to make students to be able to communicate in
English orally. Then the acceleration task are implemented in every topic and section.
Furthermore, in these part of design English Learning Materials in order to meet the
students' needs, to offer a wide knowledge which are useful to their daily life or activity. So
we can say that the students from SMAN 2 Mataram joining these materials are aware of
English. And during the process of study, the students will discover something new, also
encourage them to communicate in English.
Finally, we would like to express our appreciation to those who have taken apart,
helped and given the motivation, or supported to these designs.
Hopefully, if there were some suggestions, criticisms for the improvement of these
designs will be warmly appreciated.
H.M. SARTONO, S.Pd
W H A T IS EX P LA N A T ION ?
Definition and purposes of Explanation :
Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural, social,
scientific and cultural phenomena. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming
of the phenomena. It is often found in science, geography and history text books.
Purpose of Explanation: to describe a particular person, place or thing in detail.
An explanation is a set of statements constructed to describe a set of facts
which clarifies the causes, context, and consequences of those facts. This description may
establish rules or laws, and may clarify the existing ones in relation to any objects, or
phenomena examined. The components of an explanation can be implicit, and be
interwoven with one another.
An explanation is often underpinned by an understanding that is represented by
different media such as music, text, and graphics. Thus, an explanation is subjected to
interpretation, and discussion.
In scientific research, explanation is one of the purposes of research, e.g.,
exploration and description. Explanation is a way to uncover new knowledge, and to report
relationships among different aspects of studied phenomena.
In logic a statement is a declarative sentence that is either true or false. A
statement is distinct from a sentence in that a sentence is only one formulation of a
statement, whereas there may be many other formulations expressing the same statement.
The term "statement" may to refer to a sentence or the idea expressed by a sentence.
Philosopher of language, Peter Straw son has advocated the use of the term "statement" in
preference to proposition.
Explanation texts explain how or why things happen eg how acid soil affects farm
productivity. Explanation begins by identifying the phenomenon (thing) that will be
explained. (Phenomenon identification.)
Generic structure of Explanation
General statement : stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained.
Sequenced explanation; stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena.
Dominant Generic Structure:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Using special technical terms
5. Featuring generic participant; sun, rain, etc
6. Using chronological connection; to begin with, next, etc
7. Using passive voice pattern
This sample explanation is labeled to show you the structure and language
features of an explanation text.
title The effects of acid soil
Soils with a pH of less than 7.0 are acid. The lower the pH,
phenomenon the more acid the soil. When soil pH falls below 5.5, plant
identification growth is affected. Crop yields decrease, reducing
Soils provide water and nutrients for plant growth and
development. Essential plant nutrients include
phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium and sulfur. Plants
require other elements such as molybdenum, in smaller
quantities. Some elements egg aluminum and
manganese, are toxic to plants.
Nutrients become available to plants when they are
dissolved in water. Plants are able to take up phosphate,
nitrate, potassium and sulfate ions in solution.
The solubility of nutrients changes with phi In acid soils
(low pH), molybdenum becomes less soluble and
aluminum becomes more soluble. Therefore, plant growth
may be affected by either a deficiency of molybdenum or
explanation too much aluminum.
sequence Both crop and pasture plants are affected by acid soils.
there may be a range of symptoms. Crops and pastures
may be poorly established resulting in patchy and uneven
growth. Plant leaves may go yellow and die at the tips.
The root system of the plant may be stunted. Crops may
Plants vary in their sensitivity to low phi Canola and
Lucerne are very sensitive to acid soils so do not grow
well. Lupines and triticale are tolerant to soils of low pH
so they still perform well.
Land can become unproductive if acid soil is left
untreated. Incorporating lime into the soil raises the phi
Therefore, liming soil can reverse the effects of acid soil
on plants and return a paddock to productivity.
B ETW EEN E X PLA N A TIO N A N D PR O C E DU R E T E XT
Seeing the social function, both procedure and explanation texts have the
similarity in which both describe how to make or done something.
They give the detail description on something, phenomena, goods,
product case or problem.
To see the differences between explanation and procedure, we have to
analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used.
Procedure, this text type is commonly called as instruction text. It uses
pattern of commend in building the structure. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is
omitted the “to”. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb.
Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is
close to our daily activity. For example how to make a cup of tea, how to make a
good kite, etc is the best example of the procedure text. It is such word; first boil
water, secondly prepare the cup, and so on.
Explanation, it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text.
Explanation is such a scientific written material. It describes how certain
phenomenon or event happen. How a tornado form, how tsunami works are the best
example of explanation text. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic.
Explanation - To explain the a. General - Generic nouns How
processes involved in Statement - Action Verbs Babies are
the formation or b. sequenced - Simple Present born?
workings of natural or Explanations tense Tsunami
socio-cultural - Passive Life Cycle
phenomenon - Adverbial of The
- To give an account phrases Malaria
of how something Parasite
works or reasons for
UNIT 2 EXPLANATION
• Listening to blame and accusation expressions
• Listening to expressions for admitting doing something wrong
• Listening to promises and swearing
• Listening to monologues of explanation texts
• Blaming, accusing and complaining
• Using expressions for admitting doing something wrong
• Making a promise and swearing
• Performing monologues of explanation texts
• Reading explanation texts
• Reading a short functional text: picture diagrams
• Writing an explanation text
• Writing a short functional text: picture diagrams
A. Oral Cycle
• listen to blame and accusation expression;
• listen to expressions for admitting and denying something;
• listen to promising and swearing;
• listen to monologues of explanation texts.
• use expressions for blaming and accusing;
• use expressions for admitting and denying wrong doing;
• use expressions for making a promise and swearing;
• perform a monologue of explanation text.
• identify the structure of explanation texts;
• read and study explanation texts;
• read and identify meaning of picture diagrams.
B. Written Cycle
• follow the stages of writing an explanation text;
• write an explanation text.
A. Oral Cycle
Answer the questions orally.
1. If you borrow something and your sister breaks it, should you pay for the repair?
2. Should you apologize for it?
3. Will you get angry with your sister?
4. Your friend blames and accuses you of something you didn't do. How do you respond?
You are going to listen to dialogue from the tape. Complete the text while you are
listening. Compare your answers with your friend’s .
Work in pairs and discuss the answer to the questions based on the dialogue in Activity 2.
1. What phrases does Rifki use to deny Nadia and Adi’s accusation?
2. What phrases does Rifki use to admit his fault?
3. What phrases does Adi use to respond Rifki’s regret?
4. What phrases does Rifki use to say sorry?
Activity 4. Answer the questions orally!
1. What causes rainfall?
2. Where does the water come from?
3. Where does it go?