TUGAS BAHASA INGGRIS EXPLANATION TEXT : TSUNAMI Oleh: FIKRI DINULMAULA (8) Kelas : XII IPA 2 SMA NEGERI 2 MATARAM
SUBTITLE Introduction Tsunami Description : <ul><li>The General of Tsunami </li></ul><ul><li>What causes of Tsunami? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do tsunamis occurs in the world </li></ul>
The General of Tsunami Tsunami is a Japanese word meaning ‘harbor wave’. It is constituted with two syllables, Japanese language meaning harbour ("tsu", 津 ) and wave ("nami", 波 ). Tsunami is a wave train or series of waves generated, by impulsive disturbance that vertically displaces the water column, in water body. Earthquake, landslides, volcanic eruption, explosion and even the impact of cosmic bodies like meteorites commonly generate tsunami. Tsunami savagely attacks coastlines causing devastating property damage and loss of lives.
Tsunami "Wave Train" Many people have the mistaken belief that tsunamis are single waves. They are not. Instead tsunamis are "wave trains" consisting of multiple waves. The chart below is a tidal gauge record from Onagawa, Japan beginning at the time of the 1960 Chile earthquake. Time is plotted along the horizontal axis and water level is plotted on the vertical axis. Note the normal rise and fall of the ocean surface, caused by tides, during the early part of this record. Then recorded are a few waves a little larger than normal followed by several much larger waves. In many tsunami events the shoreline is pounded by repeated large waves.
<ul><li>Tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. </li></ul><ul><li>Tectonic earthquakes are a particular kind of earthquake that are associated with the earth’s crustal deformation, when these earthquakes occur beneath the see, the water above the deformed area is displayed from its equilibrium position. </li></ul><ul><li>Waves are formed as the displaced water mass, which acts under the influence of gravity, attempts to regain its equilibrium </li></ul>What Cause of Tsunami
Most tsunamis are caused by earthquakes generated in a subduction zone, an area where an oceanic plate is being forced down into the mantle by plate tectonic forces. The friction between the subducting plate and the overriding plate is enormous. This friction prevents a slow and steady rate of subduction and instead the two plates become "stuck". Subduction Zones are Potential Tsunami Locations
As the stuck plate continues to descend into the mantle the motion causes a slow distortion of the overriding plage. The result is an accumulation of energy very similar to the energy stored in a compressed spring. Energy can accumulate in the overriding plate over a long period of time - decades or even centuries. Accumulated Seismic Energy
Energy accumulates in the overriding plate until it exceeds the frictional forces between the two stuck plates. When this happens, the overriding plate snaps back into an unrestrained position. This sudden motion is the cause of the tsunami - because it gives an enormous shove to the overlying water. At the same time, inland areas of the overriding plate are suddenly lowered. Earthquake Causes Tsunami
Tsunamis occur most frequently in the Pacific Ocean , but are a global phenomenon; they are possible wherever large bodies of water are found, including inland lakes, where they can be caused by landslides. Japan is a nation with the most recorded tsunamis in the world. The earliest recorded disaster being that of the 684 A.D. Please refer to the below website of the List of historic tsunamis by death toll Where do tsunamis occurs in the world
Map of tectonic plates where the earthquake triggered the tsunami
Tsunami is one of the earth’s disaster. It was a Japanese word meaning “harbor wave,” used as the scientific term for a class of abnormal sea wave that can cause catastrophic damage when it hits a coastline. Tsunamis can be generated by an undersea earthquake, an undersea landslide, the eruption of an undersea volcano, or by the force of an asteroid crashing into the ocean. CONCLUTION