biotechnology and its applications
application s of biotechnology, bt.cotton, cloning, dna, dna fingerprinting, dna isolation, gene manipulation, genetic engineering, goldenrice., r dnatechnology, recombinant vaccines, transgenic, vectors
The unscientific comments about Bt-cotton often reminds us of the six blind men and the elephant who guessed the tail as rope, legs as pole, trunk as wall, ear as fan and the trunk as hose.
Biotechnology and its application
Biotechnology and itsBiotechnology and its
Asst.prof. Of Biotechnology
What is Biotechnology ?What is Biotechnology ?
The term biotechnology was coined in 1917, by
Hungarian engineer, karl erky, to describe a process
for large scale production of pigs.
Biotechnology can be defined as application of
technology Using the living organisms to obtain
What is Biotechnology?What is Biotechnology?
• Biotechnology is a multidisciplinarian in nature, involving
• Computer Science
• Cell and Molecular Biology
• Recombinant DNA Technology Genetic
manipulation of bacteria, viruses, fungi, plants and
animals, often for the development of specific products
Available Definations of Biotechnology.Available Definations of Biotechnology.
• Biotechnology is the application of biological
organisms systems or process to manufacturing and
service industries ( British biotechnologists)
• Biotechnology is integrated use of biochemistry,
microbiology and engineering sciences in order to
achieve technological applications of microbes,
cultured cells and parts there of (European federation
• Biotechnology is the controlled use of biological
agents, such as microbes or cellular components.
(U.S.National science foundation)
Development of BiotechnologyDevelopment of Biotechnology
Ancient Biotechnology: early history relates to
food and shelter, includes domestication.
Classical Biotechnology: fermentation food
production and medicine.
Modern Biotechnology: manipulates genetic
information in an organism. genetic engineering.
Modern Biotechnological processesModern Biotechnological processes
Genetic engineering: It is in vitro DNA technology
used to isolate genes from an organism manipulate
them in laboratory as per desire and insert them
into other cell or system for specific character. It is
also called gene cloning.
Recombinant DNA technology is one
of the recent advances in biotechnology,
which was developed by two scientists
named Boyer and Cohen in 1973.
Stanley N. Cohen (1935) ,
who received the Nobel Prize
in Medicine in 1986 for his
work on discoveries of
Herbert Boyer (1936) who
constructed the first
recombinant DNA using
bacterial DNA and plasmids
Recombinant DNA technology works by taking
DNA from two different sources and combining that
DNA into a single molecule. That alone, however,
will not do much.
Recombinant DNA technology only becomes useful
when that artificially-created DNA is reproduced.
This is known as DNA cloning.
In the early 1970s, technologies for the laboratory
manipulation of nucleic acids emerged. In turn,
these technologies led to the construction of DNA
molecules composed of nucleotide sequences
taken from different sources. The products of
these innovations, recombinant DNA molecules,
opened exciting new avenues of investigation in
molecular biology and genetics, and a new field
was born— recombinant DNA technology (RDT).
Concept of Recombinant DNAConcept of Recombinant DNA
Recombinant DNA is a molecule that combines DNA
from two sources . Also known as gene cloning.
Creates a new combination of genetic material
◦ Human gene for insulin was placed in bacteria
◦ The bacteria are recombinant organisms and produce
insulin in large quantities for diabetics
◦ Genetically engineered drug in 1986
Genetically modified organisms are possible because of
the universal nature of the genetic code!
Recombinant technology begins with the isolation of a
gene of interest (target gene). The target gene is then
inserted into the plasmid or phage (vector) to form
The replicon is then introduced into host cells to cloned
and either express the protein or not.
The cloned replicon is referred to as recombinant DNA.
The procedure is called recombinant DNA technology.
Cloning is necessary to produce numerous copies of
the DNA since the initial supply is inadequate to insert
into host cells.
Some other terms are also in common use to
describe genetic engineering are,
Recombinant DNA technology
Gene cloning (Molecular cloning)
Six steps ofSix steps of Recombinant DNARecombinant DNA
1. Isolating (vector and target gene)
2. Cutting (Cleavage)
3. Joining (Ligation)
6. Selecting (Screening)
DNA cloning in a plasmid vector permits amplificationDNA cloning in a plasmid vector permits amplification
of a DNA fragment.of a DNA fragment.
Enjoy an video of cloning…Enjoy an video of cloning…
Applications of RecombinantApplications of Recombinant
DNA TechnologyDNA Technology
1. Analysis of Gene Structure and Expression
2. Pharmaceutical Products
◦ Drugs- human insulin
◦ Vaccines-recombinant vaccines
1. Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
◦ Transgenic plants (Bt.crops)
◦ Transgenic animal
1. Application in medicine-Gene therapy
Analysis of Gene Structure andAnalysis of Gene Structure and
Using specialized recombinant DNA techniques, researchers
have determined vast amounts of DNA sequence including
the entire genomic sequence of humans and many key
experimental organisms. This enormous volume of data,
which is growing at a rapid pace, has been stored and
organized in two primary data banks:
the GenBank at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda,
and the EMBL Sequence Data Base at the European
Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg, Germany
Pharmaceutical ProductsPharmaceutical Products
Some pharmaceutical applications of DNA technology:
Large-scale production of human hormones and other
proteins with therapeutic uses.
Production of safer vaccines.
A number of therapeutic gene products —insulin, the
interleukins, interferons, growth hormones,
erythropoietin, and coagulation factor VIII—are now
produced commercially from cloned genes
Background for Recombinant insulin
• Diabetes-incrseased glucose concentration 180mg/dl
• Serious complications causes nephropathy, neuropathy
• Early years –insulin isolated and purified from pigs and
• leads problems -allergy in some people, sacrifice of
• Attemtpts to make rec –insulin started in 1970.
• Technique involves - inserting human insulin gene in
promoter of lac operon of the plasmid of E.coli Bacteria .
1980- rec insulin produced and ready for clinical trials.
1982-approval for human use.
1986-ELI- LILLY approval to market HUMULIN...
companies already are
producing molecules made
by recombinant DNA to
treat human diseases.
are used in the production
of human growth hormone
and human insulin
Use recombinant cells to mass produce proteins
Hormone required to
sugars and fats
Now easily produced
Growth hormone deficiency
Faulty pituitary and
Had to rely on cadaver source
Now easily produced by
Background for vaccines
• Vaccines-administration of antigen to elicit an an
immune response that shall Protect aganist infections
• Types of vaccines
1.Dead bacteria or inactivated viruses
3.Subunit vaccines –viral fragments.
New generation vaccines –recombinant vaccines
1987- first recombinant vaccine for hepatitis came for
public use. Recombivax
Genetic Engineering of PlantsGenetic Engineering of Plants
Plants have been bred for millennia to enhance
certain desirable characteristics in important food
B. thuringiensis was first discovered in 1901 by
Japanese biologist Ishiwata Shigetane.
SPECULATIONS ABOUT Bt ARE LIKE THE PERCEPTIONS
OF SIX BLIND MEN ABOUT AN ENEPHANT
Genetically modified organismsGenetically modified organisms (GMO)(GMO)
Recombinant plasmids in
• plants with genetically
herbicide or pesticide
resistant corn & soybean
insecticide use Increases
• “Golden rice” with beta-
carotene Required to make
vitamin A, which in deficiency
GOLDEN RICE TO PROVIDE PRO-VITAMINGOLDEN RICE TO PROVIDE PRO-VITAMIN ‘‘
Crops have been developed that are better tasting,
stay fresh longer, and are protected from disease
and insect infestations.
Transgenic TobaccoTransgenic Tobacco
The luciferase gene from a
firefly is transformed into
tobacco plant using the Ti
plasmid. Watering the plant
with a solution of luciferin (the
substrate for firefly luciferase)
results in the generation of
light by all plant tissues.
Insect-resistant tomato plants:
The plant on the left contains a gene that encodes a
bacterial protein that is toxic to certain insects that feed
on tomato plants. The plant on the right is a wild-type
plant. Only the plant on the left is able to grow when
exposed to the insects.
Studying genes…… how?
Earliest history among farmers-selective breeding.
Discovery of DNA-1953
New molecular biology techniques, like r-DNA,
genomic mapping, genetic cloning etc.
• A new technology: direct manipulation of
• Term transgenic-J.W.Gordon and F.H.Rudell.
• Tailor made animals-wanted characters.
• More efficient than selective breeding.
What are Transgenic?
Transgenic are genetically modified organisms
with DNA from another source inserted into their
Genes from other species/organisms.
Organisms that have transgenes are called
genetically modified organisms. As their genome
A large number of transgenic animals have been
Insects Alba, the EGFP (enhanced GFP) bunny
Created in 2000 as a transgenic artwork.
Transgenic animals For what
Introduction of a desired character.
Animal model for human diseases
Animal system to produce biomolecules
The underlying principle in the production of
transgenic animals is the introduction of a foreign
gene or genes into an animal (the inserted genes
are called transgenes). The foreign genes “must
be transmitted through the germ line, so that
every cell, including germ cells, of the animal
contain the same modified genetic material.”26
(Germ cells are cells whose function is to transmit
genes to an organism’s offspring.)
To date, there are three basic methods of
producing transgenic animals:
Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer
Embryonic stem cell-mediated gene transfer
The production of transgenic animals by
The mouse was the first animal to undergo successful
gene transfer using DNA microinjection.
This method involves:
Transfer of a desired gene construct (of a single gene or
a combination of genes that are recombined and then
cloned) from another member of the same species or
from a different species into the pronucleus of a
The manipulated cell, which first must be cultured in
vitro to develop to a specific embryonic phase, is then
How do transgenic contribute to human
The benefits of these animals to human welfare
can be grouped into areas:
First transgenic mammal Herman ,the bull
(lelystad,16 dec 1990),was the first genetically
modified or transgenic mammal in the world.
Scientist micro injected cells with human gene
coding for lactoferrin.
In 1997, first transgenic cow ROSIE,
Produced human protein enriched milk at 2.4g/lt,
contains human gene Alfa lactalbumin.
α-lactalbumin is an important whey protein in cow
's milk (~1 g/l), and is also present in the milk of
many other mammalian species.
Abnormalities suffered are more
Weak immune system
Respiratory and circulatory problems.
Religious and ethical considerations-Man playing
the role of GOD.
Should scientists focus on in vitro (cultured in a lab)
transgenic methods rather than, or before, using live
animals to alleviate animal suffering?
Should such protocols demand that only the most
promising research be permitted?
Is human welfare the only consideration?
What about the welfare of other life forms?
Interestingly, the creation of transgenic animals
has resulted in a shift in the use of laboratory
animals — from the use of higher-order species
such as dogs to lower-order species such as mice
— and has decreased the number of animals used
in such experimentation, especially in the
development of disease models. This is certainly a
good turn of events since transgenic technology
holds great potential in many fields, including
agriculture, medicine, and industry.
Application in medicine-geneApplication in medicine-gene
Human gene therapy seeks to repair the damage
caused by a genetic deficiency through introduction
of a functional version of the defective gene. To
achieve this end, a cloned variant of the gene must
be incorporated into the organism in such a
manner that it is expressed only at the proper time
and only in appropriate cell types. At this time,
these conditions impose serious technical and
Many gene therapies have received approval from
the National Institutes of Health for trials in human
patients, including the introduction of gene constructs
into patients. Among these are constructs designed to
cure ADA- SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency
due to adenosine deaminase [ADA] deficiency),
neuroblastoma, or cystic fibrosis, or to treat cancer
through expression of the E1A and p53 tumor
How long will introduced genes remain in body?
What vectors to use?
◦ Viruses (adenovirus, influenza virus, herpes, HIV
Will depend on what tissues you want to target
1. In mammalian cells, mRNA is processed before it is
translated into a protein:
◦ Introns are cut out and exons are spliced together
◦ Bacteria can not process mRNA
2. Post-translational modifications
Enzymatic modifications of protein molecules after they
are synthesized in cells
Post-translational modifications include:
• Disulfide bond formation (catalyzed by disulfide
isomerases) and protein folding
• Glycosylation (addition of sugar molecules to
protein backbone, catalyzed by glycosyl
• Proteolysis (clipping of protein molecule, e.g.,
processing of proinsulin to insulin)
• Sulfation, phosphorylation (addition of sulfate,
3. Recombinant proteins are particularly susceptible
to proteolytic degradation in bacteria.
4. Recombinant protein may accumulate in bacteria
as refractile inclusion bodies.
3. Recombinant proteins particularly susceptible to
Solution: Design fusion protein consisting of an
endogenous bacterial protein connected to the
recombinant protein through a specific amino acid
sequence. Fusion protein is then specifically
cleaved at the fusion site.
Limitations of RDT:Limitations of RDT:
GM plants can become super weed.
GM foods causes allergy, raises ethical
Monopoly eg: bt cotton, by mahyco
Some of the procedures and process that are
adapted by biotechnology are against nature and
natural laws. In the light of above consideration it is
necessary that the tools of biotechnology should be
used properly and only for beneficial purposes.
List of some of the importantList of some of the important
biotechnology companies in india.biotechnology companies in india.
Natural remedies pvt.ltd
Himalaya drug company
Serum research institute
BIOTECH NOLOGY HAS THE
POTENTIAL TO LEAD FROM
THIS IS THE AGE OFTHIS IS THE AGE OF