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Biotechnology and its application

biotechnology and its applications
application s of biotechnology, bt.cotton, cloning, dna, dna fingerprinting, dna isolation, gene manipulation, genetic engineering, goldenrice., r dnatechnology, recombinant vaccines, transgenic, vectors

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Biotechnology and its application

  1. 1. Biotechnology and itsBiotechnology and its applicationsapplications Sardar Hussain Asst.prof. Of Biotechnology Govt.science college,chitradurga Sardar1109@gmail.com
  2. 2. What is Biotechnology ?What is Biotechnology ?  The term biotechnology was coined in 1917, by Hungarian engineer, karl erky, to describe a process for large scale production of pigs. Biotechnology can be defined as application of technology Using the living organisms to obtain useful products.
  3. 3. What is Biotechnology?What is Biotechnology? • Biotechnology is a multidisciplinarian in nature, involving input from • Engineering • Computer Science • Cell and Molecular Biology • Microbiology • Genetics • Physiology • Biochemistry • Immunology • Virology • Recombinant DNA Technology  Genetic manipulation of bacteria, viruses, fungi, plants and animals, often for the development of specific products • Biostatistics • Enzymology
  4. 4. Available Definations of Biotechnology.Available Definations of Biotechnology. • Biotechnology is the application of biological organisms systems or process to manufacturing and service industries ( British biotechnologists) • Biotechnology is integrated use of biochemistry, microbiology and engineering sciences in order to achieve technological applications of microbes, cultured cells and parts there of (European federation of biotechnologist) • Biotechnology is the controlled use of biological agents, such as microbes or cellular components. (U.S.National science foundation)
  5. 5. Development of BiotechnologyDevelopment of Biotechnology  Ancient Biotechnology: early history relates to food and shelter, includes domestication.  Classical Biotechnology: fermentation food production and medicine.  Modern Biotechnology: manipulates genetic information in an organism. genetic engineering.
  6. 6. Modern Biotechnological processesModern Biotechnological processes  Genetic engineering: It is in vitro DNA technology used to isolate genes from an organism manipulate them in laboratory as per desire and insert them into other cell or system for specific character. It is also called gene cloning.
  7. 7.  Recombinant DNA technology is one of the recent advances in biotechnology, which was developed by two scientists named Boyer and Cohen in 1973.
  8. 8. Stanley N. Cohen (1935) , who received the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1986 for his work on discoveries of growth factors Herbert Boyer (1936) who constructed the first recombinant DNA using bacterial DNA and plasmids
  9. 9.  Recombinant DNA technology works by taking DNA from two different sources and combining that DNA into a single molecule. That alone, however, will not do much.  Recombinant DNA technology only becomes useful when that artificially-created DNA is reproduced. This is known as DNA cloning.
  10. 10.  In the early 1970s, technologies for the laboratory manipulation of nucleic acids emerged. In turn, these technologies led to the construction of DNA molecules composed of nucleotide sequences taken from different sources. The products of these innovations, recombinant DNA molecules, opened exciting new avenues of investigation in molecular biology and genetics, and a new field was born— recombinant DNA technology (RDT).
  11. 11. Concept of Recombinant DNAConcept of Recombinant DNA  Recombinant DNA is a molecule that combines DNA from two sources . Also known as gene cloning.  Creates a new combination of genetic material ◦ Human gene for insulin was placed in bacteria ◦ The bacteria are recombinant organisms and produce insulin in large quantities for diabetics ◦ Genetically engineered drug in 1986  Genetically modified organisms are possible because of the universal nature of the genetic code!
  12. 12.  Recombinant technology begins with the isolation of a gene of interest (target gene). The target gene is then inserted into the plasmid or phage (vector) to form replicon.  The replicon is then introduced into host cells to cloned and either express the protein or not.  The cloned replicon is referred to as recombinant DNA. The procedure is called recombinant DNA technology. Cloning is necessary to produce numerous copies of the DNA since the initial supply is inadequate to insert into host cells.
  13. 13.  Some other terms are also in common use to describe genetic engineering are,  Gene manipulation  Recombinant DNA technology  Gene cloning (Molecular cloning)  Genetic modification
  14. 14. Six steps ofSix steps of Recombinant DNARecombinant DNA 1. Isolating (vector and target gene) 2. Cutting (Cleavage) 3. Joining (Ligation) 4. Transforming 5. Cloning 6. Selecting (Screening)
  15. 15. DNA cloning in a plasmid vector permits amplificationDNA cloning in a plasmid vector permits amplification of a DNA fragment.of a DNA fragment.
  16. 16. Enjoy an video of cloning…Enjoy an video of cloning…
  17. 17. Applications of RecombinantApplications of Recombinant DNA TechnologyDNA Technology 1. Analysis of Gene Structure and Expression 2. Pharmaceutical Products ◦ Drugs- human insulin ◦ Vaccines-recombinant vaccines 1. Genetically modified organisms (GMO) ◦ Transgenic plants (Bt.crops) ◦ Transgenic animal 1. Application in medicine-Gene therapy 2. ……
  18. 18. Analysis of Gene Structure andAnalysis of Gene Structure and ExpressionExpression  Using specialized recombinant DNA techniques, researchers have determined vast amounts of DNA sequence including the entire genomic sequence of humans and many key experimental organisms. This enormous volume of data, which is growing at a rapid pace, has been stored and organized in two primary data banks:  the GenBank at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland,  and the EMBL Sequence Data Base at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg, Germany
  19. 19. Pharmaceutical ProductsPharmaceutical Products  Some pharmaceutical applications of DNA technology:  Large-scale production of human hormones and other proteins with therapeutic uses.  Production of safer vaccines.  A number of therapeutic gene products —insulin, the interleukins, interferons, growth hormones, erythropoietin, and coagulation factor VIII—are now produced commercially from cloned genes
  20. 20. Background for Recombinant insulin • Diabetes-incrseased glucose concentration 180mg/dl • Serious complications causes nephropathy, neuropathy • Early years –insulin isolated and purified from pigs and cow... • leads problems -allergy in some people, sacrifice of animals??? • Attemtpts to make rec –insulin started in 1970. • Technique involves - inserting human insulin gene in promoter of lac operon of the plasmid of E.coli Bacteria . 1980- rec insulin produced and ready for clinical trials. 1982-approval for human use. 1986-ELI- LILLY approval to market HUMULIN...
  21. 21.  Pharmaceutical companies already are producing molecules made by recombinant DNA to treat human diseases.  Recombinant bacteria are used in the production of human growth hormone and human insulin
  22. 22. Use recombinant cells to mass produce proteins Bacteria Yeast Mammalian
  23. 23. Insulin Hormone required to properly process sugars and fats Treat diabetes Now easily produced by bacteria Growth hormone deficiency Faulty pituitary and regulation Had to rely on cadaver source Now easily produced by bacteria
  24. 24. Background for vaccines • Vaccines-administration of antigen to elicit an an immune response that shall Protect aganist infections • Types of vaccines 1.Dead bacteria or inactivated viruses 2.Attenuated bacteria 3.Subunit vaccines –viral fragments. New generation vaccines –recombinant vaccines 1987- first recombinant vaccine for hepatitis came for public use. Recombivax
  25. 25. Subunit Herpes VaccineSubunit Herpes Vaccine
  26. 26. Genetic Engineering of PlantsGenetic Engineering of Plants  Plants have been bred for millennia to enhance certain desirable characteristics in important food crops.  Transgenic plants  B. thuringiensis was first discovered in 1901 by Japanese biologist Ishiwata Shigetane.
  27. 27. SPECULATIONS ABOUT Bt ARE LIKE THE PERCEPTIONS OF SIX BLIND MEN ABOUT AN ENEPHANT
  28. 28. Genetically modified organismsGenetically modified organisms (GMO)(GMO) Recombinant plasmids in agriculture: • plants with genetically desirable traits  herbicide or pesticide resistant corn & soybean  Decreases chemical insecticide use Increases production • “Golden rice” with beta- carotene Required to make vitamin A, which in deficiency causes blindness
  29. 29. tmm GOLDEN RICE TO PROVIDE PRO-VITAMINGOLDEN RICE TO PROVIDE PRO-VITAMIN ‘‘
  30. 30. Crops have been developed that are better tasting, stay fresh longer, and are protected from disease and insect infestations.
  31. 31. Transgenic TobaccoTransgenic Tobacco  The luciferase gene from a firefly is transformed into tobacco plant using the Ti plasmid. Watering the plant with a solution of luciferin (the substrate for firefly luciferase) results in the generation of light by all plant tissues.
  32. 32. Insect-resistant tomato plants: The plant on the left contains a gene that encodes a bacterial protein that is toxic to certain insects that feed on tomato plants. The plant on the right is a wild-type plant. Only the plant on the left is able to grow when exposed to the insects.
  33. 33. Where in the world??????
  34. 34. Introduce allergens? Pass trans-genes to wild populations? Pollinator transfer R&D is costly • Patents to insure profits • Patent infringements • Lawsuits • potential for capitalism to overshadow humanitarian efforts . Downsides???
  35. 35. TRANSGENIC ANIMALSTRANSGENIC ANIMALS Sardar Hussain Asst.Prof in Biotechnology Govt.science college,Chitradurga. Sardar1109@gmail.com
  36. 36.  HISTORY  Studying genes…… how?  Earliest history among farmers-selective breeding.  Discovery of DNA-1953  New molecular biology techniques, like r-DNA, genomic mapping, genetic cloning etc.
  37. 37. TRANSGENESIS: • A new technology: direct manipulation of genetic material. • Term transgenic-J.W.Gordon and F.H.Rudell. • Tailor made animals-wanted characters. • More efficient than selective breeding.
  38. 38.  What are Transgenic?  Transgenes?  GMO?  Transgenic are genetically modified organisms with DNA from another source inserted into their genome  Genes from other species/organisms.  Organisms that have transgenes are called genetically modified organisms. As their genome is modified.
  39. 39.  A large number of transgenic animals have been created  Mice  Cows  Pigs  Sheep  Goats  Fish  Frogs  Insects Alba, the EGFP (enhanced GFP) bunny Created in 2000 as a transgenic artwork.
  40. 40. Transgenic animals For what reason?  Introduction of a desired character.  Animal model for human diseases  Animal system to produce biomolecules („Pharming“)
  41. 41. How are transgenic animals produced????
  42. 42.  The underlying principle in the production of transgenic animals is the introduction of a foreign gene or genes into an animal (the inserted genes are called transgenes). The foreign genes “must be transmitted through the germ line, so that every cell, including germ cells, of the animal contain the same modified genetic material.”26 (Germ cells are cells whose function is to transmit genes to an organism’s offspring.)
  43. 43.  To date, there are three basic methods of producing transgenic animals: DNA microinjection Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer Embryonic stem cell-mediated gene transfer
  44. 44. The production of transgenic animals by microinjection:
  45. 45.  DNA Microinjection:  The mouse was the first animal to undergo successful gene transfer using DNA microinjection.  This method involves:  Transfer of a desired gene construct (of a single gene or a combination of genes that are recombined and then cloned) from another member of the same species or from a different species into the pronucleus of a reproductive cell.  The manipulated cell, which first must be cultured in vitro to develop to a specific embryonic phase, is then
  46. 46. How do transgenic contribute to human welfare?  The benefits of these animals to human welfare can be grouped into areas:  Agriculture  Medicine  Industry  Disease resistance
  47. 47.  First transgenic mammal Herman ,the bull (lelystad,16 dec 1990),was the first genetically modified or transgenic mammal in the world.  Scientist micro injected cells with human gene coding for lactoferrin.
  48. 48.  In 1997, first transgenic cow ROSIE,  Produced human protein enriched milk at 2.4g/lt, contains human gene Alfa lactalbumin.  α-lactalbumin is an important whey protein in cow 's milk (~1 g/l), and is also present in the milk of many other mammalian species.
  49. 49. Problems:  Abnormalities suffered are more  Reduced fertility  Weak immune system  Respiratory and circulatory problems.
  50. 50.  Religious and ethical considerations-Man playing the role of GOD.  Should scientists focus on in vitro (cultured in a lab) transgenic methods rather than, or before, using live animals to alleviate animal suffering?  Should such protocols demand that only the most promising research be permitted?  Is human welfare the only consideration?  What about the welfare of other life forms?
  51. 51. Conclusion  Interestingly, the creation of transgenic animals has resulted in a shift in the use of laboratory animals — from the use of higher-order species such as dogs to lower-order species such as mice — and has decreased the number of animals used in such experimentation, especially in the development of disease models. This is certainly a good turn of events since transgenic technology holds great potential in many fields, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.
  52. 52. Just a Joke Ha Ha Ha!!
  53. 53. Application in medicine-geneApplication in medicine-gene therapytherapy  Human gene therapy seeks to repair the damage caused by a genetic deficiency through introduction of a functional version of the defective gene. To achieve this end, a cloned variant of the gene must be incorporated into the organism in such a manner that it is expressed only at the proper time and only in appropriate cell types. At this time, these conditions impose serious technical and clinical difficulties.
  54. 54. Many gene therapies have received approval from the National Institutes of Health for trials in human patients, including the introduction of gene constructs into patients. Among these are constructs designed to cure ADA- SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase [ADA] deficiency), neuroblastoma, or cystic fibrosis, or to treat cancer through expression of the E1A and p53 tumor suppressor genes.
  55. 55. Severe combined immune deficiency
  56. 56. Challenges:Challenges:  How long will introduced genes remain in body?  What vectors to use? ◦ Viruses (adenovirus, influenza virus, herpes, HIV  Will depend on what tissues you want to target 1. In mammalian cells, mRNA is processed before it is translated into a protein: ◦ Introns are cut out and exons are spliced together ◦ Bacteria can not process mRNA
  57. 57. 2. Post-translational modifications Enzymatic modifications of protein molecules after they are synthesized in cells Post-translational modifications include: • Disulfide bond formation (catalyzed by disulfide isomerases) and protein folding • Glycosylation (addition of sugar molecules to protein backbone, catalyzed by glycosyl transferases) • Proteolysis (clipping of protein molecule, e.g., processing of proinsulin to insulin) • Sulfation, phosphorylation (addition of sulfate, phosphate groups).
  58. 58. 3. Recombinant proteins are particularly susceptible to proteolytic degradation in bacteria. 4. Recombinant protein may accumulate in bacteria as refractile inclusion bodies. Problem: 3. Recombinant proteins particularly susceptible to proteolysis Solution: Design fusion protein consisting of an endogenous bacterial protein connected to the recombinant protein through a specific amino acid sequence. Fusion protein is then specifically cleaved at the fusion site.
  59. 59. Limitations of RDT:Limitations of RDT: GM plants can become super weed. GM foods causes allergy, raises ethical issues. Monopoly eg: bt cotton, by mahyco Monsanto Human cloning.
  60. 60. The HopeThe Hope
  61. 61. conclusionconclusion  Some of the procedures and process that are adapted by biotechnology are against nature and natural laws. In the light of above consideration it is necessary that the tools of biotechnology should be used properly and only for beneficial purposes.
  62. 62. List of some of the importantList of some of the important biotechnology companies in india.biotechnology companies in india.  Biocon  Avesthagen  Aurigene  Dr.reddys labs  Shantha biotech  AstraZeneca  Metahelix  Bhat biotech  Natural remedies pvt.ltd  Sami labs Himalaya drug company Bharath biotech Serum research institute Sartorius biotech MWG biotech Syngene Clingene Genei Bhat biotech Panacea biotech Nicholas piramal
  63. 63. tmm BIOTECH NOLOGY HAS THE POTENTIAL TO LEAD FROM GREEN REVOLUTION TO GENE REVOLUTION
  64. 64. tmm && JEANSJEANS THIS IS THE AGE OFTHIS IS THE AGE OF GENESGENES
  65. 65. Thank you

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