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Aids and hiv


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Aids and hiv

  1. 1. HIVBy R.Parthasarathy
  2. 2. History of HIV/AIDSIn 1981 Kaposi’s sarcoma Pneumocystis carinii pneumoniaIn 1983Luc Montagnier and Françoise Barré-Sinoussiisolated retrovirus from lymphadenopathic patients.Named it as lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV).
  3. 3. History of HIV/AIDSIn 1984Robert Gallo and colleagues, isolated and culturedcertain retrovirus.Named it as human T cell lymphotrophic virus – IIIor HTLV - IIIIn 1986International Committee on Virus Nomenclature give a generic nameHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  4. 4. StructureSubgroup: lentivirus. Lenti means slow (greek) It is 32000 years old.Family: Retroviridae.Sperical enveloped virus. 90-120nm2 identical +ve sense ssRNA,Three enzymes Reverse transcriptase (RT) Protease (PR) Integrase (IN)
  5. 5. Viral gens and antigenStructural genes Functions Determines the core and shell of the virus. P55 (p15,p18,p24) Gag -p24 detected in the early stage of infection (before antibodies) Codes polymerase reverse transcriptase and protease pol P31,p51,p66 Determines the synthesis of envelope glycoprotein gp160 env - gp120 which forms the surface spike (72) - gp 41 which forme transmembrane protein.Non structural genes FunctionsTat (trans activating gene) Enchance all viral genesNef ( -ve factor gene) Regulates viral replicationRev ( regulator of viral gene) Enchace the expression of structural proteinVif (viral infectivity factor) Influence infectivity of viral particles.Vpu and vpx (1&2) Enchance maturation and release of virus
  6. 6. Viral gens and antigenNon structural genes Functions vpr Stimulate promoter region Contain sequence giving promoter, enhancer and LTR sequence integration signals.Viral classification and subtypes M – major N – new O – outlier P – pending
  7. 7. Mode of transmissionTypes of exposure Chance of infection per exposure(ApproX)Blood and blood products >90%Tissue and organ donation 50-90%Sexual transmission 0.1 – 1.0%Through injections and injuries 0.5 – 1.0%Mother to fetal baby 30%
  8. 8. Clinical symptoms are classified as mentioned below:
  9. 9. Lab dignosis Screening, measuring the antibodies to Hiv using ELISA Confirmed by western Blot Treatment1. Nucleoside and non nucleoside analogues - inhibits reverse transcriptase enzyme.Eg: Zidovudine (Azidothmidine, AZT), Didanosine, Zalcitabine, lamivudine
  10. 10. Treatment2. Protease inhibitors - inhibits protease enzymeEg: sanquinavir, Ritonavir, indinavirHAART(highly active antiretroviral therapy) - combined therapy(Both) - This method is currently used.
  11. 11. References• Anathanarayan and paniker’s, Text book of microbiology, 7th edition.• Sherrai medical microbiology, 5th edition.• Net sources