 SDLC is a disciplined and systematic approach that divides  software development process into various phases such as  re...
 6 phases in SDLC are    Feasibility analysis    Requirement analysis and specification    Design    Coding    Testi...
 Different types of projects have different requirements It is required to tailor the SDLC phases according to the speci...
 It describes the software development process in a linear sequential flow It is the earliest approach that was used for...
 Also known as evolutionary approach Came into picture because of failures that occurred in final  version of software a...
 Prototypes are of 2 types     Throwaway prototypes     Evolutionary prototypes Disadvantage of prototyping     It gi...
 Includes iterative nature of prototyping approach and linear nature of waterfall  approach It is ideal for developing s...
 It is an extension of spiral approach The phases are same as phases in spiral approach In this phase, development team...
 Software requirements are broken down into various functional  units Each functional unit is implemented in an incremen...
Which of the following approaches includes the iterative nature ofthe prototyping approach and linear nature of the waterf...
 In the design phase of any software development approach, you can follow two  approaches to software development.     f...
Classes and objects A class is an abstract data type that contains a set of attributes and functions. An object is an in...
Polymorphism the concept of using operators or functions in different ways  depending on what they are operating on is ca...
Which phase of SDLC includes translation of the requirements specifiedin the SRS into a logical structure that can be impl...
 OO approach does not replace the standard approaches, such as  DFD or ER diagrams. OO approach is only an addition to t...
 In this session, you learned that:     SDLC is a disciplined and systematic approach towards software development.    ...
 Different types of projects have different requirements. Therefore, it may be  required to tailor the SDLC phases accord...
 The object-oriented (OO) approach supports reusability and encapsulation of  data and concepts such as inheritance, abst...
Chapter 1
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Chapter 1

  1. 1.  SDLC is a disciplined and systematic approach that divides software development process into various phases such as requirement analysis, design and coding The phase-wise development process helps to track schedule, cost and quality of software projects.
  2. 2.  6 phases in SDLC are  Feasibility analysis  Requirement analysis and specification  Design  Coding  Testing  maintenance
  3. 3.  Different types of projects have different requirements It is required to tailor the SDLC phases according to the specific needs of the project. This gives rise to various software development approaches  Waterfall approach  Prototyping approach  Spiral approach  Win-win spiral approach  Incremental approach
  4. 4.  It describes the software development process in a linear sequential flow It is the earliest approach that was used for software development . It defines software development process in 7 phases  Conception  Initiation  Analysis  Design  Construction  Integration and testing  Implementation and maintenance
  5. 5.  Also known as evolutionary approach Came into picture because of failures that occurred in final version of software application developed using waterfall approach. Prototype is a sample implementation of system that show limited and main functional capabilities of the proposed system Used in the requirements gathering and analysis phase to capture the exact requirements of the proposed system
  6. 6.  Prototypes are of 2 types  Throwaway prototypes  Evolutionary prototypes Disadvantage of prototyping  It gives client false impression that a few minor changes to prototype will give them required system  It may compromise on the overall quality of the software in the rush to develop the prototype
  7. 7.  Includes iterative nature of prototyping approach and linear nature of waterfall approach It is ideal for developing software that are released in various versions. It includes 6 phases:  Customer communication  Planning  Risk analysis  Engineering  Construction and release  Customer evaluation
  8. 8.  It is an extension of spiral approach The phases are same as phases in spiral approach In this phase, development team and customer hold discussions and negotiate on the requirements that need to be included in current iteration of software The approach is called win-win because it is a winning situation for development team and also for customer It is generally used when you have time-bound releases
  9. 9.  Software requirements are broken down into various functional units Each functional unit is implemented in an increment and final product is achieved after all the functional units are implemented in the development process Each increment includes 3 phases  Design  Implementation  analysis
  10. 10. Which of the following approaches includes the iterative nature ofthe prototyping approach and linear nature of the waterfallapproach? Incremental approach Spiral approach Evolutionary approachAns:Spiral approach
  11. 11.  In the design phase of any software development approach, you can follow two approaches to software development.  function-oriented approach  Object-oriented approach function-oriented approach is module-centric and concentrates on functions of the software The fundamental idea behind object orientation is to portray things as they exist in real world. Object-oriented approach supports reusability and encapsulation of data and concepts such as inheritance, abstraction and polymorphism
  12. 12. Classes and objects A class is an abstract data type that contains a set of attributes and functions. An object is an instance of class.Inheritance It refers to sharing of attributes and behaviors among classes based upon hierarchical relationship.Abstraction It focuses on essential, inherent aspects of an entity ignoring its implementation detailsEncapsulation Means preventing access to non-essential details
  13. 13. Polymorphism the concept of using operators or functions in different ways depending on what they are operating on is called polymorphism. Operator overloading refers to the difference in functionality of an operator depending upon type of operands When polymorphism is used in the context of functions performing different tasks, it is referred to as function overloading
  14. 14. Which phase of SDLC includes translation of the requirements specifiedin the SRS into a logical structure that can be implemented in aprogramming language? Feasibility analysis Design Coding MaintenanceAns:design
  15. 15.  OO approach does not replace the standard approaches, such as DFD or ER diagrams. OO approach is only an addition to the existing toolkit. OOAD uses the OO approach to solve the real world problems It uses OO approach to analyze the system requirements and break a large and complex system into smaller and simpler components. OOAD is analysis of requirements and design of software system in terms of the objects, classes, encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism, abstraction and dynamic binding. OOAD is a methodology that can be applied to any software development approach
  16. 16.  In this session, you learned that:  SDLC is a disciplined and systematic approach towards software development.  SDLC divides the software development process into six phases:  Feasibility analysis  Requirement analysis and specification  Design  Coding  Testing  Maintenance
  17. 17.  Different types of projects have different requirements. Therefore, it may be required to tailor the SDLC phases according to the specific needs of the project. This gives rise to various software development approaches. Some of these approaches are:  Waterfall approach  Prototyping approach  Spiral approach  Win-win spiral approach  Incremental approach The function-oriented approach is module-centric and concentrates on the functions of the software.
  18. 18.  The object-oriented (OO) approach supports reusability and encapsulation of data and concepts such as inheritance, abstraction, and polymorphism. OOAD is analysis of requirements and design of software system in terms of objects, classes, encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism, abstraction, and dynamic binding.

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