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  1. 1. A glimps of animation for youKNOW . LEARN . MAKE - Chayapathi Anuparthy
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  3. 3. Animation and Skills Page 3Animation Grammar Page 4 Timeline Page 5, 6 Walk cycle Page 7, 8 Animation Styles Page 9, 10 Flipbook Page 11, 12Animation Principles Page 13, 14 2
  4. 4. ANIMATION SkillsAnimation is the art of capturing a series of individual Drawing, Storytelling,movements, whether on film or in digital form, and Story Boardingreplaying them in rapid succession to give the illusion A good sense of timingof movement. The dictionary meaning of animation is A good sense of compositionstate of being full of life or vigor, liveliness An understanding of motionExample: A cartoon on television is one example of Size, ratios and perspectiveanimation. Software-specific computer scripting languages Digital asset managementANIMATION IN DIFFERENT MEDIUM You have to have immense patienceAnimation can be achieved in different mediums orusing various materials, it can be done using Imagesdrawn on a cel, Paper, Puppets, Computer generatedimages, Photographs, Typeface, graphics, Clay figures,etc.In the animation industry, it is widely recognized thatthe most important skills needed by new entrants (aswell as practitioners generally) remain fundamentalones. Aside from the less tangible attributes creativeflair, a good visual eye and raw talent, etc. 3
  5. 5. ANIMATION A written version of scenes of a play. TimelineGRAMMAR Part of software that displays the events and items of an animation in terms of time or frames. Frame one of a series of still photographs on a strip of filmThere are some terms that you will encounter when used in making movies or animations.using the Animation functionality that are essential tounderstanding the Animation. Below are some of the Key framemost common terms you will encounter when creating Shows where the key (most important) actions occur.animation.Pre-production Tweening An animation process in which frames are createdThe planning stage of a film or a film or animation between the keyframes that are needed to create thebefore shooting begins. illusion of movement.Storyboard CelA series of small drawings plotting key movements in A clear piece of plastic on which the animators finishedan animation narrative, and accompanied by caption drawings are painted. The cel is clear so that whenfor the descriptions of the scenes. placed over the background, the animated charactersScene appear to be in a setting.A small part of the overall story such as the introduc-tion of a character or conflict. Background A flat piece of artwork that is the setting for a movingScript character in an animated film. A background could be a picture of a forest, a sky, a room, or a castle. 4
  6. 6. TIMELINEThe timeline is a part of software that displays the Playhead indicates the current frame displayed on the Stage. As a document plays, the playhead moves from left to right through the Timeline. Byevents and items of an animation in terms of time or default, the playhead loops when it reaches the end.frames. The Timeline status displayed at the bottom of theAdobe flash is the most basic software with which Timeline indicates the selected frame number, thepeople generally start their course of animation. current frame rate, and the elapsed time to the current frame.Adobe flash timeline: Note: When an animation is played, the actual frameThe Timeline in Adobe Flash Professional organizes rate is displayed; this may differ from the documentsand controls a documents content over time in layers frame rate setting if the computer cannot calculateand frames. Like movie film, Flash documents divide and display the animation quickly enough.lengths of time into frames. Layers are like multiplefilmstrips stacked on top of one another, each contain- The Timeline shows where animation occurs in aing a different image that appears on the Stage. The document, including frame-by-frame animation,major components of the Timeline are layers, frames, tweened animation, and motion paths. Controls in theand the playhead: layers section of the Timeline make it possible to hide, show, lock, or unlock layers, as well as display layerLayers in a document are listed in a column on the contents as outlines. You can drag frames to a newleft side of the Timeline. location on the same layer or to a different layer. If you enable the onion skin feature, you can see multipleFrames contained in each layer appear in a row to frames simultaneously—helpful when creatingthe right of the layer name. The Timeline header at the frame-by-frame of the Timeline indicates frame numbers. 5
  7. 7. FIG1A. Playhead G. Tweened animationB. Empty keyframe H. Scroll to Playhead buttonC. Timeline header I. Onion-skinning buttonsD. Guide layer icon J. Current frame indicatorE. Frame view pop up menu k. Frame rate indicatorF. Frame-by-frame animation L. Elapsed time indicator 6
  8. 8. WALKCYCLECreating a walking animation is a foundation exercise, Creating a walk cycle Walk cycles can be broken up into 5 keyframes,but it is also one of the most difficult to master as a namely Contact, Plant, Pass, Stride, and Contact.beginning animator. Learn how to understand the Frames that are drawn between these key posesbody’s movements while walking with helpful infor- (traditionally known as in-betweens) are either hand-mation from a writer, director and animator. drawn or using computer software to interpolate them.In animation, a walk cycle is a series of frames orillustrations drawn in sequence that loop to create an Breakdown of Walk Cycleanimation of a walking character. The walk cycle islooped over and over, thus having to avoid animating Besides the apparent movement of the legs, manyeach step again. more details are necessary for a convincing walk cycle, like animation timing, the movement of the arms, head and torsion of the whole body. Contact Plant Pass Stride Contact 7
  9. 9. Pose1 where the arm and leg positions are the opposite ofStart by drawing the ‘contact’ pose. This is when the those of the first frame.heel of the leading leg is just striking the ground, and Pose2the toes of the trailing leg are bearing most of the Now draw the first of the in-between poses. The ‘plant’body’s weight. Note that the torso twists so that one pose comes between the first ‘contact’ pose and theshoulder is further forward than the other ‘pass’. This is when the leading leg takes the full weightPose3 of the body, and the foot is planted flat on the floor.Next draw the ‘pass’ pose. This is when the arms and This is the lowest point of the head movement arc.legs are passing each other as they move. The arms are Pose4close to the body; one leg is straightened, bearing all Finally, the ‘striding’ pose comes between the ‘pass’the weight, while the other leg is bent and moving and the final ‘contact’, and has the trailing legforward. The torso should not be twisted at this point. stretched upwards, and the leading leg movingPose5 forward, with the knee raised. This pose is the highestThe final pose of the sequence is the ‘contact’ pose, point of the head movement arc. Pose1 Pose3 Pose5 Pose2 Pose4 8
  10. 10. ANIMATION Cutout animationSTYLES Cutout animation is pretty much exactly what it sounds like: cutout shapes arranged on a flat surface, and manually moved and repositioned to simulateThere are few animation techniques which are so animationcalled animation styles, some of them are Collage In one word we can sat collage animation as “GivingKeyframe animation new life to old pictures”Keyframes are defined throughout an animated Making collage is something most of us did in art classsequence, in order to define pivotal points of motion during school days, using papers cut from magazines,before the frames in between are drawn or otherwise photographs, bits of cloth, leaves and twigs - anythingcreated to "tween" the motion between the two key we could find to create a picture. Now that we haveframes. One example of key frame animation is as loads of digital technology, we can take one stepshone in figure. K indicates keyframe, T indicates the further and animate the pieces to tell a story.“tween” K2 T Rotoscoping T K3 Rotoscoping is an animation technique in which K1 animators trace over footage, frame by frame,. Origi- nally, recorded live-action film images were projected onto a frosted glass panel and re-drawn by an anima- K4 K5 tor. This projection equipment is called a rotoscope, although this device has been replaced by computers 9
  11. 11. in recent years.Kinetic typographyKinetic typography, sometimes also referred to asmotion typography, is known as the art of integratingmovement with text. Due to the availability of anima-tion software like Adobe Flash, Adobe after Effects andApple Motion, interest in kinetic typography has more Charecter cel 1recently been rekindled, with the technique growingincreasingly popular both in amateur and professionalcircles.Cel animation: Layer 1 Charecter cel 2 Final CompositionA traditional form of animation used in the production Layer 2of cartoons or animated movies where each frame ofthe scene is drawn by hand. A full-length feature filmproduced using cel animation would often require a Background layermillion or more drawings to complete. Background 10
  12. 12. FLIPBOOK tubes inside, covered with white glass or Plexiglas. Finally, you will need something to hold all the loose papers together so they don’t spill into a messy pile on the floor. The best is a bulldog clip or a plastic slideSelecting your material binder, but a strong elastic band or stables can beYou will need some papers or thin card. The paper used.should be thicker than standard copier 80(gsm), butcard should not be too thick, or you will not be able to Doing itsee the underlying image. A pocket sketchbook that is You need to start with an idea. Because of the naturealready perfect bound or ring bound would be a good of the format it has to be something simple that ischoice. Index cards are another possibility, and are going to last just a few seconds, a bouncing ball, Watersomething you will always find handy while working flow, a sneeze. These are the kind of things you couldon an animation, from the writing stage onwards. You animate.could even use a pad or peel-off reminder notes. Theimportant thing to remember when selecting your Whatever you decide to animate you have to startstock is that it needs to be robust enough to withstand from the end and work backwards, tracing over theto flipping but thin enough to allow tracing. previous image, altering as necessary to capture theA black pen is best for drawing, to ensure that you can scene of movement. Once the drawings are finished,see the linework through the paper. You may want to clip them together and marvel at your first movingstart with pencil sketch to get the first image right, picture, and you’re donebefore you ink it.You may also need a light box (fig). This is the devicethat shines light through your paper or card to maketracing easier. It is usually a metal box with florescent 11
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  14. 14. ANIMATION Anticipation: An action can be divided into three phases: preparation for the action, the action itself, and termination. Anticipation is the preparation, and itPRINCIPLES tends to be the longest and most important part of an action. It helps set up what a character is about to do and directs attention to where the movement will take place, so that once the action happens the viewer will better understand what is going on. Anticipation in itsSquash and stretch are the exaggeration of a most basic form is an action that takes place in thenon-rigid bodys deformation as it moves. In general, opposite direction of the main action. Some commonsquash is used to show the force of impact or anticipa- examples are the windup for a pitch and the crouchtion, while stretch indicates acceleration or velocity. before a jump.For example, a falling rubber ball may begin to elon-gate as it speeds up. It will then squash when it hits Ease In and Out is one common problem inthe ground, its speed on impact determining how beginning animation is character motion that tends toextreme the deformation is. When leaving the ground start, stop, or change directions abruptly, resulting infrom its bounce, the ball will be temporarily stretched robotic movement. An easy way to fix this is to use theagain before gravity slows it down. ease in and out animation principle (also referred to as "slow in and out"). A natural example of this principle can be seen in the pendulum below. As gravity over- takes the pendulum it begins to slow down to a brief stop, until it begins accelerating again in the opposite direction. Arcs: When animating, it is important to keep track of the paths your character and their limbs take while 13
  15. 15. moving across the screen. Instead of translating pockets, he can speak or whistle, or he can expressdirectly from to point to point in straight lines, they emotions through facial expressions.The importantshould move in arcs. Ultimately, this will help your thing about secondary actions is that they emphasize,animation flow more naturally rather than take attention away from the main action.Straight ahead action and pose to Timing refers to the number of drawings or framespose: These are two different approaches to the for a given actionactual drawing process. "Straight ahead action" means Exaggeration is the enhancement of a physicaldrawing out a scene frame by frame from beginning attribute or end, while "pose to pose" involves starting with Solid drawing means taking into account formsdrawing a few key frames, and then filling in the in three-dimensional space, giving them volume andintervals later weightFollow through and overlapping Appeal: A live performer has charisma. Anaction: Follow through and overlapping action is a animated character has appeal. All characters have togeneral heading for two closely related techniques have appeal whether they are heroic, villainous, comicwhich help to render movement more realistically, and or cute. Appeal, as you will use it, includes an easy tohelp to give the impression that characters follow the read design, clear drawing, and personality develop-laws of physics. "Follow through" means that separate ment that will capture and involve the audiencesparts of a body will continue moving after the charac- interest.ter has stopped. "Overlapping action" is the tendencyfor parts of the body to move at different rates These principles are not hard and fast rules, but theySecondary action: Adding secondary actions have been found to work since the early days ofto the main action gives a scene more life, and can animation. Bear them in mind at the story board stagehelp to support the main action. A person walking can and your animation definitely have believabilitysimultaneously swing his arms or keep them in his 14