Molecular biology

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Molecular biology

  1. 1. “Hidden Strains of HPV Found in 'Virus-Negative' Genital Warts” AND “'Cowcatcher' Enzyme Fixes Single-Strand DNA”. Sara Puerta Calderón Medicine student III Semester Molecular Biology
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION DNA replicationDNA replication is the process inis the process in which a doublewhich a double strand generatedstrand generated two strandstwo strands daughters.daughters. DNA replicationDNA replication is the process inis the process in which a doublewhich a double strand generatedstrand generated two strandstwo strands daughters.daughters. These reportsThese reports show theshow the importance ofimportance of DNA replicationDNA replication and its influenceand its influence on geneticon genetic errors, such aserrors, such as cancer, aging.cancer, aging. These reportsThese reports show theshow the importance ofimportance of DNA replicationDNA replication and its influenceand its influence on geneticon genetic errors, such aserrors, such as cancer, aging.cancer, aging.
  3. 3. Hidden Strains of HPV Found in 'Virus- Negative' Genital Warts. Sciencedaily. July 11, 2013 There are 170 established HPV types.There are 170 established HPV types. Cancerous human papillomavirus (HPV) virusesCancerous human papillomavirus (HPV) viruses are the main cause of cervical cancer, and areare the main cause of cervical cancer, and are found in close to 100% of cervical tumors.found in close to 100% of cervical tumors.
  4. 4. Hidden Strains of HPV Found in 'Virus- Negative' Genital Warts. Sciencedaily. July 11, 2013 A study of virology, whereA study of virology, where researchers in 40 samplesresearchers in 40 samples from patients with genitalfrom patients with genital warts, showed that some ofwarts, showed that some of these samples containedthese samples contained HPV DNA. This means thatHPV DNA. This means that these warts can containthese warts can contain small amounts of virussmall amounts of virus farthest that escapedfarthest that escaped previous detection.previous detection. Image taken from: http://www.celiacos.com/wp- content/uploads/2008/10/laboratorio1.jpg
  5. 5. Hidden Strains of HPV Found in 'Virus- Negative' Genital Warts. Sciencedaily. July 11, 2013 Ten groups of fourTen groups of four samples taken fromsamples taken from negative wart virusesnegative wart viruses were tested patient'swere tested patient's genetic material,genetic material, including DNA viral,including DNA viral, bacterial and humansbacterial and humans
  6. 6. Hidden Strains of HPV Found in 'Virus- Negative' Genital Warts. Sciencedaily. July 11, 2013 This new style has shownThis new style has shown evidence of the virusevidence of the virus unknown ways. Suchunknown ways. Such forms may not causeforms may not cause condyloma, but may becondyloma, but may be secondary invaders of it.secondary invaders of it. Image taken from: http://www.clinicasabortos.com/images/subsecciones/virus-papiloma-humano-169.jpg
  7. 7. PERSONAL OPINION I think this study was important for several aspects, theI think this study was important for several aspects, the first of them to learn more about the evolution offirst of them to learn more about the evolution of different HPV types, second to know that although notdifferent HPV types, second to know that although not all are causing condyloma virus can be invaders of this.all are causing condyloma virus can be invaders of this. Finally this study showed that despite scoring negativeFinally this study showed that despite scoring negative laboratory for these tests, it is not the last word.laboratory for these tests, it is not the last word.
  8. 8. 'Cowcatcher' Enzyme Fixes Single- Strand DNA Sciencedaily. July 29, 2013. Every time one of your cellsEvery time one of your cells divides, it exposes its mostdivides, it exposes its most essential component to greatessential component to great danger: its genome, the sumdanger: its genome, the sum total of all its genetictotal of all its genetic information, embodied in theinformation, embodied in the double-stranded helix of DNA.double-stranded helix of DNA.
  9. 9. 'Cowcatcher' Enzyme Fixes Single- Strand DNA Sciencedaily. July 29, 2013. The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, discovered how the process of repairing damaged bases. They use the analogy of a zipper opening, when opened, sets the foundation subjected to a "replication complex" turning a thread into a double strand Image taken from: https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images? q=tbn:ANd9GcQjEurQfr- rnUJ12vcX5fh4sa8WJetSVyAi3RygbOO8YtMtL-a9
  10. 10. 'Cowcatcher' Enzyme Fixes Single- Strand DNA Sciencedaily. July 29, 2013. Scientists working in an enzyme called NEIL1, who is associated with the replication complex and seeks DNA damage. When damage prevents NEIL1 detects replication, back, and the two strands come back together, allowing the repair of the damaged base to the appropriate base. Image taken from: http://www.masmusculo.com.es/img/w347- c7:5/images/data/enzimas.jpg
  11. 11. 'Cowcatcher' Enzyme Fixes Single- Strand DNA Sciencedaily. July 29, 2013. "Replication and cowcatcher approaches"Replication and cowcatcher approaches in front to see if there is damage. Ifin front to see if there is damage. If damaged, back replication, repair anddamaged, back replication, repair and continues forward. Process is verycontinues forward. Process is very important for maintaining the integrityimportant for maintaining the integrity of the genome. “of the genome. “ Image taken from: http://diariode3.com/cientificos-descubren-nuevas-moleculas-para-tratar-el-cancer/
  12. 12. PERSONAL OPINION
  13. 13. MEDICAL UTILITY Today the world isToday the world is moving very quickly,moving very quickly, every day there is aevery day there is a new cure for chronicnew cure for chronic diseases.diseases. Day after day thereDay after day there are hundreds ofare hundreds of people who arepeople who are dedicated to researchdedicated to research in search of newin search of new solutions forsolutions for problems related toproblems related to DNA.DNA.
  14. 14. MEDICAL UTILITY DNA show the genome of every person, and this is where all errors areDNA show the genome of every person, and this is where all errors are expressed genetic.expressed genetic. Image taken from: https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images? q=tbn:ANd9GcQwTPKUcdcT6N_Oj08dEU2ttqGowzS6YWTYPUqN sbYZe_ShKpkYJw
  15. 15. MEDICAL UTILITY When DNA replication of suchWhen DNA replication of such failure,failure, There are several types ofThere are several types of cancers that are specificallycancers that are specifically associated with the failure ofassociated with the failure of the repair processes thatthe repair processes that normally function during DNAnormally function during DNA replication.replication. The accumulation ofThe accumulation of mutations can lead to cancermutations can lead to cancer development.development. is when we find diseases suchis when we find diseases such as cancer oras cancer or neurodegenerative diseasesneurodegenerative diseases and gives the generation ofand gives the generation of cells with mutated genes.cells with mutated genes.
  16. 16. MEDICAL UTILITY Major diseases such asMajor diseases such as cancer orcancer or neurodegeneration.neurodegeneration.
  17. 17. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHYBIBLIOGRAPHY •Martínez S, Lina María. Biología Molecular. 7 ed. Medellín: UPB. Facultad de Medicina, 2012. 78-84.P •Muralidhar L. Hegde, Pavana M. Hegde, Larry J. Bellot, Santi M. Mandal, Tapas K. Hazra,et al. Cowcatcher' Enzyme Fixes Single-Strand DNA. sciencedaily, (online magazine),2013(July 29). available online: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/07/130729161751.htm •Hanna Johansson, Davit Bzhalava, Johanna Ekström, Emilie Hultin, Joakim Dillner,et al. Hidden Strains of HPV Found in 'Virus-Negative' Genital Warts. sciencedaily, (online magazine),2013(July 11). available online: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/07/130711103235.htm

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