BASICS OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRESENT TENSE BE, DEMONSTRATIVES, POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES, PRESENT CONTINOUS, CAN, PREPOSITIONS Presented by T.Sarantuya
PRESENT TENSE BE The verb BE has three forms: AM, IS, ARE, which we have to use according to the pronoun or subject. TO BE Occupations Nouns Adjectives Places
AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCESSubject Verb Form Example I AM I am a teacher. You ARE You are a student. He IS He is in the lab. She IS She is my sister. It IS It is a city. We ARE We are friends. They ARE They are doctors.
NEGATIVE SENTENCESYou can make negative sentences similar to thesentences before. The only different is to add NOTafter am, is, are, as you can see in the followingchart. She is not sad They are not in the school
NEGATIVE SENTENCESI am not I`m notHe He`s not = He isn’tShe is not She’s not = She isn’tIt It’s not = It isn’tWe We’re not = We aren’tYou are not You’re not = You aren’tThey They’re not = They aren’t
YES / NO QUESTIONS In English we have to kind of questions: Yes/No questions and Wh-questions. The Yes / No Questions are called that because the answers always start with Yes or No Remember to answer Yes/No questions you have to pay attention to the subject.
YES / NO QUESTIONSAffirmative Statement: John and Peter are students.Yes / No question: Are John and Peter students?Short Answers: Yes, they are / No, they aren’tFull /Complete Yes, they are students. / No theyAnswers: are not students.Affirmative Statement: Mary is tall and thin.Yes / No question: Is Mary tall and thin?Short Answers: Yes, she is / No, she isn’tFull /Complete Yes, she is tall and thin. / No, sheAnswers: is not tall and thin
WH - QUESTIONS The wh-questions look for information accoding to the question word. In this kind of questions you never answer Yes or No, because they are asking for some information. The answer is a statement with the information according to the question word.
WH - QUESTIONSWh-word Information Example about…What Things What is this? It is a book. Name What is your name? Bold. Occupations What do you do? I am a driver. Activities What is he doing? He’s workingWho People Who is the director of the school? Urtnasan.Where Places Where is he? In the house.How State How are you? I am sad. Form / manner How is mouse? It is small.
REVIEW Negative Statement Yes/No Question Short Answers Statements Yes, you are / No, youI am a teacher. I am not a teacher. Am I a teacher? are notYou are a You are not a Are you a student? Yes, I am / No, I am notstudent. student.He is in the lab. He is not in the lab. Is he in the lab? Yes, he is / No, he is not Yes, she is / No, she isShe is my sister. She is not my sister. Is she my sister? notIt is a city. It is not a city. Is it a city? Yes, it is / No, it is not Yes, we are / No, we areWe are friends. We are not friends. Are we friends? notThey are They are not Yes, they are / No they Are they doctors?doctors. doctors. are not
DEMONSTRATIVESWe use THIS / THESE when the objects are near to the speaker. This is a blackboard These are papers THIS +Singular Nouns THESE + Plural Nouns
DEMONSTRATIVESWe use THAT / THOSE when the objects are far from the speakers. That is a lake. THAT + Singular Nouns Those are mountains THOSE + Plural Nouns
DEMONSTRATIVES Questions What is that?That is an airplane. Is that a bird?No, it is an airplane. What are those?Those are books Are those books?Yes, they are books.
PLURAL NOUNSNoun ending Forming the plural Exampless, x, ch or sh Add -es boss - bosses tax - taxes bush - bushesconsonant + y Change y to i fly - flies then try - tries Add –es curry – curries most others Add -s cat - cats face - faces day – days
IRREGULAR PLURAL Noun type Forming the plural ExamplesEnds with -fe Change f to v knife - knives then life - lives Add –s wife - wivesEnds with –f Change f to v half - halves then wolf - wolves Add –es loaf - loavesEnds with - o Add –es potato - potatoes tomato - tomatoes volcano - volcanoes
IRREGULAR PLURALNoun type Forming the plural ExamplesALL KINDS Change the vowel man - men or foot - feet Change the word child - children or person - people Add a different tooth - teeth ending mouse - miceUnchanging Singular and plural sheep are the same deer fish (sometimes)
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVESI MyYou YourHe HisShe Her +It ItsWe OurThey Their NOUN
POSSESSIVE ADJTECTIVES His shirt is newHer pants are blue This is her cat This is our house
POSSESSIVE FORM ‘SKevin’s wife is Rose. Charlie’s book is black.His wife is Rose. The Child’s mother is happy
PREPOSITION OF PLACEIN (дотор) In the house in a shop In a room in a town In a car in a gardenON (гадаргуу дээр) On a shelf on a wall On a plate on the table On a balcony on a doorAT (-т, д. at home-гэртээ ) At the bus station at home At the door at the top At work at the end of
PRESENT CONTINOUS The present continous Subject BE -ING tense is used to FORM describe activities that I Am Singing happen now, that means activities that He are develop in the She Is Singing moment of speaking It We You Are Singing They
PRESENT CONTINOUS AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE YES/NO QUESTIONSI am dancing I am not dancing Am I dancing?You are eating You are not eating Are you eating?He is sleeping He is not sleeping Is he sleeping?She is reading She is not reading Is she reading?It is running It is not running Is it running?We are walking We are not walking Are we walking?They are studying They are not studying Are they studying?
RULES How to make the -INGVerb ending in... form Examples 1 vowel + 1 Double the consonant, swim - swimming consonant then add –ING hit - hitting get – getting 1 vowel + 1 Remove E, then add – come - comingconsonant + E- INGcome lose - losing live – living[anything else] Add –ING say - saying go - going walk - walking
CAN / CAN’T Can is used to show ability He can’t play the piano He can play footballThey can dance He can swim He can skate
NEGATIVE AND QUESTIONS YES/NOAFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE SHORT ANSWERS QUESTIONSI can cook I can not cook Can I cook? Yes, you can / No,you can´tYou can dance You can not dance Can you dance? Yes I can / No I can’tHe can play He can not play Can he play? Yes, he can / No, he can`tShe can swim She can not swim Can she swim? Yes, she can / No, she can’tIt can run It can not run Can it run? Yes, it can / No, it can’tWe can sing We can not sing Can we sing? Yes, we can / No, we can’t Yes, they can / No, theyThey can walk They can not walk Can they walk ? can’t