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Role of fluoride in dental health


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Presented by me In Community dentistry Lecture...

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Role of fluoride in dental health

  2. 2. What is Fluoride?2  Fluoride is the ionic form of the element fluorine.  Fluoride is a mineral found throughout the earths crust and widely distributed in nature.  Found in soils rich in fluorspar,cryolite,and other minerals.
  3. 3. Sources3 Small amounts:fruits,vegetables,cereals. Rich amounts:sea foods and tea leaves.
  4. 4. Chief Source of Flouride.4  Water  Topical agents (toothpaste). According to WHO  Flouridated Salt / Milk
  5. 5. Distribution of Flourides.5  Teeth and skeleton have the highest concentrations of fluoride. --Due to the affinity of fluoride to calcium.  Fluoride content of teeth increases rapidly during early mineralization periods and continues to increase with age,but at as lower rate.
  6. 6. Use of Flouride.6  Fluoride helps to prevent cavities.
  7. 7. Cavities7  Cavities are holes (or structural damage) in the teeth. Cause  CommonlyTooth decay
  8. 8. Cavity Pics.8
  9. 9. Prevention of cavities by Flouride.9 Two different ways:  Fluoride concentrates in the growing bones and developing teeth of children, helping to harden the enamel on baby and adult teeth before they emerge.  Fluoride helps to harden the enamel on adult teeth that have already emerged.
  10. 10. Application Types of Flourides.10  Topically (On the surface).  Systematically (Throughout the body).
  11. 11. Topical Flouride Sources.11  Toothpaste.  Mouthrinses.  Professionally applied gels, foams, rinses.  Our own saliva.
  12. 12. 12  Toothpaste :- Brushing.  Mouth Rinses :- Gargling.  Foams :- Professionally used & are put into a mouth guard.  Gels :- Can be painted on or applied via a mouth guard.
  13. 13. Flourided Toothpaste.13  Important component of toothpaste  Protects the tooth by making the enamel harder.  Toothpastes are classified as drugs, not cosmetics.  Level of fluoride must be carefully controlled and measured accurately.  Introduced around the world in the mid 1950s.
  14. 14. Protection by Saliva.14  After you eat, your Saliva contains acids that cause demineralization.  At other times when your saliva is less acidic it does just the opposite, replenishing the calcium and phosphorous that keep your teeth hard. This process is caused remineralization.
  15. 15. Topical Applications.15 Helps to Prevent.  Cavities by strengthening the surface of the teeth (the enamel).  Reducing the ability of bacteria contained in dental plaque to produce acid.  Re-mineralizing existing dental cavities. Fluoride can actually heal small cavities in some cases, and prevent the need for dental fillings.
  16. 16. Systemically Flouride Sources.16  Water and other beverages.  Foods  Drops  Tablets  Etc.
  17. 17. Application of Systemically17 Flouride.  Strengthening of developing teeth from infancy to adolescence.  Strengthens teeth by the formation of harder enamel by converting HYDROXYAPATITE CRYSTALS to FLUORAPATITE.  Flourapatite is less vulnerable to damage from plaque acids
  18. 18. Dental fluorosis?18  Dental fluorosis is a developmental disturbance of dental enamel caused by excessive exposure to high concentrations of fluoride during tooth development.  Due to Inappropriate use of fluoride- containing dental products.
  19. 19. Types of Dental Flourosis.19  Mild Dental Flourosis (common).  Sever Dental Flourosis.
  20. 20. Mild Dental Flourosis20  Unnoticeable, tiny white streaks or specks in the enamel of the tooth.
  21. 21. 21 Specks / StreaksA mild case of dental fluorosis (the white streaks on the subjects upper right centralincisor) observed in dental practice
  22. 22. Sever Dental Flourosis.22  Tooth appearance is marred by discoloration or brown markings.  Pitted Enamel, Rough and Hard to Clean.The spots and stains left by fluorosis are permanent and may darken over time.
  23. 23. Sever Dental Flourosis. (Case 1)23
  24. 24. Sever Dental Flourosis. (Case 2)24
  25. 25. Water Fluoridation.25  Addition of Flouride to Public water Supply.  Community water fluoridation is safe and effective in preventing dental caries in both children and adults.  Water fluoridation benefits all residents served by community water supplies regardless of their social or economic status.Fluoridation does not affect the appearance, taste or smell of drinking water.
  26. 26. Bottled Water and Fluoride.26  Bottled water may not have a sufficient amount of fluoride, which is important for preventing tooth decay and promoting oral health.
  27. 27. Summary of Anti-Caries Activity of27 Fluoride.  Fluoride prevents demineralization.  Fluoride enhances remineralization.  Fluoride alters the action of plaque bacteria.  Fluoride aids in posteruptive maturation of enamel.  Fluoride reduces enamel solubility.
  28. 28. Fluoride prevents demineralization.28  Formation of fluorohydroxyapatite (FAP).  Inhibition of mineral loss from enamel.
  29. 29. Fluoride enhances remineralization.29  formation of a fluoride reservoir.  creation of supersaturated solutions.
  30. 30. Fluoride alters the action of plaquebacteria.30  At low pH, fluoride combines with hydrogen ions and diffuses into oral bacteria as hydrogen fluoride (HF)  Inside the cell HF dissociates, acidifying the cell and releasing fluoride ions  Fluoride ions inhibit glycolysis  As fluoride is trapped inside the cell this becomes a cumulative process
  31. 31. Summary31  Dental caries is a progressive disease characterised by demineralization (dissolution) and destruction of enamel and dentine.  Fluoride can reduce caries by preventing demineralization and promoting remineralization of tooth surfaces and can also inhibit plaque acid production.
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