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Introduction to Anatomy


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Students will be able to gain a better understanding and application of medical terminology in relation general Anatomy about:

Brief History

Medical Terminology

Anatomical Planes, Directions and Movements.

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Introduction to Anatomy

  1. 1. HUMAN ANATOMY S.S Hotchandani
  2. 2. Introduction to Anatomy (a)
  3. 3. What we will cover... • Students will be able to gain a better understanding and application of medical terminology in relation general Anatomy about: • Brief History • Medical Terminology • Anatomical Planes, Directions and Movements.
  4. 4. History  From three hundreds BC and second century.  Scientist, Doctors and Artist would experiment and practice on the dead body.  Cadavers were positioned flat on their backs, thus making it easier to draw and reference from that position.
  5. 5.  Many artist such as Leonardo da Vinci began to study, draw and diagram the human body.
  6. 6. Definition  It is a Greek word ( Ana-Tome): meaningIt is a Greek word ( Ana-Tome): meaning cutting up.cutting up.  AnatomyAnatomy – the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another.
  7. 7. SUBDIVISIONS  Gross Anatomy  Microscopic Anatomy  Developmental Anatomy  Specialized Branches of Anatomy
  8. 8. Gross Anatomy  RegionalRegional – all structures in one part of the body (such as the abdomen or leg)  SystemicSystemic – gross anatomy of the body studied by system  SurfaceSurface – study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin
  9. 9. Microscopic Anatomy  CytologyCytology – study of the cell  HistologyHistology – study of tissues
  10. 10. Developmental Anatomy  EmbryologyEmbryology – study of developmental changes of the body before birth
  11. 11. Specialized Branches of Anatomy  Pathological anatomyPathological anatomy – study of structural changes caused by disease  Radiographic anatomyRadiographic anatomy – study of internal structures visualized by X ray  Molecular biologyMolecular biology – study of anatomical structures at a sub-cellular level
  12. 12. Medical Terminology
  13. 13. Basic Anatomical Terminology
  14. 14. Basic Anatomical Terminology
  15. 15. Some Anatomical Directions  Superior and Inferior  Anterior and Posterior  Dorsal and Ventral  Proximal and Distal  Medial and Lateral
  16. 16. Anatomical Position  The anatomical position is a standardized method of observing or imaging the body that allows precise and consistent anatomical references.  When in the anatomical position, the subject stands (Figure 1.5).  standing upright  facing the observer, head level  eyes facing forward  feet flat on the floor  arms at the sides  palms turned forward (ventral)
  17. 17. Positions and Directions Terms of position and direction describe the position of one body part relative to another. It usually along one of the three major body planes
  18. 18. Positions and Directions Superior  Refers to a structure being closer to the head or higher than another structure in the body Inferior  Refers to a structure being closer to the feet or lower than another structure in the body
  19. 19. Positions and Directions Anterior  Refers to a structure being more in front than another structure in the body Posterior  Refers to a structure being more in back than another structure in the body
  20. 20. Positions and Directions Medial  Refers to a structure being closer to the midline or median plane of the body than another structure of the body Lateral  Refers to a structure being farther away from the midline than another structure of the body
  21. 21. Positions and Directions Distal (Reference to the extremities only)  Refers to a structure being further away from the root of the limb than another structure in the limb Proximal (Reference to the extremities only)  Refers to a structure being closer to the root of the limb than another structure in that limb
  22. 22. Distal / Proximal Cont.  When you divide the skeleton into Axial (Blue) and Appendicular (Yellow) you can better understand the extremities and their roots. Proximal Distal
  23. 23. Positions and Directions Superficial  Refers to a structure being closer to the surface of the body than another structure Deep  Refers to a structure being closer to the core of the body than another structure
  24. 24. Positions and Directions Ventral  Towards the front or belly  You Vent out or your nose and mouth. Dorsal  Towards the back  Like the Dorsal fin of a dolphin.
  25. 25. Positions and Directions Prone  Lying face down  Like a Pro Baseball player sliding into Home. Supine  Lying face up  Lying on your spine and you can have soup poured into your mouth. Unilateral  Pertaining to one side of the body Bilateral  Pertaining to both sides of the body
  26. 26. Basic body planes or sections These terms are used for planes or sections that cut the body, organs, tissues, or cells
  27. 27. Example of how planes would cut the brain
  28. 28. Anatomical Planes  Fixed lines of reference along which the body is often divided or sectioned to facilitate viewing of its structures  Allow one to obtain a three-dimensional perspective by studying the body from different views
  29. 29. Anatomical Planes Sagittal plane  The plane dividing the body into right and left portions  Midsagittal or median are names for the plane dividing the body into equal right and left halves
  30. 30. Anatomical Planes Frontal plane  The plane dividing the body into front and back portions  Also called the Coronal plane
  31. 31. Anatomical Planes Transverse plane  The horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions  Also called the Horizontal plane
  32. 32. Body planes and sections - cut into sections along a flat surface called a plane (also called XS – cross section) (also called coronal)
  33. 33. Sectional Anatomy  Describe three-dimensional structures.  Sectional Planes: Transverse Planes- divide the body into superior/inferior sections. Frontal Planes - divide the body into anterior and posterior sections. Sagittal Planes-divide the body into left and right sections. Exactly equal halves- Midsagittal
  34. 34. Transverse View
  35. 35. Frontal (Coronal) Plane
  36. 36. Sagittal Plane
  37. 37. Gummy Bear Dissection LAB 1. Cadaver Bear 2. Dissecting Tray 3. Scalpel
  38. 38. The End
  39. 39. Movements
  40. 40. Movements Flexion Extension Hyperextension Adduction Abduction Prontaion Supination Retraction Protraction Elevation Depression Rotation Circumduction External Rotation Internal Rotation Inversion Eversion Dorsiflexion Plantarflexion Radial Deviation Ulnar Deviation
  41. 41. Movements Flexion  Bending a joint or decreasing the angle between two bones  In the Fetal Position we are flexing our joints Extension  Straightening a joint or increasing the angle between two bones  In the Anatomical Position we are extending our joints Hyperextension  Excessive extension of the parts at a joint beyond anatomical position.
  42. 42. Flexion / Extension / Hyperextension
  43. 43. Movements Adduction  Moving a body part towards the midline of the body Abduction  Moving a body part away from the midline of the body
  44. 44. Movements Pronation  Turning the arm or foot downward  (palm or sole of the foot - down)  Prone Supination  Turning the arm or foot upward  (palm or sole of the foot - up)  Supine
  45. 45. Movements Retraction  Moving a part backward Protraction  Moving a part forward Elevation  Raising a part Depression  Lowering a part
  46. 46. Movements Rotation  Turning on a single axis Circumduction  Tri-planar, circular motion at the hip or shoulder Internal rotation  Rotation of the hip or shoulder toward the midline External rotation  Rotation of the hip or shoulder away from the midline
  47. 47. Movements Lateral Flexion  Side-bending left or right
  48. 48. Movements of the Foot Inversion  Turning the sole of the foot inward Eversion  Turning the sole of the foot outward Dorsiflexion  Ankle movement bringing the foot towards the shin Plantarflexion  Ankle movement pointing the foot downward
  49. 49. Movements of the Wrist & Thumb Radial Deviation  Movement of the wrist towards the radius or lateral side. Ulnar Deviation  Movement of the wrist towards the ulna or medial side. Opposition  Movement of the thumb across the palm of the hand.
  50. 50. Additional Range of Motion
  51. 51. The End
  52. 52. The Integumentary System
  53. 53. Integumentary System Includes:  Skin (cutaneous membrane)  Subcutaneous tissue below the skin  Accessory Structures Sweat glands Sebaceous or oil glands Hair Nails
  54. 54. Anatomy of skin 1. Human skin is divided into two layers a. epidermis (outermost) b. dermis ( innermost) 2. separated by basement membrane (BM) 3. A layer of loose connective tissue beneath the dermis called hypodermis, or subcutis
  55. 55. Skin Facts  Largest organ of the body (15% of body weight).  Weighs about 6 pounds  Average about 3000 square inches  Fastest to regenerate  Covers 1.5 – 2 square meters  Most skin is 1 – 2 mm thick but can range from .5 – 6 m  Receives 1/3 of the body’s blood volume
  56. 56. Major functions of skin  Regulate body temp  Protect underlying tissue  Excrete H20 and salt  Receives stimuli for touch, pain, temp change, etc.  Immunity  Metabolism
  57. 57. Body Temperature  When your body temperature rises, the many small blood vessels in the dermis dilate, blood flow increases, and body heat is lost by radiation.  Also glands in the dermis produce sweat in response to an increase in body temperature  As sweat evaporates, water changes state from liquid to vapor and heat is lost.  When you are cold, the blood vessels in the skin constrict and heat is conserved.
  58. 58. Vitamin D  When exposed to UV light, dermis cells produce Vitamin D that aids in absorption of calcium into blood
  59. 59. Pimples & Wrinkles  Pimples (acne) are a build up of dirt and oils.  Wrinkles occur because of getting less elastic with age and producing less oil becoming dryer.
  60. 60. Layers Of The Skin  Epidermis – outer  composed of stratified squamous epithelium  Dermis – inner  anchored to a subcutaneous layer  Hypodermis  Integumentary glands  (sweat, oil, etc.)  Hair and Nails Click here to copy and Paste a micrograph of The layers of the skin.
  61. 61. Identify the different layers of the skin and their components
  62. 62. Epidermis  Outer layer of skin  Composed of stratified squamous epithelium  Avascular as it has no blood supply of its own  Oxygen and nutrients diffuse from the underlying dermis
  63. 63. Epidermis: The outer layer of skin
  64. 64. Epidermis (cont:)  The epidermis is a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.  Five structurally different layers can be identified:
  65. 65. • Keratinocytes (90%)- waterproofs & protects skin, nails, hair, stratum corneum • Melanocytes (8%)- produce melanin • Merkel Cells- slow mechanoreceptors • Langerhans’ Cells- immunological defense
  66. 66. Layers of the Epidermis  The stratum basale  The stratum spinosum,  The stratum granulosum  The stratum lucidum  The stratum corneum,
  67. 67. • Stratum Corneum • Stratum Lucidum • Stratum Granulosum • Stratum Spinosum • Stratum Basale- (Germinativum)
  68. 68. The Stratum Basale (first layer)  It is the deepest layer of the epidermis (closest to the dermis).  It consists of a single layer of columnar or cuboidal cells which rest on the basement membrane.  Basal cells are the stem cells of the epidermis and their mitotic activity replenishes the cells in more superficial layers as these are eventually shed from the epidermis.
  69. 69. The Stratum Basale (first layer cont:)  The renewal of the epidermis takes about 3 to 4 weeks in humans as millions of cells are produced daily.  Cells die as they are pushed away from the source of nourishment.  Cells undergo keratinization as a tough protein, keratin, is deposited within the cell.  Keratin hardens and flattens the cells as they move outward and it waterproofs the skin.
  70. 70. The Stratum Spinosum (second layer)  The cells become irregularly arranged.  The cells are often separated by narrow, translucent clefts.  These clefts are spanned by spine-like cytoplasmatic extensions of the cells (hence the name of the layer and of its cells: spinous cells), which interconnect the cells of this layer.
  71. 71. The Stratum Granulosum (third layer)  It consists, in thick skin, of a few layers of flattened cells.  Only one layer may be visible in thin skin.
  72. 72. The Stratum lucidum (fourth layer)  It consists of several layers of flattened dead cells.  Nuclei already begin to degenerate in the outer part of the stratum granulosum.  In the stratum lucidum, faint nuclear outlines are visible in only a few of the cells. The stratum lucidum can usually not be identified in thin skin.
  73. 73. The Stratum Corneum (fifth layer)  It is the final layer of epidermis and there cells are keratinized and form a layer that is about 30 cells thick.  Individual cells are difficult to observe because: (1) nuclei can no longer be identified, (2) the cells are very flat. (3) the space between the cells has been filled with lipids, which cement the cells together into a continuous membrane.
  74. 74. The Stratum Corneum ((fifth layer cont:)  Closest to the surface of the epidermis, the stratum corneum has a somewhat looser appearance.  Cells are constantly shed from this part of the stratum corneum. This layer makes up three fourths of the epidermal thickness.  The protection of the body by the epidermis is due to the functional features of the stratum corneum.
  75. 75. Dermis or corium  Inner layer of skin  The dermis, or corium, consists of dense fibrous connective tissue with numerous collagenous and elastic fibers.  The dermis is much thicker than the epidermis. In thick skin, dermal papillae create a very irregular border between epidermis and dermis.
  76. 76. Dermis: The inner layer of skin
  77. 77. Dermis
  78. 78. papillary dermis reticular dermis
  79. 79. a. Cellular Fibroblasts (synthesize collagen, elastin, and reticulin), histiocytes, endothelial cells, perivascular macrophages and dendritic cells, mast cells, smooth muscle, and cells of peripheral nerves and their end-organ receptors. b. Fibrous Collagen & reticulin - provide tensile strength Elastic fibers- provide for restoration of shape after a deformation c. Ground substance glycosaminoglycans: hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and dermatan sulfate.
  80. 80. The Hypodermis  Known as subcutaneous tissue or superficial fascia  Has more adipose than dermis  Functions energy reservoir thermal insulation  Hypodermic injections into subcutaneous tissue Hypodermis
  81. 81. This layer contains adipose tissue and serves to attach the dermis to its underlying tissues. Hypodermis
  82. 82. Next topic
  83. 83. 1. Hair 2. Skin glands 3. Nails Accessory Organs of the Skin
  84. 84. Accessory Structures of the Skin Hair  A characteristic feature of the human skin is the apparent lack of hair on most of the body surface. This is actually not quite true. Most of the skin is haired although the hair in most areas is short, fine and only lightly pigmented.  Truly hairless are only the palms of hands and soles of feet, the distal phalanges and sides of fingers and toes and parts of the external genitalia.
  85. 85. Hair (cont:)  In those parts of the skin which we perceive as "hairy" we find terminal hairs. The free part of each hair is called the shaft.  The root of each hair is anchored in a tubular invagination of the epidermis, the hair follicle, which extends down into the dermis and, usually, a short distance into the hypodermis.  The hair that you groom daily is actually dead keratinized cells.  Each hair follicle has an associated bundle of smooth muscle, the arrector pili muscle. This muscle inserts with one end to the papillary layer of the dermis and with the other end to the dermal sheath of the hair follicle. This makes your hair stand up on its end.
  86. 86. Hair Color and Texture  Hair color is determined by the amount and type of melanin present.  Melanocytes become less active with age. Gray hair is a mixture of pigmented and non-pigmented hairs.  Red hair results from a a modified type of melanin that contains iron.  The shape of the hair shaft determines texture.  Round shaft – straight hair  Oval shaft – wavy hair  Flat shafts – curly or kinky hair Perms use chemicals to flatten shafts and makes hair curly. Alopecia is the term for hair loss.
  87. 87. Accessory Structures of the Skin Nails Plates of stratified squamous epithelial cells with hard keratin Protect distal ends of phalanges Cells are keratinized in the nail root Nail growth occurs in the lunula Cuticle is a fold of stratum corneum on the proximal end of nail
  88. 88. Exocrine Glands  Sebaceous glands or oil glands are simple branched areolar glands. They secrete the sebum (seb = oil) an oily product. Sebum is usually secreted into a hair follicle. Sebum is a natural skin cream: it helps hair from becoming brittle, prevents excessive evaporation of water from the skin, keeps the skin soft and contains a bactericidal agent that inhibits the growth of certain bacteria.  Sebaceous glands are scattered all over the surface of the skin except in the palms, soles and the side of the feet.  Vernix caseosa - white covering on fetus.  Blackhead  Pimple
  89. 89. Exocrine Glands The exocrine gland are:  Sweat glands or sudoriferous glands are simple coiled tubular glands. They are divided into two principal types: eccrine and apocrine.
  90. 90. Exocrine Glands  Eccrine glands are the most common. Their secretory portion can be located in the dermis or in the hypodermis. They produce sweat, a watery mixture of salts, antibodies and metabolic wastes. Sweat prevents overheating of the body and thus helps regulate body temperature.
  91. 91. Exocrine Glands  Apocrine glands are found mainly in the skin of the armpits, of the anogenital areas and of the areola of the breasts. Their secretory portion can be located in the dermis or in the hypodermis. Their excretory ducts open into hair follicles. Their secretion is more viscous than that of the eccrine glands. They start secreting at puberty and may be analogous to the sexual scent glands of other animals.
  92. 92. Exocrine Glands  Ceruminous glands (or ear wax glands) and mammary glands are modified apocrine sweat glands.
  93. 93. Physiology of the Skin  Protection - the epidermis provides a barrier to fluid loss from the body (this protective function is impaired in patients with burns).  barrier function - intact skin prevents the entry of micro-organisms into the body. Antimicrobial proteins are produced by the epidermis - they act by piercing holes in the outer membranes of micro-organisms.  Resistance to wear and tear - continuous replacement of the outer epidermal cells that wear off - new cells are produced in the deepest layer of the epidermis and gradually migrate towards the surface
  94. 94.  Skin can excrete water, salt, and small amounts of waste products such as urea.  Vitamin D can be synthesized in skin exposed to sunlight (vitamin D can also be obtained from the diet)  The skin provides a barrier to ultraviolet light. The melanocytes contain melanin, which absorbs UV radiation, and also distribute the pigment to neighboring cells. Skin exposed to sunlight becomes wrinkled and creased. Changes seem to be due to disruption of collagen and elastin in dermis, and loss of fibroblasts which make new proteins.
  95. 95.  The integumentary system is well- supplied with receptors for touch, pain, temperature, vibration and pressure  Sensory information is relayed to the central nervous system via sensory nerves  Social interactions are influenced by facial expressions, blushing, touching, etc.
  96. 96. Fun Facts  House dust is mainly skin flakes!  If you laid out all your skin on a flat surface, it would have an area of about 2 square meters.  Skin weighs about 2.5 kilograms - the largest organ in the body.  What hurts if you pull it, but doesn't hurt if you cut it? Your hair, of course!  Skin is elastic - it springs back into shape when stretched. Some medicines (estrogen, nicotine) can pass through the skin, but others cannot (insulin). Why is that? Because only fat-soluble substances can enter the skin, not water- soluble ones.  Your hair stands on end and you develop 'goose bumps' because there are tiny muscles attached to the hair follicles and they contract when you are frightened or cold.
  97. 97. THANKS