After reading this chapter, the student should be able to:
1. Understand the microbial etiology of apical
2. Describe the routes of entry of microorganisms to the
pulp and periradicular tissues.
3. Recognize the different types of endodontic infections
and the main microbial species involved in each one.
4. Understand the bacterial diversity within infected root
5. Describe the factors involved with symptomatic
6. Understand the ecology of the endodontic microbiota
and the features of the endodontic ecosystem.
7. Discuss the role of microorganisms in the outcome of
8. Understand the development and implications of