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HDI(Human Development Index)

Concept of development, human development index and its parameters!

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PRESENTED BY :-
AMIR SIDDIQUI - 14234
TEJAS GHOTEKAR - 14237
SARANG MESHRAM - 14245
AJINKYA SANGLE - 14250
NIKHIL KAME - 14257
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
 Both growth and development refer to changes over a period of time.
 Growth :-
 Quantitative and value neutral change .
 Positive or a negative sign.
 Development :-
 Qualitative change which is always value positive.
 Development occurs when positive growth takes place.
 For example, if the population of a city grows from one lakh to two lakhs over a
period of time, we say the city has grown.
 However, if facilities like housing, provision of basic services and other
characteristics remain the same, then this growth has not been accompanied by
development.
 The quality of life people enjoy in a country, the
opportunities they have and freedoms they enjoy, are
important aspects of development.
 The concept of human development was
introduced by Dr. Mahbub-ul-haq.
 Dr. Haq has described human
development as development
that enlarges people’s choices
and improves their lives.
 Access to resources, health and education are the key
areas in human development.
FOUR PILLARS OF HUMAN DEVELOPEMNT
 Just as any building is supported by pillars, the idea of human
development is supported by the concepts of equity, sustainability,
productivity and empowerment.
 Equity refers to making equal access to opportunities available to
everybody.
 Sustainability means continuity in the availability of
opportunities.
 Productivity here means human labour productivity or
productivity in terms of human work.
 Empowerment means to have the power to make choices.
WHAT IS HDI ?
 It is a tool used to measure a country's overall
achievement in its social and economic dimensions.
Definition:-
The human development index (HDI) is a
composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per
capita income indicators, which is used to rank countries
into four tiers of human development.
The human development index is a measure of economic
development and economic welfare.
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HDI(Human Development Index)

  • 1. PRESENTED BY :- AMIR SIDDIQUI - 14234 TEJAS GHOTEKAR - 14237 SARANG MESHRAM - 14245 AJINKYA SANGLE - 14250 NIKHIL KAME - 14257
  • 2. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT  Both growth and development refer to changes over a period of time.  Growth :-  Quantitative and value neutral change .  Positive or a negative sign.  Development :-  Qualitative change which is always value positive.  Development occurs when positive growth takes place.  For example, if the population of a city grows from one lakh to two lakhs over a period of time, we say the city has grown.  However, if facilities like housing, provision of basic services and other characteristics remain the same, then this growth has not been accompanied by development.
  • 3.  The quality of life people enjoy in a country, the opportunities they have and freedoms they enjoy, are important aspects of development.  The concept of human development was introduced by Dr. Mahbub-ul-haq.  Dr. Haq has described human development as development that enlarges people’s choices and improves their lives.
  • 4.  Access to resources, health and education are the key areas in human development.
  • 5. FOUR PILLARS OF HUMAN DEVELOPEMNT  Just as any building is supported by pillars, the idea of human development is supported by the concepts of equity, sustainability, productivity and empowerment.  Equity refers to making equal access to opportunities available to everybody.  Sustainability means continuity in the availability of opportunities.  Productivity here means human labour productivity or productivity in terms of human work.  Empowerment means to have the power to make choices.
  • 6. WHAT IS HDI ?  It is a tool used to measure a country's overall achievement in its social and economic dimensions. Definition:- The human development index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which is used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. The human development index is a measure of economic development and economic welfare.
  • 7. ORIGIN OF HDI  Devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub-ul- haq in 1990.  Amartya Sen and Mahbub –ul- haq worked upon the capabilities and functioning which provided conceptual framework.  Published by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). MAHBUB –UL- HAQ AMARTYA SEN
  • 9.  The human development index examines three important criteria of economic development 1) Life expectancy 2) Education 3) Income levels  Create an overall score between 0 and 1.  1 - indicates a high level of economic development.  0- a very low level.
  • 10. MEASURING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT  The human development index (HDI) ranks the countries based on their performance in the key areas of health, education and access to resources.  Health :-  The indicator chosen to assess health is the life expectancy at birth.  A higher life expectancy means that people have a greater chance of living longer and healthier lives.
  • 11.  Education :-  The adult literacy rate and the gross enrolment ratio represent access to knowledge.  The number of adults who are able to read and write and the number of children enrolled in schools show how easy or difficult it is to access knowledge in a particular country.  Access to resources is measured in terms of purchasing power (in U.S. Dollars).
  • 13. Example : Calculating HDI of India.  Life expectancy index = 0.679  Education index = 0.495  Income index = 0.599  HDI = (LI * EI * II)^1/3  HDI = (0.679 * 0.495 * 0.599)^1/3 = 0.586
  • 14. INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS  Often smaller countries have done better than larger ones in human development.  Similarly, relatively poorer nations have been ranked higher than richer neighbours in terms of human development.  For example, Sri Lanka, Trinidad and Tobago have a higher rank than India in the human development index despite having smaller economies.  Similarly, within India, Kerala performs much better than Punjab and Gujarat in human development despite having lower per capita income.
  • 15.  Ranking base:- Globally countries are divided in the following four classes according to their score in human development index –
  • 16. GLOBAL HDI RANKINGS- TOP TEN COUNTRIES RANK COUNTRIES HDI 1 NORWAY 0.944 2 AUSTRALIA 0.933 3 SWITZERLAND 0.917 4 NETHERLANDS 0.915 5 UNITED STATES 0.914 6 GERMANY 0.911 7 NEW ZELAND 0.910 8 CANADA 0.902 9 SINGAPORE 0.901 10 DENMARK 0.900
  • 17. LOWEST TEN COUNTRIES IN HDI RANK COUNTRIES HDI 178 MOZAMBIQUE 0.393 179 GUINEA 0.392 180 BURUNDI 0.389 181 BURKINA FASO 0.388 182 ERITERIA 0.381 183 SIERRA LEONE 0.374 184 CHAD 0.372 185 CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC 0.341 186 CONGO 0.338 187 NIGER 0.337
  • 18. HDI ASPECTS OF INDIA  India ranks (2014) – 135  HDI – 0.586  Gain of 0.003 HDI from previous year .  Comes under medium human development countries.  Indicators: -  Life expectancy at birth(by UN). Overall – 64.19 years(Rank 147). male – 62.80 years. Female – 65.73 years.  Education index : 0.473 .  Mean years of schooling : 5.1(rank 65).  GNI(Gross National Income)per capita at PPP : $5350 (rank 127) .
  • 19. HDI PROGRAMME IN INDIA  Unique in it’s kind.  Preparation of not only national report, but also sub-national human development reports (HDR).  Decentralized and integrated the human development concept into its development agenda at national, state, as well as district level .  More HDRs have been produced in India than the total number of global HDRs.  Plan is made by the Planning Commission –United Nations Development Programme(UNDP) partnership through the preparation of State Human Development Reports (SHDR) and District Human Development Reports (DHDR).
  • 20.  Human development programme started in 8th five year plan(1992-1997).  First state - Madhya Pradesh.  The world’s first state HDR was published in Madhya Pradesh in 1995 .  Computation of the state’s HDI as well as HDI for all the districts in the state made by state govt.  So far 21 states have prepared HDRs.  State governments have initiated the work on district HDRs for 80 districts of which 23 HDRs have been released till date,  2009 -The first city HDR (Mumbai) was launched.
  • 22. HDI of different states in IndiaHDI-STATE WISE
  • 23. LIFE EXPECTANCY STATEWISE State Life expectancy(YEARS) Kerala 74.0 Punjab 69.4 Maharashtra 67.2 Jharkhand , Chhattisgarh , Madhya Pradesh 58.0
  • 24. KERALA – THE HIGHEST HDI STATE  HDI - 0.764  LITERACY RATE – 93.91 %  LIFE EXPECTANCY – 74 years.  HIGHEST SEX RATIO – 1084/1000 .  LEAST CORRUPTED STATE.  CLEANEST AND HEALTHIEST STATE .
  • 25. IMPORTANCE OF HDI The HDI gives an overall index of economic development. It does give a rough ability to make comparisons on issues of economic welfare – much more than just using GDP statistics show. It gives idea regarding areas of development which requires improvement. Statistics gives better decision making for areas having wide disparity. More focus on social & human development rather than only capital accumulation and growth.
  • 26. LIMITATIONS OF HDI  Wide divergence within countries. For example, countries like China and Kenya have widely different HDI scores depending on the region in question. (e.g. :- North china poorer than south east).  Economic welfare depends on several other factors, such as – threat of war, levels of pollution, access to clean drinking water etc.  GNI does not show how the income is spent by the government. Some countries spend more on military than on healthcare.
  • 27. When knowledge is measured it only takes into account what children learn at school not in the family. And so maybe knowledge statistics may be distorted if the family play more of a role in education in the home. Longevity can also be distorted as the life expectancy of a person does not consider how healthy the life was led. Life expectancy value for a country is the given is an average of the total population. There are many communities in the country that will not all have access to good healthcare services and so there will be variations of life expectancy values.
  • 28. THE CASE OF BHUTAN Bhutan is the only country in the world to officially proclaim the gross national happiness (GNH) as the measure of the country’s progress. Material progress and technological developments are approached more cautiously taking into consideration the possible harm they might bring to the environment or the other aspects of cultural and spiritual life of the Bhutanese.
  • 29.  This simply means material progress cannot come at the cost of happiness. GNH encourages us to think of the spiritual, non- material and qualitative aspects of development.
  • 30. WHY INDIA IS LAGGING IN HDI ??  Large number of population in India lives in slums that is around 158 .4 million.  42 % children below 5 years age are underweight and 59 % stunted.  Low spending on education by the government.  Lack of schemes for urban poor like NRHM etc.  India treats its environment poorly . Ranks 125 out of 132 countries in a study done by Yale university.
  • 31. CONCLUSION The HDI gives an overall index of economic development. There are certain differences among different states development conditions so there must be equal opportunities for development for all. Some important issues are missing in HDI such as infrastructure and some economic factors.