Renewable and non renewable energies


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Explain what are renewable and non-renewable energies
Describe what it is the greenhouse effect and the main factors responsible for it
Identify alternatives to the use of fossil fuels
Give examples of renewable sources of energy and their utilisation
Identify advantages and disadvantages of using renewable energy and non-renewable energy

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Renewable and non renewable energies

  1. 1. Group activity Solutions for:  Global warming  CO2 emission  Fossil fuels
  2. 2. Aim: to explore different sources of energy –renewable and non-renewable energyObjectives: Explain what are renewable and non-renewable energies Describe what it is the greenhouse effect and the main factors responsible for it Identify alternatives to the use of fossil fuels Give examples of renewable sources of energy and their utilisation Identify advantages and disadvantages of using renewable energy and non-renewable energy
  3. 3. Non-renewable and renewable resources What do you think non-renewable resources are? And Renewable Resources?
  4. 4. Renewable Non-renewable Non-renewable energyRenewable energy resources can resources is a natural resourcebe replaced or regenerated and will that cannot be re-made or re-never run out grown at a scale comparable to its consumption. Examples: wind and solar. Examples: coal , oil and natural gas.
  5. 5. What are fossil fuels?Coal, oil and natural gas are fossilfuels. They are carbon-basedmaterials that formed overmillions of years from the remainsof ancient plants and animals.Fossil fuels are so useful becausethey contain stored chemicalenergy, which is converted intolarge amounts of useful heatenergy when the fuels are burned
  6. 6. Coal Mainly made of carbon, but also contains sulfur, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Created by the accumulation of plant matter over thousands of years
  7. 7. Coal Coal provides around 24% of our energy World’s most abundant fossil fuel Air Pollution  Multiple pollutants released  Sulfur Dioxide – creates acid rain (sulfuric acid)  Nitrogen Oxides – creates acid rain (nitric acid)  Heavy CO2 emissions
  8. 8. Hydrocarbon • Oil and gas are made of a mixture of different hydrocarbons. • As the name suggests these are large molecules made up of hydrogen atoms Crude Oil attached to a backbone of carbon.
  9. 9. Origin: Ancient Earth © Ron Blakey, Arizona Flagstaff • During mid-Mesozoic times around 150 million years ago, conditions were just right! Ancient Earth The world’s main oil deposits all formed in warm shallow seas where plankton bloomed but bottom waters were deoxygenated
  10. 10. Exploration and Production : The Situation Today USGSGlobal oil and gas occurrences are now well understood (provincesshown in green).
  11. 11. Natural GasWorld’s third largest commercial fuel  23% of global energy consuption  Produces half as much CO2 as equivalent amount of coal  Most rapidly growing energy source  Often extractd from the same wells as petroleum
  12. 12. Refining crude oil.Components ofpetroleum are removedat variouslevels, depending ontheir boiling points,in a giant distillationcolumn. The mostvolatile components withthe lowest boiling pointsare removed at the topof the column.
  13. 13. How do fossel fuels produce electricity?
  14. 14. Worldwide commercial Energy
  15. 15. Current Energy Sources Fossil Fuels currently provide about 85% of all commercial energy in the world.  Other renewable sources (wind, solar, hydroelectric) make up 9% of commercially power  Nuclear power make up 6% of commercial power.
  16. 16. Per Capita Consumption Richest 20 countries consume nearly 80% of natural gas, 65% of oil, and 50% of coal production annually.  On average in richest countries, each person uses more than 200Gj of energy annually.  In poorest countries of the world, each person generally consumes less than one Gj annually.
  17. 17. Per capita energy use
  18. 18. What waste do fossil fuels produce?Burning fossil fuels creates wasteproducts that can act as pollutants andhave harmful environmental effects.• Carbon dioxide – This greenhouse gas is the main waste product of burning fossil fuels. Increased levels of carbon dioxide due to human activities are thought to be connected with global warming.• Methane: emitted during the production of coal, natural gas and oil (greenhouse gas).• Sulfur dioxide and nitric oxides – These gaseous pollutants contribute to the formation of smog and acid rain.
  19. 19. Greenhouse Gases The greenhouse effect is causing the Earth to warm up. This is causing climate change and melting of the polar ice caps, this It is due to increasing could lead to flooding. amounts of greenhouse gases, such as carbon Burning fuels is a dioxide, water vapour and major cause of this methane. increase.
  20. 20. How Does the Greenhouse Effect Happen
  21. 21. How Does the Greenhouse Effect Happen Greenhouse gases absorb infra-red radiation, but not visible or ultraviolet radiation from the sun. They let the sun’s radiation in, but stop some of the earth’s infra-red radiation out. Video
  22. 22. Acid RainPower stations burning coalproduce large amounts ofsulphur oxides. Scrubbers are used to reduce the sulphurThese emissions can dioxide emissions, butcause problems for they cannot removeasthma suffers. them all. They cause acid rain, this makes lakes and rivers acidic, which kills the fish. It also damages trees and buildings. Video
  23. 23. Advantages and DisadvantagesFossil FuelsTransporting oil and gas to the power stations is easy;Relatively inexpensive; High net energy yield; efficientdistribution systemPollution by producing CO2, methane and sulphur dioxide.Mining coal can be difficult and dangerous. Destroys largeareas of the landscape.
  24. 24. Renewable Energies• These are resources found in nature that are self- regenerating: • Sunlight • Wind • Geothermal heat • Biomass • Wave • Tides• These resources are normally used to produce clean (or green) energy. This production does not lead to climate change and involve emission of pollutants
  25. 25. Reducing Global WarmingReplace fossil fuels with other sources of energy.Wind power Solar power Hydroelectric
  26. 26. Geothermal Bio fuels
  27. 27. Complete the table to show the advantages and disadvantages of each of these power sources.Wave power Nuclear power
  28. 28. Why are renewable energy growing in importance and popularity? To avert irreversible climate damage Increasing oil prices Unrealiability of non-renewable resurces (e.g. the depletion of oil wells)
  29. 29. Solar Power Solar water heating: heat from the Sun is used to heat water in glass panels on your roof.  Water is pumped through pipes in the panel. The pipes are painted black, so they get hotter when the Sun shines on them. The water is pumped in at the bottom so that convection helps the flow of hot water out of the top
  30. 30. Solar Power Photovoltaics (PV): the application of solar cells to convert sunlight directly into electricity Solar Furnaces: use a huge array of mirrors to concentrate the Sun’s energy into a small space and produce very high temperatures
  31. 31. Advantages and DisadvantagesSolar energyPollution free with no waste products. It can beused where there is no easy way to get electricityto a remote place.Doesn’t work at night. High initial cost, very largearrays needed for large scale production. It can beunreliable.
  32. 32. Wind Power• The energy of wind is harnessed with wind turbines. They are usually grouped in wind farms.• The wind blows the propeller round, which turns a generator to produce electricity• The best place for wind farms are coastal areas, at the tops of rounded hills and open plains• To be worthwile you need na average speed of 25km/h 7153.stm
  33. 33. Advantages and DisadvantagesWind powerRenewable, pollution and waste free. A good method ofsupplying energy to remote areasHigh initial cost for large scale generation, not reliable incalm weather. Not predictable – some days have no wind.Large wind farms have environmental impact, both visualand noise. Can kill birds.
  34. 34. Tidal Power• It converts the energy of tides into electricity• Tidal energy is captured with tidal stream systems which use the kinetic energy of moving water to drive turbines.
  35. 35. Advantages and DisadvantagesTidal PowerPollution and waste free. Once built it is free. It produceselectricity reliably. Not expensive to maintainFew suitable sites for tidal barrages. It only provides powerfor around 10 hours each day. A barrage is very expensiveto build and affects a very wide area. Many birds rely on thetide uncovering the mud flats to feed.
  36. 36. Hydroelectric Power Energy from falling water It is generated in dams which cuts across the river Water flows through the tunnels of the dam, to turn turbines and thus drive generators. It provides 20% of the world’s electricity
  37. 37. Advantages and DisadvantagesHydroelectricRenewable, quite predictable and reliable, pollutionand waste free. Can be used on a large scale. Watercan be stored ready to cope with picks in demand.Costly to install, hard to find a suitable site (impact onresidents and the environment)Environmental impact: It will flood a vary large areaupstream causing problems for the animals that usedto live there; water quality and quantity downstreamcan be affected
  38. 38. Wave PowerWith wind turbines, the airfluctuations casued by the movingwater can also be used to producepower.• The waves arriving cause the water in the chamber to rise and fall and air is forced in and out of the hole in the top of the chamber.• A turbine is placed in the hole, which is turned by the air in and out.• The turbine turns a generator
  39. 39. Advantages and DisadvantagesWaste free. Not expensive to operate and maintain. Canproduce a great deal of energy.Needs a suitable site. Depends on the waves. Some designsare noisy. Must be able to withstand very rough weather.
  40. 40. Pumped Storage• Water is pumped up to the top reservoir at night when demand for power across the country is low.• When there is a sudden demand for power, the “headgates” are opened, and water rushes down the tunnels to drive the turbine , which drive the powerful generators.• The water then collects in the bottom reservoir, ready to be pumped back up later
  41. 41. Advantages and DisadvantagesPumped storage reservoirLittle effect on the landscape. No pollution or waste.Without some means of storing energy for quickrelease, we’d be in troubleExpensive to built. Once used, you can’t use it again untilyou’ve pumped the water back up.
  42. 42. Geothermal PowerThis type of energy is obtained by tappingthe heat of the earth, which is mostly inthe form of hot water and steam. Varioustechnologies are used to get to the heatunder earth’s surface at different depths
  43. 43. Geothermal Power• Hot rocks underground heat water to produce steam• Holes are drilled, steam comes up, is purified and used to drive turbines, which drive electric generators.• It might be needed to drill more holes and pump water down to them
  44. 44. Advantages and DisadvantagesGeothermalPollution free. Power stations do not take much room. Oncegeothermal station built energy almost free.Not widely available (few places where Power stations canbe built), expensive to set up, technological problems.Hazardous gases and minerals may come up fromunderground.
  45. 45. Biomass  Biomass consists of living or recently dead organisms or other biological material i.e. carbon. Biomass is used to produce biofuel. The most commun material for biofuels are photosynthetic plants such as sugar cane.  For a biomass power station making electrecity, it is pretty much like a fossil fuel power station:Burn fuel Heat water Steam turns Turbines turn Electrical to make steam turbines generators Power
  46. 46. Advantages and DisadvantagesBiomassThey help to reduce waste. Tend to be cheap. Lessdemand on fossil fuels.Not a large enough supply to replace fossil fuels at presentrates of use. It makes greenhouse effects like fossil fuelsdo. Some waste material are not available all year round.
  47. 47. Biogas Biogas is produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. The biodegradable materials in question can be manure, sewage, green waste, household and industrial waste. It produces a mixture of methane and hydrogen. They can be used to generate heat, electric or mechanical energy, or fuel for vehicles. Biodegradable Anaerobic digestiton Storage Organic (fermentation) & material by bacteria DistributionVideo
  48. 48. Advantages and DisadvantagesBiogasThe methane gas from the waste would otherwise end upin the atmosphere. It tends to be cheap. Less demand onfossil fuels.The biogas is burnt so it makes greenhouse gases just likefossil fuels.
  49. 49. Nuclear Power• The reactor uses Uramiun rods as fuel and the heat is generated by nuclear fission: • Neutrons smash into the nucleus of the uranium atoms, which split roughly in half and release energy in the form of heat.• Water is pumped through the reactor to take the heat away, this then heats water to make steam.• The steam drives turbines which drive generators
  50. 50. Advantages and DisadvantagesNuclearNo carbon, nitrogen or sulphur oxides are produced so itdoes not contribute for the greenhouse effect. Produceshuge amounts of energy from small amounts of fuel. It isreliableIt is very dangerous. Radioactive waste products aredifficult to store and treat, safety systems to containradioactivity are very costly. Accidents can happen, publicresistance. Video
  51. 51. Case Study: Chernobyl Disaster Ukraine (1986) Explosions and partial meltdown Huge radioactive release to atmosphere Estimated death toll: 9,000–212,000 Radioactive fallout and long-term health effects
  52. 52. LEGACY OF