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Mechanical engineering, robotics.

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- 1. Walking Control Algorithm of Biped Humanoid Robot on Even , Uneven and Inclined Floor
- 2. INTRODUCTION This seminar describes walking control algorithm for the stable walking of a biped humanoid robot on an even, un even and inclined floor. Many walking control techniques have been developed based on the assumption that the walking surface is perfectly flat with no inclination. Accordingly, most biped humanoid robots have performed dynamic walking on well designed flat floors. In reality, however, atypical room floor that appears to be flat has local and global inclinations of about 2 degrees. It is important to note that even slight unevenness of a floor can cause serious instability in biped walking robots. In this seminar, propose an online control algorithm that considers local and global inclinations of the floor by which a biped humanoid robot can adapt to the floor conditions. For walking motions, a suitable walking pattern was designed first. Online controllers were
- 3. STATIC WALK static walking with a very low walking speed, walking speed must be low so that inertial forces are negligible The step time was over 10 seconds per step and the balance control strategy was performed through the use of COG (Center Of Gravity). Hereby the projected point of COG onto the ground always falls within the supporting polygon that is made by two feet. During the static walking, the robot can stop the walking motion any time without falling down. Here robot is statically stable, this mean that, at any time, if all motion Is stooped the robot will stay indefinitely in a stable position. This king of walking requires large feet, strong ankle joints and can achieve only slow walking speeds.
- 4. Dynamic walk It is fast walking with a speed of less than 1 second per step. If the dynamic balance can be maintained, dynamic walking is smoother and more active even when using small body motions. if the inertial forces generated from the acceleration of the robot body are not suitably controlled, a biped robot easily falls down. cannot stop the walking motion suddenly. Hence, the notion of ZMP (Zero Moment Point) was introduced in order to control inertial forces. Zero Moment Point (ZMP) The ZMP is the point where the total angular momentum is zero at the foot. The position of the ZMP is computed by finding the point(X, Y, Z)where the total torque is zero. For dynamic balancing the ZMP must lies in the
- 5. Where PZMP1 is the ZMP for one foot and PZMP2 is the ZMP for the other foot. ZMP point (black point) in two cases, one with the robot standing (left), and other after give a step (right). The pointed line represent the support polygon. Total _ PZMP = PZMP1 −PZMP2
- 6. XY Mpx = Mpy = 0 Fp + FA = 0 P OP * FP + MA + MPZ + POA * FA = 0 (P OP * FP ) + (MA)XY + (POA * FA )XY = 0
- 7. FICTITIOUS ZMP (FZMP) ???? RELATION WITH COP AND ZMP What is COP???????????
- 8. ZMP & COP Relation…. If point P is within the SP then the relation P ≡ CoP ≡ ZMP holds. If point P is outside the SP, then points CoP and FZMP do not coincide and P ≡ FZMP. Moreover, if the biped robot is dynamically stable, the position of the ZMP can be calculated with the CoP, e.g. using force sensors on the sole of the feet.
- 9. To calculate the point P, there are several assumptions that have to be made: a) The biped robot consists of n rigid links. b) All kinematic information, such as position of CoM, link orientation, velocities, etc. are known and calculated by forward kinematics. c) The floor is rigid and motionless. d) The feet can not slide over the floor FIND ZMP COORDINATE (X,Y,Z)
- 10. BIPED WALKING AND ONLINE CONTROL ALGORITHM CONSIDERING FLOOR CONDITION I. WALKING PATTERN GENERATION For the design of the walking pattern, the authors considered the following four design factors. 1) Walking cycle (2 × step time) a)Inverted pendulum model
- 11. 2) Lateral swing amplitude of the pelvis Ymc = A sinωt Xmc = A sinωt 3) Double support ratio
- 12. 4) Forward landing position ratio of the pelvis
- 13. WALKING PATTERN DESIGN
- 14. UPRIGHT POSE CONTROL FOR INCLINED SURFACE a)PITCH CONTROL b)ROLL CONTROL
- 15. PI controller using the torso pitch error torso θ on the prescribed ankle trajectory uankle pitch as follows: Where, Kp and KI are the proportional and integral gains, U(ankle pitch) is the compensated ankle pitch angle . The upright pose controller is activated in all walking stages. Following equations represents the control law. Where, Kp and KI are the proportional and integral gains, U′(ankle roll) is the compensated ankle roll angle . U′(ankle roll) can be calculated geometrically from lR and lL . In this manner, the robot always keeps its torso upright against the global inclination of the floor . Therefore, the robot can walk stably in spite of the global inclination of the floor.
- 16. LANDING ANGULAR MOMENTUM CONTROL FOR UN EVEN SURFACE Ankle torque control block diagram
- 17. END

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