• Ethos is appeal based on the character of the
speaker. An ethos-driven document relies on
the reputation of the author.
• Ex: Advertising with a spokesperson,
association with an established or respected
• Logos is appeal based on logic or reason.
• Ex: Scholarly documents are also often logos-
driven. They possess statistics and facts to
back up their claims.
• Pathos is appeal based on emotion.
• Ex: Advertisements tend to be pathos-driven.
• (Anyone ever seen the Sarah MacLachlan
• Diction – Word Choice (ex: words with
positive or negative connotations)
• Syntax – Sentence Structure (ex: repetition,
• Images – Figurative language, imagery
• Catch interest- How can you grab the reader’s
attention at the outset of the paper?
• Claim- What are you trying to prove? What are
you arguing for/against?
• Convince- What specific evidence do you have to
support your claim?
• Counterargument- In order to present a good
argument, the writer should present the best
argument against him/her, then show why it is
not sufficient. If the writer does not address the
opposing point of view, their argument seems
• Conclude- How does the writer reemphasize the
effectiveness of his/her claim and evidence?