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California Council for the Social Studies  Annual Conference March 5, 2011 Augustus Builds a Roman Empire A Classroom Appl...
Discussion Prompt <ul><li>How do you use primary sources to teach history in your classroom? </li></ul><ul><li>What are th...
California Content Standards for 6 th  Grade <ul><li>6.7 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, ...
California Content Standards for 7 th  Grade <ul><li>7.1 Students analyze the causes and effects of the vast expansion and...
California Content Standards for 10 th  Grade <ul><li>10.1 Students relate the moral and ethical principles in ancient Gre...
Backwards Planning 3/5/2011 UC Berkeley History-Social Science Project Cycle of Instruction
OUR PREMISE Knowledge of the Discipline:   History Content Process of Historical Investigation Knowledge of Discipline-Spe...
BACKWARDS PLANNING CYCLE OF INSTRUCTION <ul><li>Step 1: FRAMING INSTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>TOPIC/ ISSUES   </li></ul><u...
Planning Goals <ul><li>Identify challenges of and opportunities for teaching reading, writing, and historical analysis ski...
Planning Strategically <ul><li>Unit Focus Question:  (Getting at the heart of the matter--Unifying a broad range of inform...
Designing a Focus Question <ul><li>Criteria for Focus Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a focus for student learning on...
Writing a Teaching Thesis <ul><li>Focuses on the significance of unit/lesson  </li></ul><ul><li>Answers the Focus Question...
Model Unit Plan 3/5/2011 Unit Topic Growth and Strengthening of Roman: Republic to Empire Content Standard History-Social ...
3/5/2011 Ancient Rome Unit Focus Question:  How did Rome expand from a tiny republic in central Italy to the center of a v...
3/5/2011 Caesar Augustus Lesson Focus Question : How did Augustus use Roman religious symbols and beliefs to strengthen hi...
portraits of Caesar and Augustus compared 3/5/2011
Two statues of Augustus left : in military dress right : as  pontifex maximus 3/5/2011
typical coin of Roman Republic: left: bust of goddess Roma; right: Dioscuri on horseback silver, 190  BC 3/5/2011
Octavian coin series 1: top: portraits of Octavian bottom, from left to right: goddesses Pax (Peace), Venus, Victoria (Vic...
Octavian coin series 2: top: portraits of Pax, Venus, and Victoria bottom: Octavian addressing army; giving signal to atta...
3/5/2011 Roman Artifact Notes Name ______________________ Focus Question :  How did Caesar Augustus use Roman religious sy...
3/5/2011 Roman coins changed when Caesar Augustus was emperor. How do the changes in Roman coins show Caesar Augustus’ rol...
Aeneid  Excerpt 3/5/2011 This is the man, this is him, whom you have often heard  promised: Augustus Caesar, descendant of...
3/5/2011 again… carry forward … Overall Evidence: - - - ________________ ________________________________ Augustus Descend...
3/5/2011 again… carry forward… <ul><li>Overall Evidence: </li></ul><ul><li>Coin: Roman Republic depicting Roma and the Dio...
3/5/2011 Basic Thesis & Evidence Paragraph Outline Focus Question : How did Augustus use Roman religious symbols and relig...
3/5/2011 Basic Thesis & Evidence Paragraph Outline - KEY Augustus used religious symbols and religious beliefs to strength...
Advanced Thesis & Evidence Paragraph Outline 3/5/2011 Focus Question : How did Augustus use Roman religious symbols and re...
Advanced Thesis & Evidence Paragraph Outline 3/5/2011 Augustus used Roman religious symbols and religious beliefs to stren...
Analytical Paragraph Terminology 3/5/2011 THESIS (T) or Topic Sentence (TS) This is often the first sentence in a paragrap...
3/5/2011 ANALYZING A PRIMARY SOURCE Focus Question:  _____________________________________________________________________...
3/5/2011 WRITING USING THE PRIMARY SOURCE Focus Question: ________________________________________________________________...
3/5/2011 Discussion Prompts <ul><li>How do you think you might be able to implement these strategies in your classroom? </...
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Ucbhssp augustus builds a roman empire workshop presentation

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This workshop uses Roman coins, statues, and an excerpt from the Aeneid to help students gather evidence and answer a historical question. Primary sources and scaffolded, expository writing strategies are takeaways.

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Ucbhssp augustus builds a roman empire workshop presentation

  1. 1. California Council for the Social Studies Annual Conference March 5, 2011 Augustus Builds a Roman Empire A Classroom Application for Ancient Civilizations Fran Sheppard, Albany Middle School, [email_address] Alison Waterman, Orinda Intermediate School, [email_address] Phyllis James, Special Project Administrator for Vallejo USD, [email_address] The UC Berkeley History-Social Science Project Department of History • 2407 Dwinelle Hall #2550 • Berkeley, CA 94720-2550 Phone: 510-643-0897 • Fax: 510-643-2353 E-mail: [email_address] Website: http://history.berkeley.edu/ucbhssp
  2. 2. Discussion Prompt <ul><li>How do you use primary sources to teach history in your classroom? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the challenges you face using primary sources? </li></ul>3/5/2011
  3. 3. California Content Standards for 6 th Grade <ul><li>6.7 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures during the development of Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the location and describe the rise of the Roman Republic, including the importance of such mythical and historical figures as Aeneas, Romulus and Remus, Cincinnatus, Julius Caesar, and Cicero. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the government of the Roman Republic and its significance (e.g., written constitution and tripartite government, checks and balances, civic duty). </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the location of and the political and geographic reasons for the growth of Roman territories and expansion of the empire, including how the empire fostered economic growth through the use of currency and trade routes. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the influence of Julius Caesar and Augustus in Rome's transition from republic to empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Trace the migration of Jews around the Mediterranean region and the effects of their conflict with the Romans, including the Romans' restrictions on their right to live in Jerusalem. </li></ul><ul><li>Note the origins of Christianity in the Jewish Messianic prophecies, the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament, and the contribution of St. Paul the Apostle to the definition and spread of Christian beliefs (e.g., belief in the Trinity, resurrection, salvation). </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the circumstances that led to the spread of Christianity in Europe and other Roman territories. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the legacies of Roman art and architecture, technology and science, literature, language, and law. </li></ul>3/5/2011
  4. 4. California Content Standards for 7 th Grade <ul><li>7.1 Students analyze the causes and effects of the vast expansion and ultimate disintegration of the Roman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Study the early strengths and lasting contributions of Rome (e.g., significance of Roman citizenship; rights under Roman law; Roman art, architecture, engineering, and philosophy; preservation and transmission of Christianity) and its ultimate internal weaknesses (e.g., rise of autonomous military powers within the empire, undermining of citizenship by the growth of corruption and slavery, lack of education, and distribution of news). </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the geographic borders of the empire at its height and the factors that threatened its territorial cohesion. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the establishment by Constantine of the new capital in Constantinople and the development of the Byzantine Empire, with an emphasis on the consequences of the development of two distinct European civilizations, Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic, and their two distinct views on church-state relations. </li></ul>3/5/2011
  5. 5. California Content Standards for 10 th Grade <ul><li>10.1 Students relate the moral and ethical principles in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, in Judaism, and in Christianity to the development of Western political thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the similarities and differences in Judeo-Christian and Greco-Roman views of law, reason and faith, and duties of the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Trace the development of the Western political ideas of the rule of law and illegitimacy of tyranny, using selections from Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Politics. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the influence of the U.S. Constitution on political systems in the contemporary world. </li></ul>3/5/2011
  6. 6. Backwards Planning 3/5/2011 UC Berkeley History-Social Science Project Cycle of Instruction
  7. 7. OUR PREMISE Knowledge of the Discipline: History Content Process of Historical Investigation Knowledge of Discipline-Specific Literacy Skills : Building Academic Literacy through History Improving Student Achievement 3/5/2011
  8. 8. BACKWARDS PLANNING CYCLE OF INSTRUCTION <ul><li>Step 1: FRAMING INSTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>TOPIC/ ISSUES </li></ul><ul><li>MATERIALS </li></ul><ul><li>STANDARDS </li></ul><ul><li>FOCUS QUESTION./ Teaching Thesis </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Map the Lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible steps </li></ul><ul><li>Focus question for each lesson </li></ul><ul><li>SKILLS: reading, writing, and </li></ul><ul><li>discipline-specific analysis skills </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Design the Assessment(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Writing prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations for students </li></ul><ul><li>Rubric or scoring guide </li></ul>Classroom Application <ul><li>Step 5: Instruction, Learning, Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Reading and writing strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Oral language and critical thinking skills development </li></ul><ul><li>Content Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Model - Guided practice - Independent Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Step 6: Administer the Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Have students complete the assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Use the rubric </li></ul><ul><li>Provide feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Step 7: Analyze the Data </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze student work to plan instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Do protocol with colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>Revise or re-teach as needed </li></ul><ul><li>Revise unit for future use </li></ul>Adapted from Michelle M. Herczog, Consultant, History/Social Science, Los Angeles County Office of Education <ul><li>Step 3: Identify Challenges and Opportunities to Increase Understanding of Content </li></ul><ul><li>Unlocking text and content </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing historical argument </li></ul><ul><li>Writing to a focus question </li></ul>PLANNING STRATEGIES ASSESSMENT INSTRUCTION REFLECTION Follow up 3/5/2011
  9. 9. Planning Goals <ul><li>Identify challenges of and opportunities for teaching reading, writing, and historical analysis skills within the content standards framework by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using focus questions to plan and frame content, reading and writing instruction, and assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing a teaching thesis to determine the scope of instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introducing instructional strategies for teaching reading, writing, and historical analysis skills within the content standards framework </li></ul></ul>3/5/2011
  10. 10. Planning Strategically <ul><li>Unit Focus Question: (Getting at the heart of the matter--Unifying a broad range of information) </li></ul><ul><li>Unit Teaching Thesis: (A concise answer to my Unit Focus Question) </li></ul><ul><li>Unit Assessment: How will students express their learning? How will we measure student learning? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>What do the students need to know to answer the focus question? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lessons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson Focus ? What will students need to know? </li></ul><ul><li>Materials What resources will students use to access the information/content? </li></ul><ul><li>Skills What literacy and thinking skills will students need? </li></ul><ul><li>Activity How will students interact with the materials/content? </li></ul><ul><li>What reading and writing strategies will help students accomplish these tasks? What vocabulary knowledge is needed? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson Assessment How will students express their learning? How will we measure student learning? </li></ul>3/5/2011
  11. 11. Designing a Focus Question <ul><li>Criteria for Focus Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a focus for student learning on a standards-based issue </li></ul><ul><li>Creates connections among the issues and topic </li></ul><ul><li>Requires students to utilize critical thinking and writing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Elicits an explanation or argument that will be used to generate a thesis statement supported by evidence (i.e. how, why and what role questions do this) </li></ul><ul><li>Elicits more than one answer </li></ul>3/5/2011
  12. 12. Writing a Teaching Thesis <ul><li>Focuses on the significance of unit/lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Answers the Focus Question </li></ul><ul><li>What you want the students to know </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes learning goal </li></ul><ul><li>Directs assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Take into account whether students will be able to get this information from the materials and texts you have planned for the unit or lesson. </li></ul>3/5/2011
  13. 13. Model Unit Plan 3/5/2011 Unit Topic Growth and Strengthening of Roman: Republic to Empire Content Standard History-Social Science 6.7 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures during the development of Rome. Analysis Skills HI 3 Explain the sources of historical continuity and how the combination of ideas and events explains the emergence of new patterns. Analysis REPV 4 Students assess the credibility of primary and secondary sources & draw sound conclusions from them. Text/Sources Roman statues, coins, Virgil’s Aeneid. Appropriate textbook pages. Unit Focus Question How did Rome expand from a tiny republic in central Italy to a thriving center of a vast empire that encircled the Mediterranean Sea and included most of Europe? Lesson Teaching Thesis Augustus manipulated Roman religious symbols and beliefs to portray himself not only as a model Roman citizen, but also as a man with godlike qualities – perhaps one sent by the gods to serve Rome. He used public statues to portray himself as both an idealized military leader and a priest; he used images of himself on coins to suggest his divinity; and he appears in Virgil’s epic poem the Aeneid as the fulfillment of Rome’s destiny and the descendant of a god. Lesson Focus Question How did Augustus use Roman religious symbols and religious beliefs to strengthen his role as emperor? Activity Analyze primary sources (artifacts and text passage) Lesson Assessment Students will answer the lesson focus question by writing a paragraph with a thesis statement, two or three pieces of supporting evidence, and a conclusion. Advanced students will include analysis in addition to specific evidence.
  14. 14. 3/5/2011 Ancient Rome Unit Focus Question: How did Rome expand from a tiny republic in central Italy to the center of a vast empire that encircled the Mediterranean Sea and included most of Europe? http://www.allempires.com/article/index.php?q=social_reform_and_civil_war
  15. 15. 3/5/2011 Caesar Augustus Lesson Focus Question : How did Augustus use Roman religious symbols and beliefs to strengthen his role as emperor?
  16. 16. portraits of Caesar and Augustus compared 3/5/2011
  17. 17. Two statues of Augustus left : in military dress right : as pontifex maximus 3/5/2011
  18. 18. typical coin of Roman Republic: left: bust of goddess Roma; right: Dioscuri on horseback silver, 190 BC 3/5/2011
  19. 19. Octavian coin series 1: top: portraits of Octavian bottom, from left to right: goddesses Pax (Peace), Venus, Victoria (Victory) 3/5/2011
  20. 20. Octavian coin series 2: top: portraits of Pax, Venus, and Victoria bottom: Octavian addressing army; giving signal to attack; triumphal statue 3/5/2011
  21. 21. 3/5/2011 Roman Artifact Notes Name ______________________ Focus Question : How did Caesar Augustus use Roman religious symbols and beliefs to strengthen his role as emperor? Roman Statue. How is Caesar Augustus being portrayed?: Observations : (What do you see here? Use bullet points and describe each of these statues as evidence of Caesar Augustus’ portrayal.) Statements : (Revise and combine your observations into sentences, summarizing your evidence.) What is the statue trying to tell the viewer about Caesar Augustus? Caesar Augustus - - - - - - This statue shows Augustus as __________________ ___________________________________________________ The evidence of that is __________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ This portrayal is important because _ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________
  22. 22. 3/5/2011 Roman coins changed when Caesar Augustus was emperor. How do the changes in Roman coins show Caesar Augustus’ role being portrayed? Observations : (What do you see here? Use bullet points and describe each of these sets of coins as evidence of how Caesar Augustus wanted to be seen.) Statements : (Restate and combine your observations as sentences, summarizing your evidence.) What messages are the coins trying to tell the viewer? Typical Roman Coin, silver, 190 B.C. (Republic) (goddess Roma on front, Dioscuri on back) - - - - This coin shows ____________________________ ________________________________________________ and tells us that ____________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Octavian (Augustus) coin series, top: portraits of goddesses: Pax, Venus, and Victoria, bottom: Octavian addressing army; giving signal to attack; triumphal statue (Ca. 30 B.C.) Empire - - - - - These coins show __________________________ ________________________________________________ and are important because ____________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________
  23. 23. Aeneid Excerpt 3/5/2011 This is the man, this is him, whom you have often heard promised: Augustus Caesar, descendant of a god, who will again establish The golden ages which once reigned in the field of Latium [original area where Rome was founded] Under Saturn of old, and who will carry forward empire Over the Garamantes (Libyans) and Indians (southeast Asians)… -Virgil, The Aeneid, book VI, lines 790-796 Excerpt from A. Wallace-Hadrill, Augustan Rome , (London: Bristol Classical Press, 1993), 92 WRITTEN BETWEEN 29 – 19 BCE
  24. 24. 3/5/2011 again… carry forward … Overall Evidence: - - - ________________ ________________________________ Augustus Descendant of a god Aeneid Graphic Organizer Virgil, The Aeneid, book VI, lines 790-796, Excerpt from A. Wallace-Hadrill, Augustan Rome , (London: Bristol Classical Press, 1993), 92 ________________ ________________________________ Overall Evidence: - - -
  25. 25. 3/5/2011 again… carry forward… <ul><li>Overall Evidence: </li></ul><ul><li>Coin: Roman Republic depicting Roma and the Dioscuri </li></ul><ul><li>2. Virgil’s Aeneid </li></ul><ul><li>Overall Evidence: </li></ul><ul><li>Statue of Augustus as pontifex maximus (as a priest) </li></ul><ul><li>Augustus/Roman goddess coins </li></ul><ul><li>3. Virgil’s Aeneid </li></ul>-again establish a golden age - once reigned in the field of Latium [original area in which Rome was founded] -Saturn of old -carry forward the empire -over the Garamantes [Libyans] and Indians [southeast Asians] Augustus Descendant of a god Aeneid Graphic Organizer – KEY Virgil, The Aeneid, book VI, lines 790-796, Excerpt from A. Wallace-Hadrill, Augustan Rome , (London: Bristol Classical Press, 1993), 92 The Past Roman Republic The Future Roman Empire
  26. 26. 3/5/2011 Basic Thesis & Evidence Paragraph Outline Focus Question : How did Augustus use Roman religious symbols and religious beliefs to strengthen his role as emperor? Give at least two examples. Thesis statement : Augustus used religious symbols and religious beliefs to strengthen his role as emperor by showing himself as a man with godlike qualities. ________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ Evidence #1 : One way Augustus strengthened his power was by the use of ___________________________________________ which showed ____ __________________________________________________________ ____________________________________ Evidence #2 : Another way Augustus strengthened his power was through ____________________________________________ showing ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Evidence #3 : And finally, Augustus’ power was strengthened by ____________________________________________________ This shows that _______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Concluding statement : In conclusion, ____________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________
  27. 27. 3/5/2011 Basic Thesis & Evidence Paragraph Outline - KEY Augustus used religious symbols and religious beliefs to strengthen his role as emperor by showing himself as a man with godlike qualities. One way Augustus strengthened his power was by the use of statues which showed him as a priest. Another way Augustus strengthened his power was by having coins printed with his face on one side and Roman goddesses on the other (or by showing him in his jobs as emperor on one side and the other side were the faces of the Roman goddesses.). And finally, Augustus’ power was strengthened by the poem Virgil wrote, The Aeneid . [ This shows that ] Virgil wrote about Augustus connecting the past Republic to the future of the Roman Empire. In conclusion, Augustus was seen as a strong Roman emperor because the ancient Roman people saw him in a variety of places carrying out the religion of the Roman Republic.
  28. 28. Advanced Thesis & Evidence Paragraph Outline 3/5/2011 Focus Question : How did Augustus use Roman religious symbols and religious beliefs to strengthen his role as emperor? Give at least two examples. Thesis statement : Augustus used religious symbols to strengthen his role as emperor by __________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ Specific Evidence #1 : One way Augustus _______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Analysis : This showed ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Specific Evidence #2 : Another way Augustus ____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Analysis : This showed ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Specific Evidence #3 : And finally, Augustus _____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Analysis : This showed ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Concluding statement : In conclusion, _________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ Note: Basic version omits analysis. More advanced version could include more generalized examples with specific evidence and analysis to support or elaborate upon the generalizations. See example below.
  29. 29. Advanced Thesis & Evidence Paragraph Outline 3/5/2011 Augustus used Roman religious symbols and religious beliefs to strengthen his role as emperor by portraying himself as a man with godlike qualities and god-given authority. One way Augustus did this was by having statues made of him as a priest. This showed that he was pious, a Roman virtue. Another way Augustus strengthened his role as emperor was that he had coins minted with his image stamped on them. This practice [ or This ] encouraged his people to view him as godlike because Roman practice during the Republic was to mint coins with images of gods on them. Augustus followed the practice begun by Julius Caesar of minting coins with his picture on them. Later, Augustus minted coins with a goddess on one side, and with Augustus’s head on the other. Romans who used such coins all over the empire saw their emperor as more than a mere man. And finally, Augustus’ power was further strengthened by Virgil’s epic poem, The Aeneid. These passages said [ showed ] that “Augustus Caesar, descendant of a god…will once again establish the golden ages which once reigned…and will carry forward empire…” (6.791-5). In conclusion, although we cannot be certain that Augustus authorized Virgil’s portrayal of him in this way, we can say that Augustus used this important literary work, along with other aspects of Roman culture, to strengthen his position as emperor by presenting himself as a virtuous and godlike man sent to save and extend Roman power.
  30. 30. Analytical Paragraph Terminology 3/5/2011 THESIS (T) or Topic Sentence (TS) This is often the first sentence in a paragraph. It must answer the question or prompt and be the main idea of the paragraph. It has a subject and an argument, claim, or position. It does for a paragraph what a thesis does for an essay. EVIDENCE (EV) or CONCRETE DETAILS (CD) These are the details that form the backbone or core of the paragraph. These are the FACTS, EXAMPLES, or SUPPORT. They provide the proof for the thesis. They can be generalizations. SPECIFIC EVIDENCE (SEV) CONCRETE DETAILS (CD) The specific evidence builds upon the evidence sentence by providing greater detail or a concrete example. These are often NUMBERS, STATISTICS, QUOTATIONS, or DETAILS. These are needed to support the generalizations and really prove the thesis. ANALYSIS (AN) or COMMENTARY (CM)   This is the analysis, reasoning or commentary about the evidence and specific evidence. This is the EXPLANATION, INTERPRETATION, EVALUATION, or INSIGHT. This answers the question: “So what?” or “Why is this significant?”. They ensure the specific evidence, especially quotations, will be analyzed, not just dropped into the paragraph. The analysis sentence should forge the link between the evidence and the thesis. CONCLUDING SENTENCE (CS) This is the last sentence of the paragraph. It often restates the thesis without using key words. It also reviews what has been proven in the paragraph and reconnects it to the thesis. It gives a completed or finished feeling to the paragraph.
  31. 31. 3/5/2011 ANALYZING A PRIMARY SOURCE Focus Question: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Title of Source: ____________________________________ Author: ___________________ Genre (letter, cartoon, photo?): ________________ WHEN & WHERE Place and Time : Where and When was it published? Historical Context: What was going on during this event or era/period? WHO Author : background, sex, race, social class, education; credibility; expertise. What is his/her perspective? Audience: Who is the intended audience? OBSERVATIONS DESCRIPTION OF SOURCE What I see… Evidence of... MEANING What the objects, words, etc. mean MESSAGE/ARGUMENT The author is trying to tell me… QUESTIONS I wonder… My reaction to the source is…
  32. 32. 3/5/2011 WRITING USING THE PRIMARY SOURCE Focus Question: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ tells us that _____________________________________________________ (title of source OR author) (author OR subject) thought _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (the primary source’s message, what it is trying to tell me) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ because __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (evidence in the primary source) _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. This primary source relates to the focus question because ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. IDENTIFYING THE MAIN IDEA Looking at your observations of the primary source, what is the main idea or message of the source? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________. APPLYING THE SOURCE I think I can use this source in my essay because…
  33. 33. 3/5/2011 Discussion Prompts <ul><li>How do you think you might be able to implement these strategies in your classroom? </li></ul><ul><li>How might you adapt one of these strategies to meet your students’ needs? </li></ul>

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