The Pearl
An Agri-Urban Village
Hotel and School
with Residential Component
Cambodia
by

Sarah Sapone
Sapone 2

University of Miami
School of Architecture
Master of Architecture

The Pearl
An Agri-Urban Village
Cambodia
by

...
Sapone 3

For
Developing Countries
Sapone 4

Contents
List of Illustrations
Figures………………………………………………………………..………Page 5
Travel Sketches…………………………………………………….……...
Sapone 5

List of Illustrations
Figures
1.
Cambodian Women at Island, Phnom Penh, November 2009…………..…..…..p. 11
2.
Locati...
Sapone 6

Abstract
World development can be thought of in terms of three paradigms: the
cultivation of natural resources, ...
Sapone 7

Introduction

This writing is about a thesis student’s initial reconnaissance experience in Cambodia and the
eve...
Sapone 8
Philosophers, astronomers, historians, popes and mathematicians have all drawn global maps long before
cartograph...
Sapone 9
two countries are in the midst of a century long dispute over the ownership of the Preah
Vihear Temple in the Nor...
Sapone 10
At first, I was disappointed to hear this professor’s comment. Really, is it not possible?
In the same vein that...
Sapone 11

Whether the tortoise is behind from its country’s own internal struggle or it is behind
because it has been bog...
Sapone 12

Preface

A person goes on vacation to escape the daily grind. The 9-5 and longer grudge work in the
hopes of ob...
Sapone 13

Master’s of Architecture

Design Degree, May 2010
Sapone 14

Purpose

As an Architect, I question our Role in Society and believe that we want to help and do not
want to be...
Sapone 15

Fig 3. Proposed Project Location relative to Phnom Penh
The original Capital City of Cambodia, was Angkor; loca...
Sapone 16

Fig 4. Plan of Preah Khan Redraughted, March-November 2009
Sapone 17

Fig 5. Preah Khan North Entry Render, July 2009

Fig 6. The Pearl North Entry Elevation Render, December 2009
Sapone 18

What is the Architect’s Role in Society?
How to Create an Architecture that is Appropriate to Cambodia Today?
H...
Sapone 19

Project Definition

I plan to prove that a fusion of programming with hospitality and education is not only
pos...
Sapone 20

Conceptual Framework

World development can be thought of in terms of three paradigms: the cultivation of natur...
Sapone 21
Theories Explored for Thesis:
Comparative Analysis of Eastern and Western Design Philosophies and how they evolv...
Sapone 22
“More as the Quality of Deep Rootedness in the stratification of culture”
Contemporary Culture and its Influence...
Sapone 23

Pre-Design:
Analysis

Electricity:
Electricity is Government Imported and 3x More Expensive than Vietnam:
32 Am...
Sapone 24

Fig 7. The Pearl Site Issues, Wet and Dry Season Wind Conditions

Fig 8. Kean Sray, The Pearl Site Issues and C...
Sapone 25

Fig 9. The Pearl Agri-Urban Village Profile (Concept Pre-Design Ideas)
Sapone 26
Social:
The people who can afford to have Transportation, ride on scooters.
In the next 10 years traffic will co...
Sapone 27

Fig 10. Interior Corbel Section Idea for Cooling System at The Pearl, August 2009
Sapone 28

Strategies:

Sustainable Water Aversion Proposition: The Pearl Ecological Humanitarian Living
Hotel and School ...
Sapone 29
A quarter of the Netherlands is below sea level and 2/3 of the population lives in this
condition.
Systematic pr...
Sapone 30
4. Walkways: Individual Pontoons are to have the ability to join to one another to form
residential blocks for m...
Sapone 31
environmental building traditions and safety practice. The site is located in the direction of
Urban Growth and ...
Sapone 32
Situated at the confluence of the Mekong, Bassac and Tonle Sap Rivers, Cambodia’s capital,
Phnom Penh has a popu...
Sapone 33
central courtyards or along the community pilot strip. When not using homes, the owner’s
have the option of plac...
Sapone 34

I will hire experts and advisors in the fields of local law and international contracts, a
construction cost es...
Sapone 35
Sapone 36
Sapone 37

Fig 13. The Pearl Village Profile, Programmatic Analysis p. 33-36
Sapone 38

Fig 14. One of Best Current Technology NGO Educational Facilities, Phnom Penh

Fig 15. Children at the NGO Educ...
Sapone 39

Fig 16. The NGO Educational Facility, Phnom Penh

Fig 17. Children at the NGO Educational Facility, Phnom Penh
Sapone 40

Fig 18. Computer Station at the NGO Educational Facility , Phnom Penh

Fig 19. The NGO Educational Facility, Ph...
Sapone 41

Fig 20. Outside the Royal Palace, Phnom Penh

Design Objectives:

My Design Objectives are to create this proje...
Sapone 42
Freestanding buildings, they were normally placed in pairs on either side of the entrance to
an enclosure, openi...
Sapone 43
o Committed (construction stage): $13.9 million
 Trust - $9.4 million
 Hotel Management Co. - $3.0 million
 S...
Sapone 44
The project includes:
-

121 ‘house of fire’ rest accommodations each with modern
amenities, 11 - 17 square mete...
Sapone 45
Site / Location:

Downtown Phnom Penh, Cambodia, South East Asia
The country borders Thailand to its west and no...
Sapone 46
environment for hospitality properties. The resiliency of the
Cambodian market has been demonstrated despite for...
Sapone 47
Skyline Drive
Homes:

The 18 luxury detached Dhamasala Skyline Drive Community
Homes have 3 bedrooms and 3.5 bat...
Sapone 48
ction

(17)
Trade
Homes,
based
on PreSales

The ‘Library’ School
Gopura Reception, Rest ‘house of fire’ Phase 1
...
Sapone 49
Entitlements is expected to begin 3Q-09. Loan Funding for
Permitting and Construction is expected to begin 1Q-10...
Sapone 50
based subsidiary of a major foreign bank). The $8.5 million
commitment provides for the acquisition of the land....
Sapone 51

Travel Sketches:

TS 1. Ankgor, Cambodia Field Sketch

TS 2. Preah Khan, Double Height Round Column, Sacred Swo...
Sapone 52

TS 3. Preah Khan, Double Height Round Column, Sacred Sword, East Elevation
Sapone 53

TS 4. Preah Khan, Temple for Buddhist Gods, Southwest Quadrant, West Elevation
Sapone 54

TS 5. Preah Khan, Dharmasala, Rest House, Southeast Quadrant, North Elevation

TS 6. Preah Khan, Dharmasala, Re...
Sapone 55

TS 7. Preah Khan, Temple for Buddhist Gods, Northeast Quadrant, East Elevation
Sapone 56

Appendices:
I. Project of the Development Master Plan of Phnom Penh
Preah Khan was built in the ancient Capital...
Sapone 57

Challenges:

1-Socio-Economic Development
2-World Integration and Physical Infrastructure
3-Environment Preserv...
Sapone 58
2-World Integration and Physical Infrastructure
-Phnom Penh-centre of Service for 6 million people
in the range ...
Sapone 59
Railway
Connections between Phnom Penh and Thailand
and Sihanouk Ville are in use.
Asean Railway is planned to c...
Sapone 60

Current Land use
Total area of the capital city is about 375km3 :
- 80% natural lake and agriculture.
- 20% urb...
Sapone 61

Strategic Orientation
1-To define the maximum reserved area for future
infrastructure system
-future extension ...
Sapone 62

Strategic Orientation
3-To create the new urban centers to prevent urban sprawl and anarchic urbanization and t...
Sapone 63

Strategic Orientation
6-To enhance the identity of the city as well as the
landscape (garden city) by preservin...
Sapone 64

Strategic Orientation
Sapone 65

II. The Mekong Source and Local Chaktomuk Junction
Environmental, Hydrological and Morphological Phenomenon
The...
Sapone 66

Fig 22. The Mekong Icy Wastes (Google Images), Photoshop
Sapone 67

Scale is Approximate for City Positions Only
Fig 23. Map of The Mekong River
Sapone 68

Fig 24. The Flow Regime at the Chaktomuk Junction
Sapone 69

Fig 25. Morphological Evolution of the Chaktomuk Junction
Sapone 70

Fig 26. Evolution of the Flow Form of the Chaktomuk Junction
Sapone 71

III. Preliminary Meetings and Reconnaissance Visit
Meeting with Robert Wiener – Paris, 25 June 2008
Chief Spoke...
Sapone 72
Meeting with Thesis Advisor Sonia Chao – Miami, 15 December 2008
UN Hotel
National – Middle Income
Local – Spiri...
Sapone 73
b. Herbal
c. Meditation
Principle - Intellectual Appreciation
Arts – Visiting Professors: Specifics of Culture
1...
Sapone 74
Future Phase: Homes
Thesis: Development of 1 or 2 Components
Master Plan – Gustavo Sanches, Min Mossman, Liz Pla...
Sapone 75
2. Modern Tropical Garden Design
Luca Invernizzi Tettoni (Photo William Warren)
1. Bali Modern: The Art of Tropi...
Sapone 76
a. Cost typically ranging from $40,000 - $70,000
5) Foreigner 1% with 100% Power of Attorney and Cambodian Partn...
Sapone 77
Sustainability
Electricity & Water: Corrupted and Unreliable – 1 month with no Electricity
Generator = 32A  $50...
Sapone 78
In brief, this volume is a book that is of service not only as a guide for touring the
monuments, but also as a ...
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MEKONG RIVER, CAMBODIA
AGRI-URBAN VILLAGE + HOTEL + SCHOOL

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THE PEARL WRITTEN COMPONENT

  1. 1. The Pearl An Agri-Urban Village Hotel and School with Residential Component Cambodia by Sarah Sapone
  2. 2. Sapone 2 University of Miami School of Architecture Master of Architecture The Pearl An Agri-Urban Village Cambodia by Sarah Neola Sapone DESIGN DEGREE PROJECT May 2010 Faculty: Professors Adib Cure, Nicholas Patricios, Veruska Vasconez Graduate Director: Professor Jean-Francois LeJeune Advisor: Professor Sonia Chao
  3. 3. Sapone 3 For Developing Countries
  4. 4. Sapone 4 Contents List of Illustrations Figures………………………………………………………………..………Page 5 Travel Sketches…………………………………………………….………...Page 51 Final Presentation Drawings……………………………………………..…Page 116 Abstract………...……………...…………………………………………...………....Page 7 Acknowledgments……………...…………………………………………...………....Page 7 How to Develop Responsibly, An Architect’s Perspective ………………..………...…....…....Page 8 Preface………………………………………………………………………………Page 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Purpose……………………………………..……………………………………….Page 14 Project Definition…………………………………………………………….……...Page 19 Conceptual Framework……………………………………………………………...Page 20 Literature Review Outline…………………………………………………...………Page 21 Pre-Design…………………………………………………………………………..Page 23 Strategies…………………………………………………………………………….Page 28 Design Objectives…………………………………………………………………...Page 41 Appendices I. Project for the Development Master Plan of Phnom Penh…………...............Page 56 II. The Mekong Source and local Chaktomuk Junction Environmental, Hydrological and Morphological Phenomenon ..……………………….……………….....Page 65 III. Preliminary Meetings and Reconnaissance Visit…………………….………..Page 71 IV. A Guide to Angkor Monuments – Prah Khan by Maurice Glaize ……..….…Page 77 V. The Venice Charter (International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites)………………………………...............Page 94 VI. Nara Document on Authenticity………………………………………...…...Page 98 VII. Six Themes for the Next Millennium……………………………………….Page 101 Glossary …...…………………………………………………………….………….Page 89 Bibliography…………………………………………………………………….….Page 111 Biography………………………………………………………………………… Page 115
  5. 5. Sapone 5 List of Illustrations Figures 1. Cambodian Women at Island, Phnom Penh, November 2009…………..…..…..p. 11 2. Location of Cambodia Relative to Florida ……………………………….….….p. 14 3. Proposed Project Location relative to Phnom Penh ………………………........p. 15 4. Plan of Preah Khan Redraughted, March-November 2009……....…………...…p. 16 5. Preah Khan North Entry Render, July 2009…………………………..………...p. 17 6. The Pearl North Entry Elevation Render, December 2009……………………..p. 17 7. Kean Sray, The Pearl Site Issues and Cambodia Statistics…………………….....p. 24 8. The Pearl Site Issues, Wet and Dry Season Wind Conditions……………….…..p. 24 9. The Pearl Agri-Urban Village Profile (Concept Pre-Design Ideas)………….…...p. 25 10. Interior Corbel Section Idea for Cooling System at The Pearl, August 2009…..…p.27 11. Solar Powered Sea-Slug Inspiration for Trade Technologies On-Site ………...…..p. 30 12. Example of Floating Homes by Duravemeer…………………………….……..p. 31 13. The Pearl Village Profile, Programmatic Analysis………………….………...p. 33-36 14. One of Better Current Technology NGO Educational Facilities, Phnom Penh....p. 38 15. Children at the NGO Educational Facility, Phnom Penh…………………….....p. 38 16. The NGO Educational Facility, Phnom Penh……………………………….….p. 39 17. Children at the NGO Educational Facility, Phnom Penh………………….……p. 39 18. Computer Stations Children at the NGO Educational Facility…………….….....p. 40 19. The NGO Educational Facility, Phnom Penh…………………………….…….p. 40 20. Outside the Royal Palace, Phnom Penh………………………………….……...p. 41 21. Development of the Master Plan of Phnom Penh…………………...……….p.56-64 22. The Mekong Icy Wastes (Google Images), Photoshop ………..…………….….p. 66 23. Map of The Mekong River…………………………………………….…..……p. 67 24. The Flow Regime at the Chaktomuk Junction…………………………………..p.68 25. Morphological Evolution of the Chaktomuk Junction …………………………p. 69 26. Evolution of the Flow Form of the Chaktomuk Junction ……………………...p. 70 Travel Sketches 1. Ankgor, Cambodia Field Sketch……………………………………………………...p. 51 2. Preah Khan, Double Height Round Column, Sacred Sword, North Elevation…….....p. 51 3. Preah Khan, Double Height Round Column, Sacred Sword, East Elevation…….........p. 52 4. Preah Khan, Temple for Buddhist Gods, Southwest Quadrant, West Elevation….......p. 53 5. Preah Khan, Dharmasala, Rest House, Southeast Quadrant, North Elevation…...........p. 54 6. Preah Khan, Dharmasala, Rest House, Southeast Quadrant, Plan…………...…...........p. 54 7. Preah Khan, Temple for Buddhist Gods, Northeast Quadrant, East Elevation….........p. 55
  6. 6. Sapone 6 Abstract World development can be thought of in terms of three paradigms: the cultivation of natural resources, tourism, and communal local infrastructure development. Empower people from within and teach the tools to those who have a vested interest in the land, create the market for world travelers and set up a philanthropic device to manifest capital for public projects; with a little faith, this is a trajectory for the resolution of some developing world complexities. The Pearl is a Hotel and School on the Mekong River in Koh Prak, Kandall Province, 14 km south of Phnom Penh. The project invites an interactive Environment that fuses education and tourism together. The Foundations for the architectural landscape lay spiritually with the Temple City of Preah Khan. Casual craft vernacular Bungalows, unique to this region, are designed to have minimal environmental impact and refined to become a building language appropriate to Cambodia today, using rattan and brick materials. The Pearl will be a model for future development, tourism, housing and education in Cambodia. Acknowledgements Pre-Thesis Course Advisor: Professor Richard John Thesis Advisor: Sonia Chao, Director Center of Urban & Community Design, Research Associate Professor Local Southeast Asia Advisor: Richard Hassell, Director WOHA Architects Singapore Other Advisor: Robert Weiner, Co-Founder CNN, Author of Live From Baghdad. Thesis Advisor Committee: Dean Elizbeth Plater-Zyberk, and Professors: Min Mossman, Veruska Vasconez, Jean Francois-Lejeune, Adib J Cure, Katherine Wheeler, Nicholas N. Patricios, PHD.
  7. 7. Sapone 7 Introduction This writing is about a thesis student’s initial reconnaissance experience in Cambodia and the events leading up to it. Misperceptions are factors in determining how we perceive issues affecting the developing world. Until we are physically and emotionally present in a place, we only know what we read, are told or shown to be true; not the actual realty; which is purely experiential. __________________________________ HOW TO DEVELOP RESPONSIBLY AN ARCHITECT’S PERSPECTIVE Sarah Neola Sapone The power in Architecture is found in the pallet of materials, which is properly determined by the location of the building. If not in the location, then today in a globalized society, even as innovations and emergent materials are manifesting, the range is determined within the small realm of the physical. Emotion secretes only through the depth of the material and space over time. Reflections, The Bangkok Story: Genocide and the Preconceived Notions of a Population. I was worn out after US History and the History of Western Civilizations. Are we not editing a certain large population of the world with these topics? The world is far more concerning, its’ history and cohabitant relationships. East is West, Left is Right, Up is Down, Spiritual is Religious Preconceived notions are funny things. The whole first portion of an African History Class was dedicated to the breakdown of Misperceptions. Misperception 1: Africa is a Continent, not a Country. Actually Africa is home to 47 countries. 53 countries, if islands such as Cape Verde and Madagascar are counted.(“How Many Countries are in Africa?”). A surprising amount of people do not know this. Misperception 2: Africa is not only a Continent, it is the Largest Continent. The Mercator and the Gall-Peter's Projection map distort the continent of Africa and make other locales look larger. This is a huge misperception that has been running rampant for the past 400 years. These projection maps measure the size of regions according to their distance from the equator. Regards to the Mercator projection map, Greenland is represented larger than Africa, whereas, in reality Africa is 14 times as large.(“Gall–Peters Projection”). A sad thought when one thinks to all the injustice, miscalculations and lack of knowledge out there based on well, what seemingly sounded pretty good: Excerpt from Peters' The New Cartography:
  8. 8. Sapone 8 Philosophers, astronomers, historians, popes and mathematicians have all drawn global maps long before cartographers as such existed. Cartographers appeared in the "Age of Discovery", which developed into the Age of European Conquest and Exploitation and took over the task of making maps. By the authority of their profession they have hindered its development. Since Mercator produced his global map over four hundred years ago for the age of Europeans world domination, cartographers have clung to it despite its having been long outdated by events. They have sought to render it topical by cosmetic corrections. ...The European world concept, as the last expression of a subjective global view of primitive peoples, must give way to an objective global concept The cartographic profession is, by its retention of old precepts based on the Eurocentric global concept, incapable of developing this egalitarian world map which alone can demonstrate the parity of all peoples of the earth. (Peters). The New Cartography published in 1983 prompted more debates on the subject upon realising, it too was skewed. Thus, six years later seven North American Geographic organizations adopted this resolution.(“Gall–Peters Projection”).: WHEREAS, the earth is round with a coordinate system composed entirely of circles, and WHEREAS, flat world maps are more useful than globe maps, but flattening the globe surface necessarily greatly changes the appearance of Earth's features and coordinate systems, and WHEREAS, world maps have a powerful and lasting effect on peoples' impressions of the shapes and sizes of lands and seas, their arrangement, and the nature of the coordinate system, and WHEREAS, frequently seeing a greatly distorted map tends to make it "look right," THEREFORE, we strongly urge book and map publishers, the media and government agencies to cease using rectangular world maps for general purposes or artistic displays. Such maps promote serious, erroneous conceptions by severely distorting large sections of the world, by showing the round Earth as having straight edges and sharp corners, by representing most distances and direct routes incorrectly, and by portraying the circular coordinate system as a squared grid. The most widely displayed rectangular world map is the Mercator (in fact a navigational diagram devised for nautical charts), but other rectangular world maps proposed as replacements for the Mercator also display a greatly distorted image of the spherical Earth. The Bangkok Story: In typical modus of a thesis student waiting the flight to a personally previously undiscovered territory, I go to the airport bookshop and search for books on Cambodia. A Lonely Planet exists for every niche locale in South East Asia: Laos, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Singapore, China, Taiwan, even Tibet... Yet, not a single leaf of literature for Cambodia. Puzzled, I remember the Thai-Cambo Controversy, again sparked last year. The
  9. 9. Sapone 9 two countries are in the midst of a century long dispute over the ownership of the Preah Vihear Temple in the Northern Cambodian Territory, bordering Thailand. The Temple was built in the 11th and 12th Century by the Khmer people, the ethnic majority of Cambodia. On July 7, 2008, Preah Vihear was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, accessible both from Thailand and Cambodia with tariffs subsequent to a visitor's nationality. i (900-year-old Temple…”). Funny, because after speaking with a Cambodian a few weeks into my reconnaissance trip, he explained to me how Thailand was once Cambodia. The Thai people separated and created their own language and culture. So, it seems, the story of Babylon exists at every corner of the world. Today, words are very similar amidst the two languages. Also, the Buddhist religions of both follow the Theravada teachings from the Sanskrit of Indian Descent. The interrelationship of Cambodia and Thailand, I would suppose is quite on par with the relationship between Mexico and the United States, and the United States with Europe. Though, I would not be so bold as to determine which country represents its' approximate analogy. Also, the historical timeline of both cross-cultural integrated relationships is fixed only in relative time. However, it is worth mentioning, roughly 3/4 of California was once Mexican Territory. No books on Cambodia at this particular Bangkok airport book shop; Spare for the large photographic epic of grand proportion with grotesque images of mass killings and torture during the Pol Pot Regime. I remember now, why the first day in Phnom Penh was filled with sorrow, remorse, sadness, fear, blurred perceptions and a wash of thoughts. This book was not exactly the likely first picture one wants in their mind, when embarking on a night flight to unfamiliar territory: a - what do they call me, ‘non-hispanic’, western foreigner with an enlarged imagination capable of stirring up and mushing over impossible scenarios becoming so engulfed in false reality that a mouse becomes lavishly dangerous. In actuality, the mouse does not exist. It is a pebble in the road. So I think, Great, good first face impression for a humanitarian outreach effort you overimaginative paranoiac. Day one lost, evening and day two spent frantically searching for a new place to lay my head and projecting fear from my face onto every man, woman and child passing my person. Hmm: What is an Architecture Thesis these days anyway? And more importantly: What is an Architects’ Role in Society? Well, I guess this question should be asked of all professions in all societies these days. A professor once said, 'You cannot solve politics, regulatory and social issues with Architecture.' The rest of the comment trickled off into some statement along the lines of, ‘You Can Create the backdrop for a discussion, but not the solutions to cultural phenomenon. She never said you could not spur a debate...
  10. 10. Sapone 10 At first, I was disappointed to hear this professor’s comment. Really, is it not possible? In the same vein that Architects argue for implanting building programs with existing typologies for different uses to create unexpected surprises and new ways of thinking about architecture. Why not thinking about new ways of being Architects in Society? Some would say that Architects are a Reflection of Society; and this is Our Role. In my opinion, we have been sidelined. Economic factors surrounding development, budget cuts and value engineering have taken away our ingenuative edge. We must take it back. Architects do not want to be sidelined. We want to help. Then how to design as a Westerner in Cambodia? What is the most Authentic Route? For, if not, then the alternative is Reflecting Society? An aside: I apologize for the Artificial Straw Man, I am about to set up and knock down; however in model Berkeley fashion, I feel obliged to make this point I am scared for this. So, are we to sit in a cubicle all day, moan about the state of affairs of the world? Work for a pay less than we are truly valued? Or worse, exploit and find new ways of exploiting the youth, elderly and innocent? This is not a political debate. This is just a reminiscing, a searching. . Mike Davis, in Fortress L.A. argues that we build libraries, civic buildings and it completely escapes us to make the entry visible and accessible to the public, the buildings' very own users. (City of Quartz.1990). Humanitarian, I think not. We put sprinklers on in the middle of the night, instead of early in the morning, before the sunrise to ward out the homeless from the parks where they sleep. These are the very people we displaced the first go-around to build that fancy new phallic formed sky-rise with underpaid employee labor. We design air vents to evacuate themselves high above the height of that homeless person who could benefit from the warmth it affords. How do these issues affect the Developing World? I do not think Developing Countries are behind. I think Developing Countries have every chance to develop differently, smarter and with the hard-knock overeducated underestimated lessons learned from the guinea pigs, us, the Developed World, out-dated, out-modeled, and over-the-hill. It is the parable of the Tortoise and the Hare.
  11. 11. Sapone 11 Whether the tortoise is behind from its country’s own internal struggle or it is behind because it has been bogged down with export tariffs, import fees and the external pressures of developed countries does not matter. In the Case of Cambodia, One undeniable truth is evident: the Khmer People are a wildly intelligent population. They are not the only developing country holding this validity. The genocide left staggering statistics behind, killing one quarter of the population and affecting everyone. The result of a few men’s vision to turn the urban society, learned and skillful into an agrarian country overnight; well, over four years. Bequeathed of this, half the population today is 20 years and under. A confounding statistic regards to the mass youth energy left (or right) in this country filled with incredible ancestry and a lack of guidance from the wisdom of its elders. These powerful men in Cambodia were educated abroad in developed countries. Nobody really knows How To. They have an idea and the faith to pursue it. It is up to us. Our World Society to rise to the Challenge. Not just in Cambodia, but all over the globe. The need is always present and the site is waiting for the right eyes. Fig. 1 Cambodian Women at Island, Phnom Penh, November 2009
  12. 12. Sapone 12 Preface A person goes on vacation to escape the daily grind. The 9-5 and longer grudge work in the hopes of obtaining some fulfillment through his/her travels. Most people book hotel rooms, typical of their own homes providing the same comforts they already know, and return from their vacation once again unfulfilled of the something else... This Project seeks to reinvent and to innovate the idea of luxury resort travel to provide on a human level, the basic fulfillment needs while on vacation or business. People helping People: clearly visibly; during vacation. In action, the Pearl Hotel and School spurs economic growth in 3rd World Countries. The Pearl provides education, jobs and training to local children on the premise. Children in Phnom Penh, Cambodia have limited access if any to internet, resources and educational tools necessary to succeed in an ever increasing globally connected environment. The developed world can learn, too. A guest walks through the herb or vegetable garden sometime after check-in and touches a basil leaf. At dinner, the local chef, merging skills with world renowned chefs, has prepared the meal incorporating this leaf. A child learning to research finds an organic food store local to the guest's home, based on his/her geographic location in the world. The child also writes or types a recipe for the dish to be provided with the guest's receipt, so the guest can remake the meal when the guest returns home. People learn from each other. Cambodians have a rich heritage, both architectural and spiritual. For some reason development in one arena causes a void another. Theravada Buddhism is the largest practicing religion in Cambodia. Traditionally, Buddhist monks teach Cambodian children in rural areas English, education and trades under Pagodas throughout South East Asia. At the hotel, a holistic oasis with retreat for spa, relaxing, swimming and yoga is incorporated, also. It is my hope to incorporate these elements into a fantastic hotel that brings multiple cultures together in a harmonious and beautiful way. Sponsoring the sincere effort to realize this dream is an altruistic benefit to everyone. This project will be built and those who have helped will be recognized with their names engraved on the entry ‘Gift Wall’. People who believe in the power of a project like this can make a difference and dreams do come true.
  13. 13. Sapone 13 Master’s of Architecture Design Degree, May 2010
  14. 14. Sapone 14 Purpose As an Architect, I question our Role in Society and believe that we want to help and do not want to be sidelined. We have the skills and tools that can better the quality of life of human beings around the world. I do not believe we should keep this knowledge for ourselves and 2% of the world population, who hire architects. I believe we should engage our knowledge and communities to help developing countries grow safe and responsibly, alleviating any manmade casualties related to natural disasters. Site Selection: On the Mekong River, past Phnom Penh’s South National Road 1, 14Km from the City Center, on the East side of the new Japanese Bridge South en-route to Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: A Site poised in the Direction of Urban Growth. Phnom Penh: In a City at the Confluence of 4 Rivers. Cambodia: In a Country juxtaposed between a recent turbulent War depopulating ¼ of the people, especially those with skills and ‘Know-How’. And a more ancient past filled with Architectural Wonder, Hydraulic Innovation and Urban Development unparalleled. Asia: On a Continent at the Apex of Change, Influx, Technology, Super-Growth and Movement. Fig 2. Location of Cambodia Relative to Florida
  15. 15. Sapone 15 Fig 3. Proposed Project Location relative to Phnom Penh The original Capital City of Cambodia, was Angkor; located near present day Siem Reap. Since that time, the Capital City of Cambodia moved to Udong and now the current Capital City is Phnom Penh. Thus, Phnom Penh is the logical place to propose this Project. Many of the local residents of the Capital City, Phnom Penh, have not had the opportunity to visit the Ancient Capital City of Angkor now located near Siem Reap, 315kms north of Phnom Penh. These same residents who have never visited the Ancient Capital have aspirations of being tour guides in Angkor. After speaking with so many locals, and learning that most of them share the same highest aspiration to become a tour guide in Siem Reap. It seems to me that, as our world becomes increasingly globalised and integrated, why should an entire population not have more diverse goals to become Doctors, Lawyers, Diplomats, Architects, Engineers, Teachers or Hydrologists? Precedent: Preah Khan Temple City was constructed by Jayavarman VII, considered the builder king, in the ancient Capital City of Angkor. Preah Khan, built by Buddhist King Jayavarman VII and dedicated in 1191AD, was also a habitable walking city used for living. Constructed before the building of Angkor Wat, Preah Khan is in Siem Reap, the ancient capital city in the north of Cambodia. Many people from the modern Capital, Phnom Penh have never been to Siem Reap to see the magnificent city layout and architecture of their ancestors. The complex is the size of a small city measuring 800m x 700m from the (fourth enclosure, just inside the moat), which is almost a half-mile on a side or 136 Acres. The temple dimensions (third enclosure) are 200m x 175m (650' x 575'). The site is complex, and (deliberately) has been only partially restored. The total site is 56 Hectares.
  16. 16. Sapone 16 Fig 4. Plan of Preah Khan Redraughted, March-November 2009
  17. 17. Sapone 17 Fig 5. Preah Khan North Entry Render, July 2009 Fig 6. The Pearl North Entry Elevation Render, December 2009
  18. 18. Sapone 18 What is the Architect’s Role in Society? How to Create an Architecture that is Appropriate to Cambodia Today? How to Create, As an Architect, a new Business Model, Hospitality fused with Education? The Pearl Agri-Urban Village, adapts the plan of the ancient and forgotten walking city, Preah Khan from the 12th Century; and Reprograms its’ elements to create a Social Project, Cultural Living Hotel and School on the Mekong near Phnom Penh, the Capital City of Cambodia. In addition, the project shall provide education to local Cambodian children at the heart of the project; it’s Library. I will not sideline our duty as architects for humanity. The total site is 9.5 Hectares and is encompassed by agricultural land, as well as the Mekong River at the north edge. Both provide food and education for sustainable living. The project includes 121 ‘house of fire’ rest accommodations each with modern amenities. An inscription at Preah Khan tells of 121 rest house of fire, Dharmasala, lining the ancient road to Angkor. Also, incorporated in the project inspired by from Preah Khan are entry gopuras, reprogrammed as reception buildings. ‘The Library’ at Preah Khan and Ancient Khmer Temples, was a pair of freestanding buildings. These are also adopted and transformed to become the school. The project also provides amenities including: restaurants, spa, shops, infirmary and mail & package center. I argue that an architect with a learned psychological program from one cultural background can only design in another culture by submerging completely into the culture and leaving behind all conscious efforts to bring about a moulding of the two cultures. By virtue of the sub-un-conscious being, all that is one’s culture will manifest without overbearing the new culture. If I design the landscape and planning with my western learning; I argue, it will never be truly Cambodian. The Preah Khan Temple City precedent is incorporated for placement of local Bungalows for Dwelling. The original structures and built axes are replaced and redefined with Trees to provide a spiritual connection to the past and Khmer Roots. Symbolically, the effort of replacing architecture with Trees, whose dignity is the very nature which gave form to the buildings, seeks testament to the transformation necessary to progress the architecture practice today. As a Westerner designing in the east, the most I can ever hope to attain is an authentic effort, if not an authentically Cambodian project. Thus, the Pearl can attain an Architecture Appropriate to Cambodia Today, by Western Standards alone and it is only Cambodia and Cambodians who can Accept or Reject its’ Authenticity on their Terms.
  19. 19. Sapone 19 Project Definition I plan to prove that a fusion of programming with hospitality and education is not only possible, but necessary to help resolve some of the developing world complexities. Furthermore, Architects have a specific role to play in bettering the lives of not only those wealthy enough, but to all those in need of shelter. We can do this by creatively reasserting priorities; eliminating selfish desires to exploit and forging new collaborations. Architects were responsible in the past for the structural engineering, interiors, and construction of masterworks. Architects were Master Builders. According to Architecture 2030, “The Building Sector is responsible for the largest consumption of fossil fuels and natural resources in the world today. Unless the architecture, planning and building community act now and act decisively, emerging economies will likely follow current design and building practices leading to disastrous global consequences.” Half the Cambodian Population is 20 years and under. The skilled and knowledgeable Cambodians were evacuated from the Urban Core in 1975. Most died during the Khmer Rouge Genocide. Primary Education, Grade 1-9 (14 years old) is paid by the State. However, the Government does not pay teachers enough to survive. Thus, teachers require students to pay 2000 riels/day (roughly US 50cents) for school. School is half-day only. Grades 10-12 are not paid by the State. Some families, especially farmers cannot afford to pay. The population sent to the rice fields during Pol Pot’s Reign has begun to repopulate and many farmer’s children will need to return to the Urban Core for jobs. Very few Vocational Schools to learn trades and even less Internship and Part-time work exist. I propose to reinvent the ancient and forgotten Walk-able City, Preah Khan from the 12th Century Northern Angkor Wat Region; and Re-Program its’ elements to create a Social Project in the Southern Capital City, Phnom Penh, a model for the city and future Sustainable Urban Development. Project Description The Pearl is a Hotel and School on the Mekong River in Koh Prak, Kandall Province, 14 km south of Phnom Penh. The project invites an interactive Environment that fuses education and tourism together. The Foundations for the architectural landscape lay spiritually with the Temple City of Preah Khan. Casual craft vernacular Bungalows, unique to this region, are designed to have minimal environmental impact and refined to become a building language appropriate to Cambodia today, using rattan and brick materials. The Pearl will be a model for future development, tourism, housing and education in Cambodia.
  20. 20. Sapone 20 Conceptual Framework World development can be thought of in terms of three paradigms: the cultivation of natural resources, tourism, and communal local infrastructure development. Empower people from within and teach the tools to those who have a vested interest in the land, create the market for world travelers and set up a philanthropic device to manifest capital for public projects; with a little faith, this is a trajectory for the resolution of some developing world complexities. Which Eastern and Western Principles Factor into the Design, when a resident from one culture designs in another? What is the most Authentic Route; way to build? Design Theory for Architecture Thesis: Is there an idea that can be applied to the design of our culture the same way an idea can be applied to the design of our buildings? In a similar way: the idea that minimalism as a theory can be applied to the design of a pencil, the way it can be applied to the design of a building. What is an Architecture Thesis these days? And more importantly: What is an Architects’ Role in Society? First Premise: How to make your Thesis, A Built Project, Your Career. Working Title: How to Develop Responsibly in Cambodia: A Case Study. Working Title 2: Urban Development in Developing Countries: A Guidebook. Thesis Question: What is Intellectual Property? And Who Benefits? Humanitarian Hotel with Ice Air-con floated from the Himalayan Glacier 'The Pearl' of Southeast Asia, Phnom Penh School for Local Students to ‘Teach How to Fish’ Requirement: Land must be sited in the direction of the Future Development of the City Observations: It is surprisingly sprightly and accessible to find land and put together a project in Cambodia. So much so, that it questions preconceptions.
  21. 21. Sapone 21 Theories Explored for Thesis: Comparative Analysis of Eastern and Western Design Philosophies and how they evolve over time To set up a design ontology for a theoretical basis on which to build an Architectural Thesis. Conclusion: “How you get your various vocations organizes your style.” Style comes from culture. Contemporary Culture and its Influence on Architecture Today: Architectural and Theoretical Study: Kenneth Frampton’s Critical Regionalism and Postmodern Cultural Theories with Design Implementation of Contemporary Western Architects: Rem Koolhaus, and Bernard Tschumi...Zaha Hadid. To Compare and contrast with Contemporary Eastern Architects Geoffry Bawa, Tan Hock Beng, William Lim, WOHA, and Tadao Ando. Literature Review Outline: Kenneth Framption’s Critical Regionalism How to create an architecture of tectonics appropriate to Cambodia today. Architecturally Relevant Philosophy: Martin Heidegger, German, 1950’s Considered a great philosopher of the 20th Century. Seminal Work: Being and Time. His arguments on Authenticity, Mood, and Dwelling explored. Heidegger refutes Kant’s rationalist interpretation that “knowledge of external objects can be referential”. Instead he argues, “Knowledge is subject to the conditions we experience.” Heidegger wrote “…Poetically, Man dwells…” To understand how to create a poetic dwelling ambiance on Cambodian terms. Finnish Architect Juhani Pallasmaa’s: Six themes for the next millennium “Can Architecture Re-create a Tradition, a shared ground which provides a basis for the Criteria of Authenticity and Quality?” The six themes essential for the strengthening of architecture's position in the post-historical reality are: 1. Slowness, 2. Plasticity, 3. Sensuousness, 4. Authenticity, 5. Idealisation, 6. Silence. He Defines Authenticity:
  22. 22. Sapone 22 “More as the Quality of Deep Rootedness in the stratification of culture” Contemporary Culture and its Influence on Architecture Today: Capital Market and the Free Market of Meaning and Value: Deleuze and Guattari (Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilles_Deleuze) “While capital economy frees us from being stuck with old systems of meaning and value, it does nothing to provide us with alternatives. And so we are left to our own devices to encounter forces that shred egos and personalities to pieces and crumble empires that have existed for a millennium. Capitalism both produces this condition of the uncoded and unmediated real and at the same time constantly constructs artificial territories to ward it off. We get caught in a system that on the one hand removes all the mediation between things so that the markets are in fact free flowing, but then has to immediately step in and insert artificially created mediations, simulations and forces. We are swamped in a media culture that does anything but keep us from having to directly encounter anything but a shopping mall. We watch all our wars on T.V. and do all our trading online. We haven’t a clue to what is real, it seems to us that this is something that is totally lost and un-recoverable. This is my society, anyway, here in the West. Only those things which can be reproduced are considered real. And yet that is exactly what is not real. That is a simulation of reality. Models take the place of the modeled. Copies take the place of the originals.” To Create an Authentic architecture, drawing on the Cambodia’s vernacular and architectural heritage. Theoretical Basis for Thesis in Cambodia: French Cultural Critic: Jean Baudrillard “We live in the time of the simulacrum, copies without originals. We get so lost, there is no way back to the original. The joke that is made about Disneyland is not that it’s a cover up of reality, but a cover up that covers up that there is nothing left to cover up. People leave Disneyland and go to their cars in the parking lot and think they have moved from the unreal back to the real. What a farce.” To reflect on how not to create a Disneyland out of Cambodia. Conclusion: When designing in a location foreign to your natural habitat, always remember Truth is in the Tectonics of the Local Structure. Authenticity is found in the local building Traditions and the local Living Culture. The power in Architecture is found in the pallet of materials, which is properly determined by the location of the building. If not in the location, then today in a globalized society, even as innovations and emergent materials are manifesting, the range is determined within the small realm of the physical. Emotion secretes only through the depth of the material and space over time.
  23. 23. Sapone 23 Pre-Design: Analysis Electricity: Electricity is Government Imported and 3x More Expensive than Vietnam: 32 Amps costs $500 for a 3 Phase installation 1 KW/ 25cents 3000W to air-condition one room, one day is $18, one month is $540 Electricity is Unreliable with outages lasting a month at times, especially for nongovernment affiliated users Solar is 1 W/ $5 equipment 15W Solar Panels, 200 Panels to get 3000W costs $1,000 Hydrogen Power Plant Development on the Mekong is 10 years out and billions in research planning and being performed by non-Cambodian Governments, China and Vietnam. Hydro Energy may reduce 1 KW to 15cents Overview of Site Issues Two Seasons: Wet and Dry: The Climate in Cambodia is as Tropical Wet and Dry; yearly temperature ranges from 64 -100 degrees Fahrenheit, with an average yearly rainfall of 54.8 inches. Wet: Every October and November, the Country is inundated with Rain Water and Flooding. According to increasing number of environmentalists and climate scientists, the glaciers are melting as a result of global warming with incalculable consequences for Cambodia and countries as far off as Pakistan(1). The capital city sits at the convergence of 4 rivers and midway through the rainy season, the tides turn and the direction of river flow changes. Dry: The Himalayan glaciers supply 8.6 million cubic meters (304 cu ft) of water every year to Asian rivers, including the Mekong. During the dry seasons, melt water from Glaciers flows down to rivers that would otherwise be very low. Every year in March and April, local Cambodians pack away wood for cooking, hay for the horses, store rice and prepare for the water.
  24. 24. Sapone 24 Fig 7. The Pearl Site Issues, Wet and Dry Season Wind Conditions Fig 8. Kean Sray, The Pearl Site Issues and Cambodia Statistics
  25. 25. Sapone 25 Fig 9. The Pearl Agri-Urban Village Profile (Concept Pre-Design Ideas)
  26. 26. Sapone 26 Social: The people who can afford to have Transportation, ride on scooters. In the next 10 years traffic will completely clog the roadways in the growing urban core environment, and signs of this growing problem are already evident. Primary Education, Grade 1-9 (14 years old) is paid by the State. However, the Government does not pay teachers enough to survive. Thus, teachers require students to pay 2000 riels/day (roughly US 50cents) for school. School is half-day only. Grades 10-12 are not paid by the State. Some families, especially farmers cannot afford to pay. The population sent to the rice fields during Pol Pot’s Reign has begun to repopulate and soon too many farmer’s children will be around without enough agricultural jobs and the need again to return to the Urban Core has already begun. Very few Vocational Schools to learn trades and even less Internship and Part-time work exist. Demographic: Half the Population is 20 years and under. The skilled and knowledgeable Cambodians were evacuated from the Urban Core and Phnom Penh capital city center in 1975. Most died during the nearly 4 year intensive return to agrarian society imposed on the people by the Khmer Rouge. Intervention: I propose to adapt the plan of the ancient and forgotten city, Preah Khan from the 12th Century; and Reprogram its’ elements to create a Social Project, Cultural Living Hotel and School in the Capital City, Phnom Penh, an icon for the city. Yet, innovate, modernize and propose a tropical museum-like hotel on the riverfront and island made from the ice of the Himalayan Glacier dropped off and floated down the river. The site will provide education and housing to locals. Ice will also be stowed beneath the hotel for cooling and incorporate natural insulation systems. This it is hoped will help alleviate some of the potential risks associated with glacial melting by carrying the ice downstream and productively reusing it. It should also aid in reducing energy costs associated with unsustainable practices used to formulate air-conditioning. When the tides turn during the rainy season, the boats crafted by locals return naturally row-boat style to the north and prepare again for the journey to bring ice south. Water reuse and recycling systems will also be proposed with new modus system inventions. As well as, flexible pvc piping amphibious housing, stilt construction and on-water living interventions. The project fuses Sustainable Practice, Tourism, Potential Natural Disaster Aversion and Provides locals with jobs, internships, skills, rediscovered knowledge of their ancestral building and hydraulic heritage as well as, future careers and trades to the local population.
  27. 27. Sapone 27 Fig 10. Interior Corbel Section Idea for Cooling System at The Pearl, August 2009
  28. 28. Sapone 28 Strategies: Sustainable Water Aversion Proposition: The Pearl Ecological Humanitarian Living Hotel and School in Phnom Penh, Cambodia fuses Sustainable Practice, Potential Natural Disaster Aversion, Tourism and Provides locals with Jobs, Education, Mentorships, Skills, Rediscovered knowledge of the Khmer Ancestral Building and Hydraulic Heritage as well as, future Eco-Intelligent Careers to the local population. Innovating to create a Culturally Rich Hotel and School for the City on the Mekong River; the site will provide flexible pvc pipe amphibious housing and stilt construction to protect from flooding and will be packed with ice filled walls and subflooring. Ice fallen from the Himalayan Glacier will be productively reused and carried along the Mekong incorporating Hydrogen Fuel Cell boats, insulated with @Greensulate or similar; thereby, alleviating some potential flood risks associated with glacial melting by carrying the ice downstream and productively reusing it. Walls without ice will adapt a biolife system akin to that of the E. chlorotica sea slug. Together, these interventions will also aid in reducing energy costs and CO2 emissions associated with fossil fuels used to formulate air-conditioning. When the tides turn during the rainy season, Cambodian Style boats crafted by locals with hydrogen fuel cell technology will return along the Mekong to the Himalayas and prepare again for the journey to bring ice south. In addition, the wall systems at the school and hotel will use @Ecovate natural insulation systems. Natural water cleansing, reuse and recycling systems will be incorporated into the wall systems to provide drinking water and local sustainable agriculture. Naturally occurring, not engineered in a lab, the Hybrid. Plant + Animal genes Solar Powered Sea Slug will inform new Trade Technologies On-Site. Fig. 11. Solar Powered Sea-Slug Inspiration for Trade Technologies On-Site All Houses and Development to Take Part in Amphibious and Floating House Development.
  29. 29. Sapone 29 A quarter of the Netherlands is below sea level and 2/3 of the population lives in this condition. Systematic precautions, such as levees, dikes and water pumps are not enough in lowland territories with climates prone to flooding. In Developing Countries, the goal is to implement the best building practices to alleviate unnecessary hardship from Natural Disaster. Hence, amphibious and floating housing will be integrated into the design. This housing is recommended for New Orleans, Mississippi, Nepal, Bangladesh and flood prone territories such as Phnom Penh. Fig 12. Example of Floating Homes by Duravemeer Amphibious Housing Code: 1. Foundations: Transform into a float. House is to be built for land, in accompaniment with seafaring ability. Houses must have the ability to float up to 18 feet above ground. Foundations should not be anchored to the earth and should be fastened to between 15 and 18-foot-long mooring posts with sliding rings. 2. Pilings: Hollow concrete-encased foam core, secured with steel cables against the pull of potential currents. Columns are to be driven deep into solid ground. Steel pilings are to be installed to resist horizontal, side-to-side movements. 3. Cellars: To be built on a platform, not below ground.
  30. 30. Sapone 30 4. Walkways: Individual Pontoons are to have the ability to join to one another to form residential blocks for maritime settlement. 5. Electrical, Plumbing, Natural Gas, Drinking water and drainage: All to be housed in flexible PVC piping inside the mooring piles all to set sail with house. 5. Construction: Walls and floors of lightweight wooden panels and façade cladding in coated aluminum 6. Base: Hollow concrete cube 7. Allowable: Split-level accommodation, wooden balconies, and clapboard exteriors. Floating House Code Variation 1. Platform: To be made of @Ecovate (natural equivalent to Styrofoam) wrapped in a thin shell of concrete How the Pearl will Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Electricity in Phnom Penh is unreliable with outages lasting a month at times, especially for local users. Solar Energy costs $5 for equipment. 15W Solar Panels are needed. So, 200 Solar Panels are needed to get 3000W of energy costing $1000. Hydro Energy may reduce 1 KW to 15 cents. Though, Hydrogen Power Plants on the Mekong are 10 years out, costly and performed by non-Cambodian Governments, China and Vietnam. “An ice storage facility was introduced, and large effects in energy saving and operation cost were confirmed as a result of the one year operation. The outline of the system using ice storage and a brine turborefrigerator with zero ozone destruction coefficient, results of the operation and energy saving effect were introduced. Average performance coefficient (COP) in a year of the refrigerator for ice making was improved from 3.3 to 4.1. The reduction of not only electric fee but also the electric power use is expected by the introduction of the ice storage facility.” (2). The Production and Development Process: The site has been selected and is an island in the southern region of Phnom Penh. The site is government owned and can be leased for 99years. One initial step is to hire the local law firm with both Cambodian and Western lawyers, who are experienced in the local legal acquiring of the land. Next, lease the land, which will require a deposit between $40 – 70,000 US, set the lease payments, and obtain building permits. The materials will be supplied locally in Southeast Asia, first and foremost in Cambodia, and labor will be supplied by local Cambodians, who will be paid wages and benefits above the local norm also benefiting from safe construction practices that are needed in the country. Engineering experts and construction superintendent and contractors will be hired from Europe and America to oversee the construction process to ensure quality and safe construction and to resupply locals with some of the lost
  31. 31. Sapone 31 environmental building traditions and safety practice. The site is located in the direction of Urban Growth and access is on a roadway which is at the highest level of government improvements in the country and is routed towards Ho Chi Minh City. Access to these resources has already been made available and foreign investment is welcomed and facilitated in Cambodia. Now it is a question of securing the land and physically developing the project. What is needed besides money to turn The Pearl into a Success: I will need to hire experts and advisors in the fields of local law and international contracts, a chief financial officer, a construction contractor, engineer, surveyor, boat manufacturer, ecologist and hydrologist. As well as local Cambodians to work on and manage the project. In addition to creating the curriculum for students with the aid of local NGO's and teachers worldwide. People Technical and/or Financial Partners: I have met with Law Firm DFDL in Cambodia to discuss the project, CARE – Cambodian Angkor Real Estate to find sites, Engineer in Hong Kong, multiple local non-profit organizations for education, local foreign business owners, as well as a local foreign businessman in partnership with the Cambodian Minister of Justice together Landowning 600 hectares of agriculture land in Cambodia. Though, Only Preliminarily. Stakeholders: The stakeholders are the local population benefitting from jobs, education, skills, interface with international clients and future career opportunities in Cambodia and abroad. The other important stakeholder is the earth, who will benefit from a responsible non destructive project. In addition, stakeholder in this project are the companies producing alternative and environmentally sensitive products who will benefit from having their products used in this project. Finally, the future stakeholders will benefit from the profits of this hotel and school, which will go to build new projects with this concept in various other developing countries. Stakeholders are also the entities practicing corporate social responsibility, and invest in this project. Thus future of the building trade, profession and building inhabitants are stakeholders, as well, benefitting from the realisation of this project as precedent for the future of environmentally astute construction practice and humanitarian focused developing country, whereby developing world business models. Market, Marketing and Sales: Target Market: Tourists both from Southeast Asia and Abroad, Locals, Philanthropists, Humanitarians, Academics, those with interest in Education, Architecture, Historians, and people interested in the Environment and Innovative Solutions to resolving current day economic and social issues.
  32. 32. Sapone 32 Situated at the confluence of the Mekong, Bassac and Tonle Sap Rivers, Cambodia’s capital, Phnom Penh has a population of approximately two million people. Phnom Penh’s wealth of historical and cultural sites makes it a very popular tourist destination. Phnom Penh, once known as the “Pearl of Asia, is a significant global and domestic tourist destination. Along with Siem Reap, Phnom Penh is considered among the strongest and most resilient hospitality markets in the World. Cambodia's main industries are garments, tourism, and construction. The tourism industry is the country's second-greatest source of hard currency after the textile industry. 1 In 2007, foreign visitors to Angkor Wat alone hit almost 4 million. 2 50% of visitor arrivals are to Angkor, and most of the remainder to Phnom Penh. 3 The market is characterized by a severe supply/demand imbalance resulting from favorable climate conditions and from increasing demand as the Country’s political reputation stabilizes and popularity has spread worldwide. The resiliency of the Cambodian market has been demonstrated with demand, rates and occupancies considerably outperforming other vacation area markets. Structure of Target Market: main competitors, suppliers, other companies: While other destinations exist to visit throughout the world, none offers such a dynamically packaged and innovative approach to education, culture, business, luxury, recreation, relaxation, and eco-tourism. Three local hotels, Raffles Le Royal, Cambodiana, and InterContinental are considered to be 5-Star, though none compare; nor do they offer the Environmental Sensitivity and Humanitarian Connection. Hotel De la Paix in Siem Reap has a somewhat similar concept, however they are not located in the capital city and the hotel does not take into consideration environmental issues. Market Size and the Market Potential: In 2007, foreign visitors to Angkor Wat alone hit almost 4 million. 50% of visitor arrivals are to Angkor, and most of the remainder to Phnom Penh. The market is characterized by a severe supply/demand imbalance resulting from favorable climate conditions and from increasing demand as the Country’s political reputation stabilizes and popularity has spread worldwide. The resiliency of the Cambodian market has been demonstrated with demand, rates and occupancies considerably outperforming other vacation area markets. What will your product/service cost? Approximate opening of $150-350/day for the Hotel and selling price of $150,000 for the Dharmasala Trade homes and $250,000 for the Skyline Drive Homes. Rooms in stilt construction within the site will be priced to accommodate back-packing crowds between $15-45. The total per-key cost for the 121 units of the Humanitarian Hotel and Homes is approximately $115,000. This amount includes all development, construction and opening costs for the entire mixed-use program, less estimated land allocations to the for-sale Trade Homes and Skyline Drive Homes. The 17 Trade and 18 Skyline 255sqm homes are ecoamphibious, flexible pvc and have 2-3 bedrooms and 2 baths, organized around private 1. 2. 3. US Department of State. Country Profile of Cambodia. Accessed July 26, 2006. San Miguel eyes projects in Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar Royal Government of Cambodia. Tourist statistics. Accessed July 24, 2006.
  33. 33. Sapone 33 central courtyards or along the community pilot strip. When not using homes, the owner’s have the option of placing them into a rental program administered by the Hotel, retaining 50% of the revenues. The homes can be converted into two smaller units vies-a-vies a lockoff. At a $200,000 average sales price, the for-sale component is projected to generate gross sales revenue of $7 million and pre-tax cash flow of $3 million. No speculative building is planned for this development, sales will be made from a model and construction of units will only follow receipt of initial deposits. The project has a projected 18-month timetable. Skyline Drive and the Dharmasala Trade Homes produce substantial cash flow during the early stages of the project while the Hotel is building towards stabilization. Sales Target: To safely achieve the sales targets, I have calculated the hotel capacity at 50% and found that a substantial profit can be achieved, whereby providing for the School and Mentorship program as well as the allocation of funds to future humanitarian hotel projects around the world. Also, in Phnom Penh many foreigners live and work in the non-profit, medical and business sector. A portion of the hotel rooms can be allotted to Service Apartments as this demand has been presented. Inform Potential Customers: Creative Marketing., Internet, Print, Video Media SWOT analysis Indicate the internal strengths and weaknesses of the person, the product and the company. Name the external opportunities and threats presented by the market, consumers, the economy, etc. STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Capable Financial Resources Innovative Local Lack of Knowledge Helping Local Local Skills Ecological Products Local Safety Practice Humanitarian Services First Project of Its Kind Market Position Profitable Spurs Economic Development THREATS OPPORTUNITIES Economy Strategic Alliance Lose Key Staff Developed Countries helping Developing Cash Flow Countries Minimal Corruption, though existing Developed Countries Learning from Decreasing Profits Developing Countries Increased Knowledge Increased Skills and Safety Practice Spur Economic Development
  34. 34. Sapone 34 I will hire experts and advisors in the fields of local law and international contracts, a construction cost estimator, a construction contractor, engineer, surveyor, boat manufacturer, ecologist and hydrologist. Also, local Cambodians will work on and manage the project. In addition, to creating the curriculum for students with the aid of local NGO's and teachers worldwide; I will secure the land, seek further investors and lay the foundations. Programmatic Analysis:
  35. 35. Sapone 35
  36. 36. Sapone 36
  37. 37. Sapone 37 Fig 13. The Pearl Village Profile, Programmatic Analysis p. 33-36
  38. 38. Sapone 38 Fig 14. One of Best Current Technology NGO Educational Facilities, Phnom Penh Fig 15. Children at the NGO Educational Facility, Phnom Penh
  39. 39. Sapone 39 Fig 16. The NGO Educational Facility, Phnom Penh Fig 17. Children at the NGO Educational Facility, Phnom Penh
  40. 40. Sapone 40 Fig 18. Computer Station at the NGO Educational Facility , Phnom Penh Fig 19. The NGO Educational Facility, Phnom Penh
  41. 41. Sapone 41 Fig 20. Outside the Royal Palace, Phnom Penh Design Objectives: My Design Objectives are to create this project in an architectural manner; finance and develop the project thereafter. Thus, this section takes the form of a Business Plan. The Pearl Humanitarian Hotel and School Project Summary and Investment Overview Project Description: The Pearl Humanitarian Hotel is an eco-friendly holistic 121 Unit Luxury Resort Hotel and Integrated Educational Facility for Poverty - Stricken Children in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. This Multi-Purpose Project is comprised of three components, the hotel, the school, and the homes. The hotel is a 121 unit luxury hotel built of locally crafted, sustainable design modules with materials indigenous to the region. The school is an educational facility for poverty – stricken children, especially children at high risk of becoming victim to prostitution trafficking. The School will take the form of the Cambodian Library. Structures conventionally known as “libraries” are common features of Khmer temple architecture, but their true purpose remains unknown.
  42. 42. Sapone 42 Freestanding buildings, they were normally placed in pairs on either side of the entrance to an enclosure, opening to the west. 4 The homes are 35 for-sale residential homes; 17 of these homes are for the purpose of fractional ownership, mainly to bring in trades viable for the production of a sustainable community. The 18 remaining homes with guest suites will be constructed on Skyline Drive. Each home will have a private airplane hangar. At the heart of the community is a Buddhist Temple. Amidst the community is Bella’s Hariti fine dining organic restaurant. Hariti was worshipped in all early Buddhist monasteries. She was represented as a mother goddess holding a child with others around her. The goddess protective of children is also the goddess against illnesses and diseases. 5 Surrounding Bella’s Hariti is an organic herb and vegetable garden. Beyond the Buddhist Temple and Bella’s Hariti and within the property is Bella’s natural pool created from the hollowing of earthen laterite, which is used to construct the foundations and parts of the buildings. Angkorian builders used laterite, a clay that is soft when taken from the ground but that hardens when exposed to the sun, for foundations and other hidden parts of the buildings. Because the surface of laterite is uneven, it was not suitable for decorative carvings, unless first dressed with stucco. Laterite was more commonly used in Khmer provinces than at Angkor itself. 6 In axial alignment with the pool is the Resort’s spiritual oasis and spa. The property will be operated as a single hospitality entity. Construction is scheduled to commence in 4Q-10 with completion and project opening in 4Q-11. Capital Structure: The Pearl Ecological Humanitarian Hotel and School will finalize its $23.025 million capital structure. The summary terms of the capital structure are: - Total Size of Financing: $21.025 million - Land Cost: $3.5 million - Senior Loan: $8.875 million - Letter of Credit Securing Senior Loan: $.875 million - Preferred Equity: $5.5 million - Equity (total): $17.525 million o Invested (A&D stage): $4.125 million 4. 5. 6. Freeman and Jacques, Ancient Angkor, p.30. I. Johne, Ein Medaillon mit einer Hariti, Darstellung im Museum fur Indische Kunst. Indo-Asiatische Zeitschrift., 6/7 Berlin, 2003, pp. 48-57; I., JOHNE, Pancika or Pharro? Berliner Indologische Studien. 15/16/17 Reinbeck, 2004, PP. 421-438 Freeman and Jacques, Ancient Angkor, p.29.
  43. 43. Sapone 43 o Committed (construction stage): $13.9 million  Trust - $9.4 million  Hotel Management Co. - $3.0 million  School Management Co. - $1.5 million Location: Pearl Humanitarian Hotel and School is Located in the Capital of Cambodia, Phnom Penh. Situated at the confluence of the Mekong, Bassac and Tonle Sap Rivers, Cambodia’s capital, Phnom Penh has a population of approximately two million people. Despite some dilapidation resulting from decades of war, the city retains its traditional Khmer and colonial charm. French villas along tree-lined boulevards remind the visitor that the city was once considered a gem of Southeast Asia. Double-digit economic growth rates in recent years have triggered an economic boom, with new hotels, restaurants and residential buildings springing up around the city. Phnom Penh’s wealth of historical and cultural sites makes it a very popular tourist destination. 7 Project History: On the Riverfront, Phnom Penh’s South National Road 1, 4Km from the City Center, on the East side of the new Japanese Bridge South under-construction and scheduled to open November 2009, en-route to Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: A Site poised in the Direction of Urban Growth. Phnom Penh: In a City at the Confluence of 4 Rivers. Cambodia: In a Country juxtaposed between a recent turbulent War depopulating ¼ of the people, especially those with skills and ‘Know-How’. And a more ancient past filled with Architectural Wonder, Hydraulic Innovation and Urban Development unparalleled. Asia: On a Continent at the Apex of Change, Influx, Technology, SuperGrowth and Movement. Entitlements processing, pre-construction development and Use Permit approval will be achieved with the direction of local Cambodian builders, officials, and contacts, culminating with certification of build-out prior to the commencement of on-site construction. Project Program: 7. The Pearl Humanitarian Hotel will contain all permits and uses necessary for an extraordinary development. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phnom_Penh#Economy
  44. 44. Sapone 44 The project includes: - 121 ‘house of fire’ rest accommodations each with modern amenities, 11 - 17 square meter private garden patios and outdoor shower o 17 rest house units – 10 x 12 meter family suites o 17 rest house units – 8 x 8 meter private suites o 34 rest house units – 5 x 6 meter deluxe standard rooms o 53 rest house units – 4 x 4 meter standard rooms - 760 square meter entry gopura reception building - ‘The Library’: A pair of Freestanding Buildings at the entry to provide education to local Cambodian Children - 2 food and beverage outlets including a 100 seat public cafeteria “bella’s hariti” (1,100 square meter building area); and a private neighborhood restaurant “bella casa” with indoor and outdoor dining spaces for approximately 80 seats, to be utilized by hotel guests, students and homeowners only (760 square meters) - 3rd outlet is a 48 seat public “bella viti” room with private dining (180 square meters.) - 500 square meter full service spa with gardens - 1,100 square meters of flexible banquet / meeting space - 3 outdoor swimming pools; the main pool and 2 secondary pools; 1 for learning to swim; and the 2nd hot/cold treatment pool for spa - 250 square meter Fitness Room and outdoor meandering pathways - 250 square meter specialty food, wine retail, boutique with post office - 760 square meter public square with herb, vegetable and botanical garden
  45. 45. Sapone 45 Site / Location: Downtown Phnom Penh, Cambodia, South East Asia The country borders Thailand to its west and northwest, Laos to its northeast, and Vietnam to its east and southeast. In the south, Cambodia faces the Gulf of Thailand. The geography of Cambodia is dominated by the Mekong river (colloquial Khmer: Tonle Thom or "the great river") and the Tonlé Sap ("the fresh water lake"), an important source of fish. 8 Market and Phnom Penh, like other Asian-City tourist destinations, is in the midst of rapid change. Over the past few years the number of restaurants and hotels has grown considerably and in the last year there had been a huge increase in the number of visitors. There are now direct daily flights from several Asian cities and three overland border crossing have opened since 1998. Even travel within the country is easier with several airlines flying domestic routes, regular bus service to major cities like Sihanouk Ville and Kampong Cham and road conditions throughout the country have been gradually improving. Cambodia is becoming easier to visit every day. 9 Positioning: The total area in Phnom Penh is 375 Km2. With 1.3 million inhabitants, the population growth rate is 3.2% per year about 40,000 inhab./year (NIS-1998) or about 8.000 families/year. Phnom Penh includes 7 Districts, 76 Communes, and 637 Villages. It is classified as the 314th city in the world. 10 Phnom Penh, once known as the “Pearl of Asia, is a significant global and domestic tourist destination. Along with Siem Reap, Phnom Penh is considered among the strongest and most resilient hospitality markets in the World. Cambodia's main industries are garments, tourism, and construction. The tourism industry is the country's second-greatest source of hard currency after the textile industry. 11 In 2007, foreign visitors to Angkor Wat alone hit almost 4 million. 12 50% of visitor arrivals are to Angkor, and most of the remainder to Phnom Penh. 13 The market is characterized by a severe supply/demand imbalance resulting from favorable climate conditions and from increasing demand as the Country’s political reputation stabilizes and popularity has spread worldwide. These factors are widely expected to continue, providing a highly favorable 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambodia" http://www.phnompenh.gov.kh/english/introduction1.html http://www.phnompenh.gov.kh/english/Master_Plans/Project_DMPP.htm US Department of State. Country Profile of Cambodia. Accessed July 26, 2006. San Miguel eyes projects in Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar Royal Government of Cambodia. Tourist statistics. Accessed July 24, 2006.
  46. 46. Sapone 46 environment for hospitality properties. The resiliency of the Cambodian market has been demonstrated despite former political and civil strife, with demand, rates and occupancies considerably outperforming other vacation area markets. The project draws on the rich heritage of the land, traditions and architecture of the region to create a distinct sense of community, reminiscent of a Cambodian vernacular style village of the late 12th century monarch Jayavarman VII: Ta Prohm, Preah Kahn, Banteay Kdei and Banteay Chhmar, yet reinvented to fit modern climate, ecological and human needs. The ambiance will be rural and unpretentious, yet with all construction and materials of very high quality. The rest houses are forms of House of Fire or Dharmasala. Originally, these functioned as a “rest house for travelers”. An inscription at Preah Khan tells of 121 such rest houses lining the highways into Angkor. The Chinese traveler Zhou Daguan expressed his admiration for these rest houses when he visited Angkor in 1296 A.D. 14 Each will enjoy a very high degree of privacy, but there will also be generous amounts of well-landscaped public open space. Architecture, land planning and landscape design is provided for MArch Thesis with comments from designers and architects of highly acclaimed design firms and refined thereafter. Feasibility: Approximate opening of $150 - $350 for the Hotel room and selling price of $150,000 for the Dharmasala Trade homes and $250,000 for the Skyline Drive Homes. Dharmasala Trade Homes: The 17 luxury detached Trade Homes have 3 bedrooms and 2 baths, fireplaces, a great room and rooftop decks. The 255 square meter homes are each organized around a private central courtyard. The land underneath the homes will be under a long term lease with the Hotel ownership entity as lessor. Owner’s will have access to Hotel amenities. When not using their homes, the owner’s will have the option of placing them into a rental program administered by the Hotel, which retains 50% of the revenues. The homes can be converted into two smaller units vies-a-vies a lock-off. At a $200,000 average sales price, the for-sale component is projected to generate gross sales revenue of $7 million and pre-tax cash flow of $3 million. 14. Coedès, Pour mieux comprendre Angkor, p.197f.
  47. 47. Sapone 47 Skyline Drive Homes: The 18 luxury detached Dhamasala Skyline Drive Community Homes have 3 bedrooms and 3.5 baths and a guest suite option for pilots complete with fireplaces, a great room and rooftop decks. The 255 square meter homes are each organized along the community take-off & landing strip. No speculative building is planned for this development, sales will be made from a model and construction of units will only follow receipt of initial deposits. The project has a projected 18-month timetable. Skyline Drive and the Dharmasala Trade Homes produce substantial cash flow during the early stages of the project while the Hotel is building towards stabilization. Entitlements, Construction and Phasing: Entitlements for Bella Humanitarian Hotel will be received in 3Q-09, and a construction loan will close in 1Q-10 with construction commencing immediately thereafter, based on building permits, which will be in-hand at this time. Entitlements, Construction and Phasing: Schedule 2/3/4Q-09 1/2Q-10 3/4Q-10 1Q-11 2Q-11 3Q-11 4Q-11 1Q-12 2Q-12 The Pearl Reconnaissan Construction Humanitarian ce Visit / Documents Hotel Design and Financing Thesis Presentation Phnom Penh, Cambodia Design Review Land Construction Acquisitions / Entitlements Use Permit PreConstruction Meeting ‘Dharmasala’ Trade Homes PreConstru Constru ction of
  48. 48. Sapone 48 ction (17) Trade Homes, based on PreSales The ‘Library’ School Gopura Reception, Rest ‘house of fire’ Phase 1 Bella’s Hariti, Buddha Temple & Spa Pre-Construction Construction Opening / Op(12 mts from start of constructi on) Entitlements, Construction and Phasing Cont.: Schedule 2/3/4Q-09 1/2Q-10 3/4Q-10 1Q-11 2Q-11 3Q-11 4Q-11 1Q-12 2Q-12 Rest ‘House of Fire’ Phase 2 Bella Viti, Gardens B Knot Boutique & Retail Pre-Construction Construction of 24 detached and all other Program Opening / Operations Amphibious Homes Construction Phased Sales / Deliveries Construction of (18) Skyline Drive, based on Pre-Sales Opening / Operations Loan Funding for The Pearl Humanitarian Hotel Reconnaissance Visit, Schematic, Design Development, and Construction Documents, and Engineering began 1Q-09. Loan Funding for Acquisition and
  49. 49. Sapone 49 Entitlements is expected to begin 3Q-09. Loan Funding for Permitting and Construction is expected to begin 1Q-10. The construction plan anticipates an accelerated construction of the Hotel ‘house of fire’ rest accomodations in the The Pearl Humanitarian property, resulting in a complete hotel with the first 97 units, Local School for Youth Education, Mentorships and Trades, Reception, Spa, Hotel Guest Dining and Student Dining Facility, and Bella Viti Restaurant will open in 1Q-11. The remaining 24 units, retail facilities and other aspects of the The Pearl Humanitarian program will open in 2Q-11, approximately six months later. Construction contracts for the Hotel will be finalized, based on bids received from all key construction trades and non-construction vendors in Phnom Penh and local areas. All work on the project will be contracted using Open-Book, Guaranteed Maximum Price or Fixed Price contracts. The construction phase is twelve months pursuant to the approved construction schedule. Per Key Cost: The total per-key cost for the 121 units of the Humanitarian Hotel and Homes is approximately $115,000. This amount includes all development, construction and opening costs for the entire mixeduse program, less estimated land allocations to the for-sale Trade Homes and Skyline Drive Homes. Estimating hotel capacity safely at 50% found that a substantial profit can be achieved, whereby providing for the School and Mentorship program as well as the allocation of funds to future humanitarian hotel projects around the world. In Phnom Penh many ex-patriots live and work in the non-profit, medical and business sector. A portion of the hotel rooms can be allotted to Service Apartments as this demand has been presented. Key Development Team Members: LLC Manager / Developer Land Planning and Architecture Landscape Architect Interior Design General Contractor Construction Stage Financing Requirements A construction financing commitment for The Pearl Humanitarian Hotel and Homes will be in place with (place
  50. 50. Sapone 50 based subsidiary of a major foreign bank). The $8.5 million commitment provides for the acquisition of the land. The acquisition loan will be successfully participated and is scheduled to close 2Q-09. The $22.4 million commitment provides for construction and mini-perm financing of $20 million for the Hotel plus a $2.4 million revolving facility for the Homes and Skyline Drive. The construction loan will be successfully participated and is scheduled to close in 4Q-09. The total equity and mezzanine requirements are $16.625 million. Excluding the $750,000 startup investment required. Interested Parties: Interested parties can arrange for a site visit and tour of the prototype rest ‘house of fire’. A financial package and complete due diligence materials will be provided to qualified prospective buyers. Please Contact: Manager The Pearl Humanitarian Hotel and School info@bellahumanitariangroup.com sarah.sapone@gmail.com The investment represents a turnkey opportunity to participate in the creation and ownership of an upscale Bella Humanitarian Group Resort Property – a truly privileged asset in one of the World’s oldest heritage, prestigious and resilient markets.
  51. 51. Sapone 51 Travel Sketches: TS 1. Ankgor, Cambodia Field Sketch TS 2. Preah Khan, Double Height Round Column, Sacred Sword, North Elevation
  52. 52. Sapone 52 TS 3. Preah Khan, Double Height Round Column, Sacred Sword, East Elevation
  53. 53. Sapone 53 TS 4. Preah Khan, Temple for Buddhist Gods, Southwest Quadrant, West Elevation
  54. 54. Sapone 54 TS 5. Preah Khan, Dharmasala, Rest House, Southeast Quadrant, North Elevation TS 6. Preah Khan, Dharmasala, Rest House, Southeast Quadrant, Plan
  55. 55. Sapone 55 TS 7. Preah Khan, Temple for Buddhist Gods, Northeast Quadrant, East Elevation
  56. 56. Sapone 56 Appendices: I. Project of the Development Master Plan of Phnom Penh Preah Khan was built in the ancient Capital City of Angkor. Since that time the Capital City of Cambodia has moved first to Udong and now the current Capital City is Phnom Penh. Thus the Capital City, Phnom Penh is the logical place to propose this Project. Moreover, many of the local residents have not had the opportunity to visit the Ancient Capital of Angkor now located in close proximity to Siem Reap. Furthermore, these same residents who have never visited the Ancient Capital have aspirations of being Tour Guides in Angkor. While, this is fantastic, after speaking with so many locals, and learning that more than 98% of them share the same highest Aspiration ie. Tour Guide. It seems to me that, as our world becomes increasingly globalised and integrated, why should an entire population not have goals to become Doctors, Lawyers, Diplomats, Architects, Engineers, Teachers or Hydrologists? Project of The Development Master Plan of Phnom Penh Total area : 375 Km2 Inhabitants : 1.300.300 Yearly population growth: 4% Administrative Division : + 7 Districts +76 Communes +637 Villages
  57. 57. Sapone 57 Challenges: 1-Socio-Economic Development 2-World Integration and Physical Infrastructure 3-Environment Preservation 4-Land use Optimization and Efficiency Towards Public Servitudes 5- Housing Policy and Poverty reduction 1-Socio-Economic Development Urban Population -One of the Capital Cities with 1.3 million inhabitants. It is classified the 314 the city in the world. -Population growth rate=3.2% per year about 40.000 inhab./year (NIS-1998) or about 8.000 families/year. -GNP US$ 830 per capita , 80 times less than Thailand and Singapore. Métropole , Agglomération , Municipalité 2000 - 2020 Source : Institut National de la Statistique ( INS ) , JICA and BAU Municipalité Agglomaration Métropole Population source : INS Source : INS Source : JICA+BAU 1998 1039607 1077853 1333992 2000 1114479 1165244 1430066 2005 1313851 1403712 1685894 2010 1529301 1670230 1962353 2015 1753840 1958914 2250475 2020 1983104 2266289 2544659
  58. 58. Sapone 58 2-World Integration and Physical Infrastructure -Phnom Penh-centre of Service for 6 million people in the range of 100Km. It is half of the whole Population of the country. (in the same range: Bangkok-9millions, Hanoi-8millions, HCM7millions, KL-4millions, Singapore-4millions) -By 2020 the number of that population will increase double. Economic Integration Growth economic corridor : -West-East axe Bangkok-Phnom Penh-Ho Chi Minh (NR1,NR2, NR5,NR6, Railways, Airway) -North-South axe Sihanouk Ville (Port)-Phnom Penh- Upper Mekong region (NR3, NR4, NR7, Railway, Mekong Navigation etc.)
  59. 59. Sapone 59 Railway Connections between Phnom Penh and Thailand and Sihanouk Ville are in use. Asean Railway is planned to connect Phnom Penh to the rest of the world. We need to improve the rail and transportation condition. Road network and Logistic Organization -Dry port at Samrong Triangle -Dry ports at all city gates -Road network connects Phnom Penh to all provinces.
  60. 60. Sapone 60 Current Land use Total area of the capital city is about 375km3 : - 80% natural lake and agriculture. - 20% urban area = 6200ha - Medium density: 130 inhab./ha (500inhab./ha in the centre and 50 inhab./in the suburb.) Housing Policy Following the rapid growth of about 10.000 families per year, so the city need to: 1-To promote the investment on housing development esp. for the poor. 2-To improve roads and other infrastructure system in the suburb area that could absorb 90% of urban growth. 3-To implement the land reform and social land concession, land sharing and relocation with private partners. 4-To encourage the development of dwellings for lease . 5-To encourage the poor communities to rehabilitate their old settlements with the low rate loan and banking system reform.
  61. 61. Sapone 61 Strategic Orientation 1-To define the maximum reserved area for future infrastructure system -future extension of airport, -port, -reserved area for ASEAN railway station at Samrong district, -Dry ports, and -other reserved space for future transportation networks . Strategic Orientation 2-To define the state land : -lakes, -canals, -rail way, roads and -green area.
  62. 62. Sapone 62 Strategic Orientation 3-To create the new urban centers to prevent urban sprawl and anarchic urbanization and to promote the development in the suburban area, which are able to absorb the rapid urban growth and so that people will live next to their jobs. Secondary Poles Secondary centers based On the local potentiality and future city extension : -Chom Chao, -Chroy Changvar, -Chbar Ampove, -Takmao, -Prek Phnov Secondary Center Strategic Orientation 4-To extend the city within the radius of 30km around the old centre. 5-To enhance public-private partnership to promote investment on housing development and improve land market.
  63. 63. Sapone 63 Strategic Orientation 6-To enhance the identity of the city as well as the landscape (garden city) by preserving the existing traditional villages around the city, to develop and preserve the natural green system to ensure the quality of environment following the greenery master plan. Blue belt- City Hydrological System
  64. 64. Sapone 64 Strategic Orientation
  65. 65. Sapone 65 II. The Mekong Source and Local Chaktomuk Junction Environmental, Hydrological and Morphological Phenomenon The Mekong sources in icy wastes of eastern Tibetan Plateau and flows south and east through – China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, emptying into the South China Sea through a wide delta south of Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon). It holds significance as a natural boundary. Unpredictable waters and shifting bed make fording and bridging almost impossible. This great river has seen the rise and fall of empires and battles between foes of different races and cultures. Explorers, traders and simple fisherman and farmers have used the Mekong River for thousands of years. In recent times, peace has returned and the ordinary life of the river goes on as it always has. Lancang-Mekong River, Golden Water Course The Mekong River, also called Lancang River in China, the third largest international river following the Amazon River and the Nilotic River, is becoming a golden water course thanks to a joint effort made by China, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam where this river is flowing through. Known as "Danube of the Orient", the 4,800-km-long river originates from China and flows through six counties. The 2,160 km upstream section in China is known as the Lancang River, which traverses southwest China's Yunnan Province for more than 1,000 kilometers. According to statistics from relevant department of Yunnan Province, nearly 200,000 tons of commodities were transported abroad from China through this river in 2000 and against these there were only about 400 tons of shipment found in 1990. Besides, outbound Chinese tourists by ship from this river have exceeded 50,000 from nearly none. As permitted by China, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand, free passage has been given to commercial shipments on the 893-km-long Lancang-Mekong River from Simao Port of China to Louangphrabeng Port of the Laos. Strung along the river are 14 ports and docks open to commerce according to the "Lancang-Mekong River Merchantman Navigation Agreement" signed by the four countries said. As rich in virgin forest and different customs of local minorities along the banks of the Lancang-Mekong River, Thailand has invested in trans-national tourism in China, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand, followed by other countries in this region. Therefore, over 100 passenger ships are sailing on the river now. It is reported that government officials from six countries in the valley of the LancangMekong River will meet this year to sign a frame agreement on joint development of shipping and to make out unified river-route technical standard, working process and various regulations. By PD Online Staff Deng Gang Tuesday, February 20, 2001
  66. 66. Sapone 66 Fig 22. The Mekong Icy Wastes (Google Images), Photoshop
  67. 67. Sapone 67 Scale is Approximate for City Positions Only Fig 23. Map of The Mekong River
  68. 68. Sapone 68 Fig 24. The Flow Regime at the Chaktomuk Junction
  69. 69. Sapone 69 Fig 25. Morphological Evolution of the Chaktomuk Junction
  70. 70. Sapone 70 Fig 26. Evolution of the Flow Form of the Chaktomuk Junction
  71. 71. Sapone 71 III. Preliminary Meetings and Reconnaissance Visit Meeting with Robert Wiener – Paris, 25 June 2008 Chief Spokesperson for UN High Commissioner on Refugees Ron Redmond Redmond@unhcr.org “My friend Robert Wiener suggested I contact you. You could supply me with UN people contacts currently in Cambodia. I plan to be there … and would like to speak regarding som advice on a humanitarian project of my own. (Field people will know French couple with prostitutes.) Hong Kong (Vietnam) – United Press International, Pulitzer Prize Photographer Hubert Van Es Vanes@netvigator.com …suggested I contact you. I will be in HK and would like to meet you at the Foreign Correspondents Club for a drink or a quick snack… En route to Cambodia and Robert assured me I can count on your wise advice. Prime Minister Cambodia 85512878787 Secretary of Cabinet – Ho Sithi – Only if in trouble with permissions Photographer – Al Rockoff – ½ time in Cambodia – been since the war Tel. 85523722471 alrockoff@usa.net Cathay Hotel, Room 126, 123, 125 – Phnom Daun Penh Foreign Correspondents Club 2 Lower Albert Road, North Block Central 852 2521 1511, 852 2868 4092 VP of News and Current Affairs for Star TV Jim Laurie – lives in HK Independent Research Company to sell hotel rooms: 760-A Gilman St - Berkeley, CA 94710 - USA Tel: (510) 558.2150 or (800) 950.2842 - Fax: (510) 558.2158 Email: sales@aviatravel.com
  72. 72. Sapone 72 Meeting with Thesis Advisor Sonia Chao – Miami, 15 December 2008 UN Hotel National – Middle Income Local – Spiritual + Physical School Sustainable – Passive vs. Assertive Hotel – Phases Assets – Managed – International Company Hotel Rating – Plug In – Mandarin vs. Private Development Type: 1. Seaside – Develop Hotel to Town 2. Egypt – Hotel as Town Connect to Fabric (Souk– Housing for Emp.– Mosque) Demographics History of Politics + People Natural Environment Services Spa – Everyday – Play up – Micro Environment 3. China – Minister of Culture (Female) – Develops site on top of Great Wall a. 7 National Architects – Contemporary Language with Traditional Elements b. “Bamboo House” c. 7 Homes – 6 Rooms per House – Large Scale of Local Typologies i. Inside - Out Relationship ii. Tatamis – Japanese iii. Low to Ground Furniture iv. Consistency Down to Details v. Center for Kids – 3 Year 1. To Go Hiking 2. Off Trail Paths – to get to Great Wall 3. Rugged – Provide Guide to help you - get you There 4. Outdoor Dining vi. Exposure of Culture – Respectful and Intimate 1. 2 Shops a. Craft Projects – Contemporary b. Same with Clothing – Silk Designers School – Beginning to End – Career Path - Give a kid a meal or teach them how to fish UN Hotel – Extremely High End Exclusive – Then to Make Accessible to Large Scale Phase 1 – Homes – Whole Floor Identity - Global Economy Homogenizes Culture - Allow Economic Development w/o Suffocating Cultural I.D. 1. Nutrition 2. Eastern Medicine – both Holistic and Natural Local Communal a. Acupuncture
  73. 73. Sapone 73 b. Herbal c. Meditation Principle - Intellectual Appreciation Arts – Visiting Professors: Specifics of Culture 1. Performing (Hanoi – Water Puppet Show) 2. Plastic a. Georgetown – 3 Week Retreats – Retirement Age i. 30 People ii. 6pm Buffet / Cocktails iii. Day Activities iv. Outdoor Cafes v. Library Retreat – Teaching Temple Visiting Professors to Hotel: Sessions @ Villa 1. How to Connect to People a. Horseback Riding b. Wine Appreciation c. Cooking Class – From Village Spiritual Retreat 1. Alternative Medicine 2. Day to Day Practitioners – Near Workers Housing Open Lab for Construction 1. Skills ‘Old Timers’ Lead Efforts 2. Open Lab for Construction 3. Vocational for Building Arts 4. Local Rehabilitation – Construction Vocational Program 5. Cost of Local Building Materials 6. Furniture – Old Masters - Young Kids i. Larger International Business ii. Export Culture Construction Education Hospitality Cultural – Honeymoon Vacation Banquet Hall – Bulky Part of Program – Daytime Use – Empty – Use Options Landscaping Hierarchy: 1. Document Local Flora / Fauna 2. Cost of Local Building Materials 3. Construction Vocational Program Benchmarks for Star Ratings – List – Cornell School of Hospitality
  74. 74. Sapone 74 Future Phase: Homes Thesis: Development of 1 or 2 Components Master Plan – Gustavo Sanches, Min Mossman, Liz Plater-Zyberk Guide Process Recommendations, Resources, Typologies - Minn Mossman, School of Arts and Sciences, Art and Architecture Architectural Design – Teofilo Victoria, Jose Venegas 12/16-17/08 Phone Meeting with Min Mossman ‘The site is always waiting for the right eyes…for the right building.’ FLW The Site is Integral to the Building: 1. Where is the Sun? 2. Where is the Pond? 3. Place the House a. Feng Shui – feeling & where things are…ie toilets – too many b. Ying / Yang c. Taoism Cultures Blended, Traveled by Water: 1. Borobudur, Java – Mr. Kumaraswamy 2. Indonesia – more related to SE Mainland 3. Lantau Island, Hong Kong – Ferry, Monks, Grey 4. Lhasa, Tibet 5. Chinese – Malysian – Synthesis > Singapore 6. Thailand – Cambodia 7. China – Taiwan 8. Japan – China a. How each developed away from Native Research on Native Lands vs. Foreign 1. Foreign – can’t see, don’t’ know native point of view/reference 2. Innate Culture Local: Wat Buddharangsi of Miami - Temple of the Light: Samphong 1. 9 Monks Chanting – Yellow Safran 2. Lotus – Flower Arrangements – released into water – release suffering – Nirvana – open 3. Bodhisattvas – Saints 4. Buddhist Lesson - www.watmiami.org Lowe Art Museum: The Year of the Dragon) Brian Dursum 1. China – Tang Dynasty 2. India – West Bengal Books: Fairchild Bali – Mede Wijaya – Michael White, Australia 1. Tropical Garden Design
  75. 75. Sapone 75 2. Modern Tropical Garden Design Luca Invernizzi Tettoni (Photo William Warren) 1. Bali Modern: The Art of Tropical Living 2. Bali House: New Wave Asian Architecture and Design Singapore - Tan Hock Beng – Mats Design Studio 1. Tropical Paradise – Indonesian Art, Tropical Resorts Contacts: University of Thailand, Bangkok: Historic Preservation Faculty Society of Architecture Historians Architecture Historian – Chinese Singapore – PHD Botany – Botanical Gardens Landscape Architecture for Government 12/17/08 Meeting with Jean Francois- LeJeune Register with Graduate School – 3 Advisors, Submit .pdf, April 20th-Written 1. Sonia Chao 2. Min Mossman 3. And Outside: Robert Wiener 4. Gwendolyn Wright Reviews: Plan, Detail 1 Building … Reconnaissance Visit: Land Cost as of March 24, 2009: Main Road = $1000- $1500/ sq m From 50-80m = $800-$900/ sq m From 100-150m = $700/ sq m From June 2008, down 20 – 30% Land Acquisition in Cambodia: Deposit 10% Paid in Full over 3 Months C-A-R-E Cambodia Angkor Real Estate 5 Options for Process to Purchase Land: 1) Foreigner 49% and Partner with Local Cambodian 51% a. Land Title in Cambodian’s Name 2) Foreigner marries Local Cambodian a. Land Title in Local Husband’s Name 3) Company Buys with Licensed LLC 4) Foreigner Offers Donation to Local Cambodian Government – King of Cambodia in Exchange for Honorary Dual Citizenship, Cambodian ID
  76. 76. Sapone 76 a. Cost typically ranging from $40,000 - $70,000 5) Foreigner 1% with 100% Power of Attorney and Cambodian Partner DFDL Legal Valuation: 1) Land Holdings Co. – 51% Shares a. Cambodian – Class A i. Dividends and Profits ii. Limit Right to Nominate Director b. Security on Land with Long Term Lease c. Register Mortgage 2) Foreign Long Term Lease 15-99 Years a. Register in Cambodia an NGO + Individual (LLC) or Foreign Co. i. Registration of Certification of Title 3) Surmised: a. Own Land Holding Company i. Option LLC – Separate Management Companies 1. The Pearl Management Co. 2. The School Management Co. Ministry of Land Management Level of Government = Commune Khmer No Private Ownership of Land Thumb Print = Hard Title = Vont Difinitif Convert Soft Title = Sonkat Certificate 1-2 Pages to Hard Title Perform Title Search Prior Protected Lands in Sihanoukeville with Environmental Restrictions on Coastal Regions and Islands Sonkat = Validation of Contracts (EEC Company – Diesel) Process: 1) 2 – 4% for Transfer of Title, Facilitation Payment 2) Land Transfer Taxes to the Seller Market Study = With NGO to Perform 2 Page Interview – 500 People 1) Enfants du Mekong 2) PSE Pour un Sourire d’Enfants 3) Soksabai - Youth Girls and Boys (5 -18 years) beaten by parents a. Denis Xavier – Retired Fr. Govt. 092963319 – Rue de Vick 281 # 18
  77. 77. Sapone 77 Sustainability Electricity & Water: Corrupted and Unreliable – 1 month with no Electricity Generator = 32A  $500 / 3 Phases Generate Solar / Hydro Water Re-Use Retention System Need: Connected Land + Hookups / Pay Fuel Contacts: 1) Rotary Club: www.bigpond.com.kh/users/rcpp 2) PP Chamber of Commerce a. 70 Confederation de la Russie b. 023-880795 3) Hotel Cambodiana – French a. www.ccfcambodge.org b. 023-221453 4) Center for Cambodian Development a. Street 315 # 56 IV. A Guide to Angkor Monuments by Maurice Glaize Prah Khan Maurice Glaize might need not introduction, however I give one anyway. Preface to the 4th French edition Published in 1944 in Saigon, republished in 1948 and again in Paris in 1963, "The Monuments of the Angkor Group" by Maurice Glaize remains the most comprehensive of the guidebooks and the most easily accessible to a wide public, dedicated to one of the most fabled architectural ensembles in the world. In his preface to the first edition, Georges Cœdes (1886-1969), the unchallenged master of Khmer studies and the then director of the École Française d'Extrême-Orient, wrote: "Maurice Glaize's guide, more than a quarter of which is devoted to fundamental ideas concerning the history of the country, its religions, the meaning and evolution of the monuments, their architecture and their decoration, the sculpture, and finally to the work of the Conservation d'Angkor, gives an initiation to Angkor that until now has been lacking. The guide recommends itself on these qualities alone. By means of taking apart and rebuilding the monuments during the process of anastylosis Mr. Glaize has learnt to know their secrets and, like a professor of anatomy, reveals to his readers all the details of their structure. But further, in daily contact with the ruins since 1936, he has learnt to love them, and one can easily perceive the emotion of the artist as he faces the corner of a gallery lit by the morning sun, or views the light playing on the waters of an ancient pool at sunset...
  78. 78. Sapone 78 In brief, this volume is a book that is of service not only as a guide for touring the monuments, but also as a presentation of the results of the most recent research to a wider public. With these diverse titles, it deserves the success which I hope for it with all my heart... " Founded on an exceptional understanding of the monuments and an ability to popularise to a high level, this rightful success was soon gained - the work of Mr. Glaize being no less valuable for students of research than for tourists, or for the most demanding connoisseurs of art. With the exception of Georges Trouvé, whose involvement was sadly too brief, nobody had a better understanding or 'feeling' for the monuments of the Angkor region than Henri Marchal or Maurice Glaize. But if H. Marchal was the first to make use of anastylosis towards the end of 1931 for the exemplary reconstruction of Banteay Srei, it was M. Glaize who generalised its use for the "Angkor Group" - notably in the "rebirth" of Banteay Samre, for the sanctuary of Neak Pean, and the "resurrection" of the sanctuary of the Bakong. It would, however, be unsatisfactory to simply republish a work written now some fifty years ago without some form of amendment. All manner of events have in the mean time intervened that impose necessary revision - although, in terms of the Author's thoughts, those responsible have made the request that any alteration should be as discrete as possible. These factors derive as much from the unhappy events resulting from ongoing political changes as from events directly affecting the monuments themselves. On the one hand, there has been the abrupt and rapid decline, since 1945, in the state of some of the better known temples, such as the Baphuon and Angkor Wat - symbolic of the highest achievement of Khmer classicism. On the other, towards 1955, the availability of modern techniques and materials enabled the improved efficiency of the Angkor Conservation Office, which then expanded from a simple workshop to a research office with engineers and technicians. Under the direction of Bernard Phillippe Groslier more ambitious programs were devised, and large, urgent site-works, previously unthinkable, were able to be undertaken. The brutal deterioration of the political situation in 1975 and the resulting insecurity came to ruin these hopes and put an end to the activity that had previously run uninterrupted since the founding of the Conservation Office in 1908. The resumption of work, even with limited objectives, was to take a long time in coming. These facts cannot be omitted from a Guide whose primary aim is the reader's instruction. Likewise, progress in research has considerably reduced the importance for a long time placed on the notion of the "god-king" and the "royal linga", with more qualified interpretations being proposed by Jean Filliozat and Georges Cœdes himself during the 'sixties. There has been a similar evolution in terms of the symbolism of the monuments (in particular with respect to Phnom Bakheng and the temples from the period of the Bayon) for which a recourse to texts has allowed the release from mere hypothetical speculation. All of these amendments have been handled unobtrusively, usually with simple notes. It is with the same concern for "revision" that the original, but old, photographs have been substituted with a choice of more recent and more evocative illustrations. Jean BOISSELIER 1993

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