Timeline of philippine history

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summarized timeline of the Philippine History.

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Timeline of philippine history

  1. 1. TIMELINE OF PHILIPPINE HISTORY ● 1380 - Muslim Arabs arrived at the Sulu Archipelago. ● 1521 - Ferdinand Magellan "discovers" the islands and names them: Archipelago of San Lazaro. ● 1542 - Spanish expedition commandeered by Ruy Lopez de Villalobos claims the islands for Spain; names them "Philippines" after Prince Philip, later King Philip II of Spain; the Philippines becomes part of Spanish Empire. ● 1872 - Gomburza (Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jocinto Zamora) were executed by the Spaniards. ● 1892 - Jose Rizal founded the civic organization La Liga Filipina. ● 1896 - Katipuneros tear their cedulas & shout in contempt of the Spaniards in what is called the Cry of Pugadlawin. ● 1897 - General Emilio Aguinaldo establishes the a new republic at Biak-na-Bato in Bulacan. ● 1886 - José Rizal publishes anti-Spanish novel, Noli Me Tangere (The Lost Eden); and seers up independence sentiment. ● 1896 - Spanish execute Rizal for instigating insurrection; public outrage spawns rebellion. ● 1898 - American warship Maine was blown up in Havana harbour, triggers the the SpanishAmerican war, the battle of Manila Bay ensues. ● 1898 - Emilio Aguinaldo assembled the Malolos Congress in Bulacan, then declares independence in Kawit, Cavite ● 1899 - Treaty of Paris ends Spanish-American War, cedes Philippines to U.S. after payment to Spain by U.S. of $ 20 million. Emilio Aguinaldo declares independence then leads a guerrilla war against U.S. ● 1901 - U.S. captures Aguinaldo; William Howard Taft arrives as first U.S. governor of Philippines. ● 1902 - Insurrection ends; Taft improves economic conditions, settles disputes over church ownership of land, establishes "Pensionado" program, allowing Filipinos to study in U.S., which helped modernize and westernize the country. ● 1916 - U.S. congress passes the Jones Law establishing elected Filipino legislature with house and senate. ● 1934 - U.S. congress approves the Tydings-McDuffie Law promising Philippine independence by 1946; transition to independence begins.
  2. 2. ● 1935 - Filipino people approve constitution creating the Philippine Commonwealth with Manuel Quezon y Molina as president. ● 1941 - Japanese invades the Philippines, and defeats Gen. Douglas MacArthur at Bataan and Corregidor; Quezon establishes government in exile in the U.S. ● 1944 - Quezon dies in exile; Vice President Sergio Osmeña assumes the presidency; MacArthur returns to the Philippines and lands in Leyte with little resistance. ● 1945 - Gen. MacArthur liberates Manila and President Osmeña establishes government. ● 1946 - The U.S. gave the Philippines independence and Manuel Roxas y Acuña is elected as the first president of the new republic. ● 1965 - Ferdinand E. Marcos is elected by a big majority as president. ● 1972 - Martial Law was declared by President Marcos. ● 1981 - Marcos lifts Martial Law. ● 1983 - Opposition leader Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino returns from exile and is assassinated on arrival at Manila International Airport; Aquino's widow Corazon leads the "People Power" protest movement. ● 1986 - Marcos was declared winner in a presidential election beating Corazon Aquino amid charges of fraud; demonstrations erupt; Marcos flees to Hawaii; Aquino is declared president and forms a new government. ● 1992 - Endorsed by Aquino, her Secretary of Defense Gen. Fidel Ramos wins presidential election. U.S. Philippine congress rejects a new treaty with the U.S. and Subic Bay naval base and Clark Air Field returns to Philippine government, ending American military presence in the Philippines. ● 1996 - The government of Ramos agrees to greater autonomy for southern island of Mindanao. Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) ends the guerrilla war with the government. ● 1997 - Asian financial crisis grips Asia and the Philippines escapes the crisis despite series of currency devaluations. ● 1998 - Former movie actor Joseph Estrada is elected president. ● 2000 - On charges of corruption, the lower house impeach Estrada. ● 2001 - Estrada was forced to step down due to public outrage over corruption allegations. Vice President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo assumes the presidency. ● 2004 - Presidential election takes place. Arroyo's closest rival (a dear friend of Ex-President Estrada) is film actor Fernando Poe, Jr. Arroyo narrowly defeats Poe, taking 39.5% of the vote to Poe's 36.6%.
  3. 3. ● 2005 - A taped conversation between President Arroyo & an election official surfaced during the 2004 elections implying she influenced the official election results. Calls for her resignation and demonstrations followed soon after. In September 2005, Congress voted down the filing of an impeachment against Arroyo. ● 2007 - Former President Joseph Estrada is convicted of plunder, the first ever in the history of the Philippines. ● 2010 - First automated national elections in the Philippines. ● 2010 - Benigno "Noynoy" Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III wins the Presidential elections and sworn in at Manila's Rizal Park on June 30, 2010. The Galleon Trade When the Spaniards came to the Philippines, our ancestors were already trading with China, Japan, Siam, India, Cambodia, Borneo and the Moluccas. The Spanish government continued trade relations with these countries, and the Manila became the center of commerce in the East. The Spaniards closed the ports of Manila to all countries except Mexico. Thus, the Manila– Acapulco Trade, better known as the "Galleon Trade" was born. The Galleon Trade was a government monopoly. Only two galleons were used: One sailed from Acapulco to Manila with some 500,000 pesos worth of goods, spending 120 days at sea; the other sailed from Manila to Acapulco with some 250,000 pesos worth of goods spending 90 days at sea. It also allowed modern, liberal ideas to enter the country, eventually inspiring the movement for independence from Spain. And because the Spaniards were so engrossed in making profits from the Galleon Trade, they hardly had any time to further exploit our natural resources. Basco’s Reforms Filipino farmers and traders finally had a taste of prosperity when Governor General Jose Basco y Vargas instituted reforms intended to free the economy from its dependence on Chinese and Mexican trade. Basco implemented a “general economic plan” aimed at making the Philippines self sufficient. He established the “Economic Society of Friends of the Country”, which gave incentives to farmers for planting cotton, spices, and sugarcane; encouraged miners to extract gold, silver, tin, and copper; and rewarded investors for scientific discoveries they made. Tobacco Monopoly The tobacco industry was placed under government control during the administration of Governor General Basco. In 1781, a tobacco monopoly was implemented in the Cagayan Valley, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Isabela, Abra, Nueva Ecija, and Marinduque. Each of these provinces planted nothing but tobacco and sold their harvest only to the government at a pre-designated price, leaving little for the farmers. No other province was allowed to plant tobacco. The government exported the tobacco to other countries and also part of it to the cigarette factories in Manila. The tobacco monopoly successfully raised revenues for the colonial government and made Philippine tobacco famous all over Asia. Philippine Independence from the Americans
  4. 4. Freedom is among the rights that Filipinos did not enjoy during the Spanish rule. It was a struggle for the Philippine revolutionary leaders to achieve independence from foreign power. The Filipinos fought countless battles, resulting to bloody revolutions since the 19th century under the Spanish government. The Filipino forces were persistent to achieve independence for the country. In 1896, the Philippine Revolution started, which incriminated Jose Rizal resulting to his execution on allegations of treason and rouse the Katipunan in Cavite to organize in two groups creating conflict. At the break of the SpanishAmerican war, the Filipino leaders saw the war between Spain and America as an opportunity to free the Philippines from the claws of the Spanish colony; hence, supported the United States with military forces including indispensable intelligence. America summoned Aguinaldo to return to the Philippines from exile and with confidence towards the pleasant US relations, Aguinaldo anticipated independence from Spain with the help of America. Returning to the Philippines and leading the Filipino troops to hold the fort of Luzon with success except for Intramuros, Aguinaldo declared the Philippine Independence from the Spanish colonial government on June 12, 1898 under the First Philippine Republic. The Philippine National flag was held up, and swayed proudly before the joyous cries of the Filipinos by 4:20 in the afternoon at General Aguinaldo’s balcony of his mansion in Kawit, Cavite. Albeit, the fact that Spain lost the battle to the Filipino troops, Admiral George Dewey schemed to convince the Spaniards to surrender to America. It was an act of betrayal by America that no sooner short-lived the celebration of Philippine independence when America annexed the Spanish colonies to include the Philippines. The Filipino forces were determined to continue their efforts against imperialist power leading to a bloody fight against the American Army in February 1899 when America refused to grant Philippines the long-sought Independence. The Philippine-American War erupted in February 4, 1899 in the struggle of the Filipinos for freedom conflicting with the interests of America to become a world power by establishing overseas empire to include the Philippines under the US imperial rule. The Filipino forces applied conventional, then guerrilla tactics in fighting against the US army as they become fully aware, under the leadership ofGeneral Emilio Aguinaldo, of the strength of the US military heavily equipped with superior firearms. Although, General Aguinaldo was captured in 1901, the insurgencies, particularly by the Muslim Moros in the Southern part of the Philippines continued. Nonetheless, America was preparing Philippines for independence that started with the creation of civil government. The US President Woodrow Wilson promised Philippine Independence and started to entrust authority over Filipino leaders with the establishment of the Philippine Senate by a democratic election. The Philippine Commonwealth, with elected President Manuel L. Quezon, was instituted in 1935 under the Tydings-McDuffie Act that granted Philippines its self-government, although the legislative power was not absolute, which still required approval from the US President. At that time, it was a good start towards the eventual Philippine Independence. When the events were gearing towards Philippine independence as promised by the United States of America, the Japanese invasion and occupationbolstered in a surprise. Bataan was surrendered to the Japanese but President Quezon along with Osmeña fled to America. World War II broke out that created immense damage to Filipinos with
  5. 5. roughly about one million casualties. After the war, Manuel Roxas was elected President in April 1946 for the independent Second Republic of the Philippines. In a formal declaration, the American flag was lowered in Luneta, Manila and raised the Filipino National flag in tri-color of red, white, and blue looked up by proud Filipinos. Finally, independence was granted to the Republic of the Philippines dated July 4, 1946. The National anthem of the Philippines was played next to America’s. It was indeed a moment of liberating glory, for all Filipinos after pools of blood were shed in many revolutions. July 4, however, holds less inspiration for the Filipinos according to the elected President of the Republic of the Philippines in 1961,Diosdado Macapagal. Macapagal believes that the June 12, 1896 declaration of the Philippine independence by General Emilio Aguinaldo brings to memory the heroes of the revolution and therefore, Philippine independence is best commemorated in honor of the Filipino revolutionary heroes. Hence, President Macapagal changed the date of celebration of the Philippine independence from July 4 to June 12, which the Filipinos celebrate each year up to this time. The Philippines During Martial Law Proclamation of Martial Law: On September 21, 1972, President Ferdinand E. Marcos placed the Philippines under Martial Law. The declaration issued under Proclamation 1081 suspended the civil rights and imposed military authority in the country. Marcos defended the declaration stressing the need for extra powers to quell the rising wave of violence allegedly caused by communists. The emergency rule was also intended to eradicate the roots of rebellion and promote a rapid trend for national development. The autocrat assured the country of the legality of Martial Law emphasizing the need for control over civil disobedience that displays lawlessness. Marcos explained citing the provisions from the Philippine Constitution that Martial Law is a strategic approach to legally defend the Constitution and protect the welfare of the Filipino people from the dangerous threats posed by Muslim rebel groups and Christian vigilantes that places national security at risk during the time. Marcos explained that martial law was not a military takeover but was then the only option to resolve the country’s dilemma on rebellion that stages national chaos threatening the peace and order of the country. The emergency rule, according to Marcos’s plan, was to lead the country into what he calls a “New Society”. Marcos used several events to justify martial law. Threat to the country’s security was intensifying following the re-establishment of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) in 1968. Supporters of CPP’s military arm, the New People’s Army, also grew in numbers in Tarlac and other parts of the country. The alleged attempt to the life of then Minister of Defense Juan Ponce Enrile gave Marcos a window to declare Martial Law. Marcos announced the emergency rule the day after the shooting incident. Marcos also declared insurgency in the south caused by the clash between Muslims and Christians, which Marcos considered as a threat to national security. The Muslims were defending their ancestral land against the control of Christians who migrated in the area. The minority group organized the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) in Malaysia and pushed for the autonomy of Mindanao from the national government. The move was initially supported by most Filipinos and was viewed by some critics as a change that solved the massive corruption in the country. Martial law ceased the clash between the executive and legislative branches of the government and a bureaucracy characterized by special interest. Marcos started to implement reforms on social and political values that hindered effective modernization. To match the accomplishments of its Asian neighbors, Marcos imposed the need for self-sacrifice for the attainment of national welfare. His reforms targeted his rivals within the elite depriving them of their power and
  6. 6. patronage but did not affect their supporters (US Library of Congress, Martial Law and the Aftermath). Thirty-thousand opposition figures including Senator Benigno Aquino, journalists, student and labor activists were detained at military compounds under the President’s command (Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law). The army and the Philippine Constabulary seized weapons and disbanded private armies controlled by prominent politicians and other influential figures (Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law). Marcos took control of the legislature and closed the Philippine Congress (Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law). Numerous media outfits were either closed down or operated under tight control (Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law). Marcos also allegedly funnelled millions of the country’s money by placing some of his trusted supporters in strategic economic positions to channel resources to him. Experts call this the “crony capitalism.” The deterioration of the political and economic condition in the Philippines triggered the decline of support on Marcos’ plans. More and more Filipinos took arms to dislodge the regime. Urban poor communities in the country’s capital were organized by the Philippine Ecumenical Council for Community and were soon conducting protest masses and prayer rallies. These efforts including the exposure of numerous human rights violations pushed Marcos to hold an election in 1978 and 1981 in an aim to stabilize the country’s chaotic condition. Marcos, in both events, won the election; however, his extended term as President of the Republic of the Philippines elicited an extensive opposition against his regime. Social unrest reached its height after former Senator Benigno Aquino was murdered. The incident sent thousands of Filipinos to the streets calling for Marcos’ removal from post. Turning again to his electoral strategy, Marcos held a snap election in 1986 but what he hoped will satisfy the masses only increased their determination to end his rule that seated Corazon Aquino, widow of Benigno Aquino, as President of the Philippines ousting Marcos from Malacañang Palace and ending the twenty-one years of tyrant rule.

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