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Online open education and social justice: progress for regional, multi-lingual and female learners

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Data excerpts from an upcoming book chapter, as outcome of a PhD program of research into Open Education.

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Online open education and social justice: progress for regional, multi-lingual and female learners

  1. 1. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B An upcoming book chapter, PhD outcome Sarah Lambert CRADLE, Deakin University Online open education and social justice: progress for regional, multi-lingual, and female learners Twitter @SarahLambertOz
  2. 2. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B • Support and international connections from Global OER Graduate Network (GO-GN) • Feedback from experienced and emerging researchers via Twitter @sarahlambertoz Acknowledgement 2
  3. 3. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Where I’m coming from: lived experience of both inclusion and exclusion 3 • Learning designer working in regional uni • First in family to attend uni • Mum: ‘get a degree and you’ll be taken seriously’ • Economic challenges: Struggle, juggle, debt • Identity challenges: gender and work possibilities • Lived experience of both inclusion and exclusion • Feel the difference keenly • Still learning, at OER19 to listen and reflect
  4. 4. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B “The demographics of massive open online course (MOOC) analytics show that the great majority of learners are highly qualified professionals, and not, as originally envisaged, the global community of disadvantaged learners who have no access to good higher education” (Laurillard, 2016, p. 1) “… predominantly young males seeking to advance their careers” (Emanuel, 2013). Research problem 4
  5. 5. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B How can we do this differently? 5
  6. 6. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B • Seven short cases: online open education as social justice for those typically excluded from higher education. • 5 cases from a systematic review 2014-17 (which found 24 examples reaching 200K disadvantaged students) • 2 from my own case studies Book chapter: evidence of doing it differently 6
  7. 7. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Open Education is the development of free digitally enabled learning materials and experiences primarily by and for the benefit and empowerment of non-privileged learners who may be under-represented in education systems or marginalised in their global context. Success …can be measured not by any particular technical feature or format, but instead by the extent to which they enact redistributive justice, recognitive justice and/or representational justice. (Lambert, 2018, p. 239) after Fraser and UNESCO Open Education: a new definition aligned to social justice 7
  8. 8. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B #textbookbroke 8 Danny Chang @channydang 10 Jan 2018 Colvard et al 2018 - impact Of OER on student success Inc Pell grant students
  9. 9. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B ‘After completing TAFE in 2005 I applied for many junior positions where no experience in sales was needed – even though I had worked for two years as a junior sales clerk. I didn’t receive any calls so I decided to legally change my name to Gabriella Hannah. I applied for the same jobs and got a call 30 minutes later.’ Gabriella Hannah, formerly Ragda Ali, Sydney 9 Booth, A. L., Leigh, A., & Varganova, E. (2012). Does ethnic discrimination vary across minority groups? Evidence from a field experiment. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 74(4), 547–573. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0084.2011.00664.x​
  10. 10. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Self-determination of marginalised people and groups to speak for themselves, rather than having their stories told by others. Authorship of learning materials about learners of colour by learners of colour, about women’s experiences by women, about gay experiences by gay identifying people. Facilitation to ensure quiet and minority views have equal air-time in open online discussions. Socio-cultural diversity in the open curriculum. Inclusion of images, case studies, and knowledges of women, First Nations people and whomever is marginalised in any particular national, regional or learning context. Recognition of diverse views and experiences as legitimate within open assignments and feedback. Free educational resources, textbooks or courses to learners who by circumstance of socio- cultural position cannot afford them, particularly learners who could be excluded from education or be more likely to fail due to lack of access to learning materials. Three principles of social justice applied to Open Education 10 redistributive justice recognitive justice representational justice
  11. 11. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B The seven cases –social justice exemplars 11 7 Cases Redistrib’ve Justice with regional reach Women benefit +others Recog’tve Justice Multi- lingual justice Rep’tnal Justice 1: EU Multilingual ICT MOOC yes yes yes yes yes 2: Chilean Pre-service Teachers yes yes yes yes yes 3: Sth African multilingual OERtxts* yes yes yes yes yes 4. Australian Dementia care MOOC yes yes yes yes 5. U.S. Human Trafficking MOOC yes yes yes yes 6. AuthorAID MOOC (developing countries esp Africa, Asia, MidEast) yes yes yes yes yes 7: Australian uni-prep online program* yes yes yes yes * My recent studies, other 5 examples from my recent systematic review 2014-2017
  12. 12. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Helping to preserve Europe’s rich cultural, educational and linguistic heritage. Teachers discuss and make meaning of the MOOC materials and assessments in their own language, cultural contextualisation and application of the learning. Learners represent their own needs in the learning groups by discussing and developing their own lesson plans relevant to their particular school and cultural context. Preferred mother-tongue used as the “language of participation” in local open learning groups (webinars, facilitator and peer interaction) to supplement the English as the “language of instruction” (for lesson materials). Facilitator teams catered for Bulgarian, Catalan, English, French, Greek, Slovenian and Spanish learners. EU funded free course for school teachers needing to upskill in use of ICT in the classroom, part of a suite of post GFC economic stimulus initiatives. Mother- tongue plus differing levels of English language skills, OK reading English materials, reluctant to participate in the spoken live videoconferencing sessions. Case 1: Multilingual ICT MOOC for European teachers 12 redistributive justice recognitive justice representational justice (Colas, Sloep, & Garreta-Domingo, 2016)
  13. 13. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Oral presentations in pairs prior to the program made the first-in-family students feel even more intimidated and less inclined to speak. The e-readers and study groups helped the learners find their voice. Students also set-up a private facebook group to be able to communicate on their own terms with peers in the program. Over the 12 months their marks improved and their confidence to speak and contribute in class also increased. Recognition of the intimidation and status differences that the young women felt compared to their more upper class, better prepared and resourced peers led to their teachers offering the additional support program and resources to 22 students at risk of failing and/or dropping out Provided free e-readers with English language literature which are prohibitively expensive in Chile, out of reach to most. Students read in their own time and had weekly discussion classes with their regular teachers to develop confidence with speaking in English. Case 2: e-readers & study groups for Chilean pre-service teachers 13 redistributive justice recognitive justice representational justice (Charbonneau-Gowdy, Paula; Capredoni, Rosana; Gonzalez, Sebastian; Jayo, María José; Raby, 2015)
  14. 14. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Process of collaborative textbook authorship, diverse perspectives, teachers from local and regional provinces. Face to face workshops, then online editing and review. Online tool acts as a leveller by hiding the users’ role. High-ranking officials and lower ranking regional teachers each have their say on how the textbook is being developed. Textbooks are locally contextualised using South African names, places and examples. Student workbooks and teachers guides produced in both Afrikaans and English, with some teachers guides also being translated into indigenous languages. Free educational textbooks, subsidised online/mobile maths tutoring programs for school children in South Africa who would otherwise have no/insufficient resources. Local internet providers zero rate the website ie no mobile internet data charges. Case 3: South African multi-lingual maths and science texts 14 redistributive justice recognitive justice representational justice (Lambert, 2019)
  15. 15. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Siyavula case – collaborative authoring by a community 15 Siyavula’s modified ‘book-sprint’collaborative textbook authoring process CC-BY Sarah Lambert
  16. 16. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Developed by a team that included patients and carers. Online facilitation encouraged understandings from a range of carer and cultural perspectives. Carer’s experience valued as form of expertise, as a complement to scientific knowledge of dementia. Developed by the Wicking Dementia Centre strong community partners, recognises the profile of carers, the skills and experience of caring they bring to the course as well as their lack of formal academic learning. Explicit tasks encourage learners to draw on all their prior life experiences to gain confidence learning and developing ideas. Free course for professional and family carers of dementia patients at home or in aged care facilities. 89% learners are female, 70% more than 40 years old, with low previous education and no online learning skills. Context is regional location with lowest levels of digital literacy in the country, especially for older women. Case 4: UTas Understanding Dementia MOOC 16 redistributive justice recognitive justice representational justice (Goldberg et al., 2015; King et al., 2014)
  17. 17. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Discussion forums were set up as a safe space to share first hand stories of how trafficking has impacted learners, their families, and communities. Many women, sex workers and social workers with first- hand experience identified themselves in the forums and provided diverse views and accounts. The learning materials provided recognition of the extent and impact of human trafficking both by providing statistics and undercover videos, documentaries, and survivor testimonies. Free course aims to share ideas and actions to advance the anti- trafficking movement including prevention of women and girls being forced into sex-work in many parts of the world - 75% of human trafficking victims are women and girls. Special stream for social workers. Case 5: Human Trafficking MOOC (USA) 17 redistributive justice recognitive justice representational justice (Watson,2014)
  18. 18. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B The total of 2830 actual learners came from 95 countries predominantly in the developing world: a little over 50% from Africa, another 40% from Asia, and most of the remainder from the Middle East and Latin America. The MOOC builds academic writing skills, getting published means having a voice in an academic field Text-based, low- bandwidth MOOC, few short intro videos. Tasks created opportunities for discussion, reflection, and practice. Volume of learning: three to four hours of study time per week, designed for adults with full-time work and caring responsibilities. The AuthorAID program was developed to bridge the publishing gap between the developed and developing world. A large-scale MOOC was run – online pilots had consistently better gender balance than face- to-face evening workshops. Women were 45-46% of the MOOC participants and 49-61% of the MOOC completers Case 6: AuthorAID MOOC 18 redistributive justice recognitive justice representational justice (Murugesan, Nobes, & Wild, 2017)
  19. 19. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B The Study Skills presentation assessment gives learners a chance to speak about their backgrounds, work experience and future selves with pride. Examples of prior careers include: electrical technician; nurse; motel cleaner; organic farmer; hospitality manager. Online peers express interest and value in students’ diverse careers and aspirations in ways that learners find validating. Facilitators have diverse backgrounds similar to the learners, all learners are made to feel that they are all capable and can succeed. They can see people like them as facilitators, peers, in the readings and assignments. Government funded (free to learners) needing skills and uni entry quals. c70% of participants are women, nearly all first-in- family. Online modules with optional supporting face to face campus classes. Participants face many challenges: parenting responsibilities; mental and physical health issues; negative schooling experiences; juggling study around shift-work. Case 7: University Preparation Program (Australia) 19 redistributive justice recognitive justice representational justice (Lambert – in review)
  20. 20. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Free online technologies giving a little more to those who have less: Concluding thoughts 20 Money Respect Voice
  21. 21. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Social justice in the course and in the process Concluding thoughts 21 Course and materials • Providing free resources • Use diverse images, names, cases and examples • Multi-lingual participation • Respect difference in assessment contributions • Amplify excluded or quiet voices & views in online discussion Development • Think about who you invite to collaborate • Community partnerships not just tech partnerships • Students as partners
  22. 22. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B How can our technologies amplify redistributive, recognitive and representational justice in your context? Challenge 22
  23. 23. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Editors: Sarah Lambert and Laura Czerniewicz Abstract 1st June 2019 Papers due 1st December 2019 Publish: March-April 2020 (OER20). JIME: Open Education and Social Justice 23 https://jime.open.ac.uk/
  24. 24. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B • Colas, J.-F., Sloep, P. B., & Garreta-Domingo, M. (2016). The Effect of Multilingual Facilitation on Active Participation in MOOCs. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(4), 280–314. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v17i4.2470 • Charbonneau-Gowdy, Paula; Capredoni, Rosana; Gonzalez, Sebastian; Jayo, María José; Raby, P. (2015). Working the Three T’s: Teacher Education, Technology and Teacher Identities. In Proceedings of the European Conference on e-Learning, ECEL (pp. 138–146). Academic Conferences Limited. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17506200710779521 • Lambert, S. R. (2019). The Siyavula case: Digital, collaborative text-book authoring to address educational disadvantage and resource shortage in South African schools. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 11(3), 279–290. Retrieved from https://www.iejee.com/index.php/IEJEE/article/view/704 • Goldberg, L. R., Bell, E., King, C., O’Mara, C., McInerney, F., Robinson, A., & Vickers, J. (2015). Relationship between participants’ level of education and engagement in their completion of the Understanding Dementia Massive Open Online Course. Bmc Medical Education, 15(1), 60. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-015-0344-z • Watson, S. L., Loizzo, J., Watson, W. R., Mueller, C., Lim, J., & Ertmer, P. A. (2016). Instructional design, facilitation, and perceived learning outcomes: an exploratory case study of a human trafficking MOOC for attitudinal change. Educational Technology Research and Development, 64(6), 1273–1300. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-016-9457-2 • Murugesan, R., Nobes, A., & Wild, J. (2017). A MOOC approach for training researchers in developing countries. Open Praxis, 9(1), 45–57. https://doi.org/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.9.1.476 • Lambert’s Australian Tertiary Preparation case submitted to UniSTARS conference (Melbourne July 2019 tbc) References – seven cases 24
  25. 25. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B • Definitions paper http://jl4d.org/index.php/ejl4d/article/view/290 • Annotated at https://hyp.is/CU_2Rh-mEem03wPCqpl1lQ/jl4d.org/index.php/ejl4d/article/view/290/334 • Early/short blog version https://go-gn.net/research/where-is-the-social-justice-in-open-education/ • Sys review data https://figshare.com/authors/Sarah_Lambert/4728615 • Early conceptual model https://blogs.deakin.edu.au/cradle/2018/02/15/free-technology-and- inequality-my-3-minute-thesis-experience/ References – PhD outputs 25
  26. 26. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B • Alvaredo, F., Chancel, L., Piketty, T., Saez, E., & Zucman, G. (2018). World Inequality Report 2018 Retrieved from https://wir2018.wid.world/files/download/wir2018-summary- english.pdf • Colvard, N. B., Watson, C. E., & Park, H. (2018). The Impact of Open Educational Resources on Various Student Success Metrics. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 30(2), 262–276. Retrieved from http://www.isetl.org/ijtlhe/ • Thomas, J., Barraket, J., Wilson, C., Ewing, S., MacDonald, T., Tucker, J., & Rennie, E. (2017). Measuring Australia’s Digital Divide: The Australian Digital Inclusion Index 2017. Melbourne. References – inequality 26
  27. 27. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Twitter @sarahlambertoz Sarah.Lambert@deakin.edu.au PhD candidate, and Manager, Higher Education Participation and Partnerships Program (HEPPP), Diversity and Inclusion, Deakin University Stay in touch! 27

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