C:\Fakepath\Sarah Social Studies 1 Feb 20 2010


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C:\Fakepath\Sarah Social Studies 1 Feb 20 2010

  1. 1. Social Studies<br />Techer: <br />diego Villamisar<br />By:<br /> Sarah v. Rodríguez <br />
  2. 2. Thegovernmental<br /> System<br />1.Found the main ideas of The paragraph and the <br /> main concepts ? <br />
  3. 3. Paragraph1<br />Since declaring its independence from Spain in 1810, Colombia has had ten constitutions.<br />These constitutions addressed three important issues: the <br />division of powers, the strength of thechief executive, and the role of theRoman Catholic Church. <br />The issue of a strong central government versus a decentralized federal system was especially important in the nation's constitutional development.<br />
  4. 4. Mainconceptsparagraph 1<br />Constitutions: A constitution is a set of rules for government—often codified as a written document—that enumerates the powers and functions of a political entity.<br />division of powers : The powers of government shall be divided into three distinct departments: legislative, executive and judicial. No person or persons belonging to or constituting one of these departments shall exercise any of the powers properly belonging to either of the others except in the instances expressly provided in this constitution. <br />Chief: :one of the highest-ranking corporate officers (executives) or administrators in charge of total management. An individual selected as president and CEO of a corporation, company, organization, or agency, reports to the board of directors.<br />Roman Catholic Church: the largest of the Christian churches, although present in all parts of the world, is identified as Roman because of its historical roots in Rome and because of the importance it attaches to the worldwide ministry of the bishop of Rome, the pope.<br />central government versus a decentralized federal system: : or union governmentis the government at the level of the nation-state. Usual responsibilities of this level of government are maintaining national security and exercising international diplomacy, including the right to sign binding treaties. Basically, the central government has the power to make laws for the whole country, in contrast with local governments.<br />
  5. 5. Paragraph 2<br />In settling the federal-unitary debate, the 1886 Constitution specifies that sovereignty resides in the nation, which provides guarantees of civil liberties. <br />The Constitution, by noting that labor is asocial obligation-- protected by the state--guarantees the right to strike, except in the public service. The Constitution, as amended, also gives all citizens a legal right to vote if they are at least eighteen years old, have a citizenship card, and are registered to vote.<br />The Constitution prohibits members of the armed forces on active duty, members of the National Police, and individuals legally deprived of theirpolitical rights from participating in any political activities, including voting. <br />
  6. 6. Mainconceptsparagraph 2<br />civil liberties: are rights and freedoms that protect an individual from the state<br />social obligation:Agree that neither of you will accept an invitation to a party or dinner out with others without checking with your spouse first. Often times, one of you may be feeling overwhelmed, or tired, or just not up to it at that time. Keep these lines of communication open. <br />public service. is a term usually used to mean services provided by government to its citizens, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing private provision of services.<br />political rights along with civil rights, are primarily designed to protect the individual against state interference, and are immediately applicable. Political rights can be seen as covering the right to political participation, that is, citizens’ right to seek to influence and participate in the public affairs of the society to which they belong. Political participation can take many forms, the most notable of which is included in the right to vote. <br />political activitiesA political activity is an activity in which you do something associated with politics. <br />
  7. 7. Paragraph 3<br />A second constitutional issue has been the strength of the chief executive's office, especially the presidential use of emergency powers to deal withcivil disorders. <br />The 1830 constitution further strengthened executive powers by creating the Public Ministry, which enabled the president to supervise judicial affairs.<br />The 1886 Constitution establishes threebranches of government--the executive, legislature, and judiciary--with separation of powers and checks and balances.<br />
  8. 8. Mainconceptsparagraph 3<br />civil disorders : also known as civil unrest, is a broad term that is typically used by law enforcement to describe one or more forms of disturbance caused by a group of people<br />three branches of government : It was important to the men who wrote the Constitution that they form a government that did not allow one person to have too much control.<br />
  9. 9. The 1886 Constitution restored strong executive powers primarily through the president's ability to invoke a state of siege under Article 121 and a state of emergency (estatuto de emergencia) under Article 122.<br />The president may declare a state of siege for all or part of the republic in the event of foreign war or domestic disturbance. Such a declaration, however, requires the signatures of all of the government's thirteen ministers. A 1961 constitutional amendment also requires that Congress remain in permanent session during a state of siege, although it may not contravene the president's decrees.<br />paragraph 4<br />
  10. 10. state of siege : Is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. It can also be used as a rationale for suspending civil liberties. <br />Mainconceptsparagraph 4<br />
  11. 11. paragraph 5<br />Article 53 authorizes the government to conclude agreements with the Holy See regulating functions between the state and the Roman Catholic Church on the "bases of reciprocal deferenceand mutual respect." The preamble to the amendments adopted by a national plebiscite in 1957 also notes the privileged position of the Roman Catholic Church, stating that the "Roman, Catholic and Apostolic Religion is that of the nation" and as such is to be "protected" and "respected" by the public powers of the state. Nevertheless,<br /> Article 54 of the Constitution prohibits Catholic priests from holding public office in areas other than education or charity. <br />
  12. 12. reciprocal deference : An interpolation technique using successive quotients of a function with its values so as to obtain a continued fraction expansion approximating the given function by a rational function. <br />public powers: A private business organization, subject to governmental regulation, that provides an essential commodity or service, such as water, electricity, transportation, or communication, to the public.<br />Stock shares issued by a company providing essential public services. Often used in the plural.<br />Mainconceptsparagraph 5<br />
  13. 13. The Constitution has undergone extensive and frequent amendments, the most significant of which included legislative acts in 1910, 1936, 1945, 1959, and 1968; a national plebiscite and legislative decrees in 1957; and economic reform in 1979 (see Role of the Government in the Economy , ch. 3). The amendment process was relatively simple, which may explain why it was used so extensively. Congress initially passed an amendment by adopting an act in two consecutive sessions, the first time by simple majority and the second by a two-thirds majority.<br />paragraph 6<br />
  14. 14. Undergone : To pass through; experience: a house that is undergoing renovations.<br />To endure; suffer: undergo great hardship.<br />Amendments : All twenty‐seven amendments that have become the law of the land have been proposed by two‐thirds majorities in both houses of Congress and ratified by three‐fourths of the states<br />Mainconceptsparagraph 6<br />
  15. 15. Amendments adopted in December 1968 reaffirm a president's ability to declare a state of emergency and allow the executive to intervene selectively in specific areas of the economy to prevent crises or facilitate development plans.<br />A president must obtain the consent of the ministers before making such a declaration and specify, in advance, a time period not to exceed ninety days.<br /> It may be called only to deal with a specific economic or social crisis, duringwhich the president is limited to issuing decrees dealing with the problem named in the announcement of the state of emergency.<br />paragraph 7<br />
  16. 16. Mainconceptsparagraph 7<br />Amendments : All twenty‐seven amendments that have become the law of the land have been proposed by two‐thirds majorities in both houses of Congress and ratified by three‐fourths of the states.<br />Ministers : <br />One who is authorized to perform religious functions in a Christian church, especially a Protestant church.<br />Roman Catholic Church. The superior in certain orders.<br />A high officer of state appointed to head an executive or administrative department of government.<br />An authorized diplomatic representative of a government, usually ranking next below an ambassador.<br />A person serving as an agent for another by carrying out specified orders or functions.<br />economic or social crisis : The mortgage collapse was the final "straw that broke the camel's back", but this is merely a symptom of concentration of wealth. An excellent collection of articles on Federal tax policies and their effects from the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities is given in the links below. <br />state of emergency :A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans.<br />
  17. 17. The most important constitutional amendments resulted from the Sitges Agreement and the subsequent San Carlos Agreement, drawn up by Liberal and Conservative leaders together at meetings in 1957 (see The Rojas Pinilla Dictatorship , ch. 1). These amendments were designed to impose bipartisan, noncompetitive rule for a sixteen- year period lasting until 1974. In May 1957, the two rival parties had united in the National Front coalition, which was envisioned as a bipartisan way to end la violencia and dictatorial rule. With the backing of the military, the National Front displaced the repressive regime of General Gustavo Rojas Pinilla (June 1953-May 1957). Although the military continued in power for a one-year transition period, the constitutional framework for a new governing system was institutionalized when the Colombian people overwhelmingly ratified the Sitges and San Carlos agreements in a national plebiscite in December 1957. The two parties governed jointly under the bipartisan National Front system from 1958 until 1974 (see The National Front, 1958-74 , ch. 1). <br />paragraph 8<br />
  18. 18. Bipartisan : Of, consisting of, or supported by members of two parties, especially two major political parties: a bipartisan resolution.<br />overwhelmingly : Overpowering in effect or strength: overwhelming joy; an overwhelming majority.<br />plebiscite : A direct vote in which the entire electorate is invited to accept or refuse a proposal: The new constitution was ratified in a plebiscite.<br />A vote in which a population exercises the right of national self-determination<br />Mainconceptsparagraph 8<br />
  19. 19. By the mid-1960s, la violencia had been reduced largely to banditry and an incipient guerrilla movement. In addition to ending la violencia, the National Front provided security and stability for the governmental system.<br />paragraph 9<br />
  20. 20. And third, it required that all legislation be passed by a two-thirds majority in Congress. The 1957 amendments also give women the same political rights as men, including the right to vote. <br />paragraph 10<br />
  21. 21. Congress : A formal assembly of representatives, as of various nations, to discuss problems.<br />The national legislative body of a nation, especially a republic.<br />Congress <br />The national legislative body of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives.<br />The two-year session of this legislature between elections of the House of Representatives.<br />The act of coming together or meeting.<br />A single meeting, as of a political party or other group.<br />Mainconceptsparagraph 10<br />
  22. 22. The 1968 constitutional reforms provided for a carefully measured transition from the National Front to traditional two- party competition<br />paragraph 11<br />
  23. 23. constitutional reforms : All twenty‐seven amendments that have become the law of the land have been proposed by two‐thirds majorities in both houses of Congress and ratified by three‐fourths of the states. In some instances, the framers of these amendments aimed them directly at the Court; in most cases, however, the amendments have themselves fueled the justices' workload. Taken together with the high court's interpretation of them, these amendments are a barometer of the social, economic, and political change within the constitutional system. <br />Mainconceptsparagraph 11<br />
  24. 24. Other congressional changes included the creation of a special committee to deal with economic and social development plans; the extension of a representative's term from two to four years; and the adoption of amendments dealing with matters such as the length of sessions, meeting times, and the size of quorums. The 1968 reforms also ended, beginning in 1970, the parity requirement for legislative seats at the municipal and departmental levels. <br />paragraph 12<br />
  25. 25. Developmen : The act of developing.<br />The state of being developed.<br />A significant event, occurrence, or change.<br />A group of dwellings built by the same contractor.<br />Determination of the best techniques for applying a new device or process to production of goods or services.<br />The organized activity of soliciting donations or grants; fundraising.<br />Music. <br />Elaboration of a theme with rhythmic and harmonic variations.<br />The central section of a movement in sonata form, in which the theme is elaborated and explored.<br />Mainconceptsparagraph 12<br />
  26. 26. Liberal president Julio César Turbay Ayala, who took office in 1978, and Conservative president BelisarioBetancurCuartas--elected in 1982--both gave half of their cabinet positions to rival party members. Although the practice ended after President VirgilioBarco Vargas assumed office in August 1986, another president could decide to revive it. <br />paragraph 13<br />
  27. 27. Cabinet : An upright, cupboardlike repository with shelves, drawers, or compartments for the safekeeping or display of objects.<br />Mainconceptsparagraph 13<br />
  28. 28. The revised Article 32 guarantees free enterprise and private initiative but puts the state "in charge of the general direction of the economy." <br />paragraph 14<br />
  29. 29. Enterprise : An undertaking, especially one of some scope, complication, and risk.<br />A business organization.<br />Industrious, systematic activity, especially when directed toward profit: Private enterprise is basic to capitalism.<br />Willingness to undertake new ventures; initiative: "Through want of enterprise and faith men are where they are, buying and selling, and spending their lives like serfs" (Henry David Thoreau).<br />Mainconceptsparagraph 14<br />
  30. 30. The leaders of various political parties and factions signed a political agreement, called the Nariño House Accord (Acuerdo Casa de Nariño), that signaled a consensus on the need to hold a national plebiscite on October 9, 1988, on the institutional reforms proposed by Barco. In announcing the agreement, Barco singled out as major problems the eroded faith in judges, the decreased credibility of Congress, and people's loss of hope about public administration.<br />paragraph 15<br />
  31. 31. Nariño House : The Casa de Nariño (Spanish for House of Nariño) or Palacio de Nariño (Spanish for Palace of Nariño) is the official home and principal workplace of the President of Colombia. It houses the main office of the executive branch and is located in the capital city of Bogotá. It was dedicated in 1908 after being constructed on the site of the house where Antonio Nariño was born. The design was made by architects Gaston Lelarge, a French-born former pupil of Charles Garnier, and JuliánLombana.<br />Mainconceptsparagraph 15<br />
  32. 32. Municipal elections held in March 1988 determined the party composition of a fifty-member panel, called the Institutional Readjustment Commission, whose purpose was to ask voters to approve constitutional changes in the planned October plebiscite.<br />The Nariño House Accord was suspended in April 1988, however, as a result of a decision by the Council of State (Consejo de Estado)-- the highest court on constitutional and administrative matters-- that the holding of a plebiscite would have raised a constitutional problem. According to the ruling, only Congress may revise the Constitution (a procedure that takes two years). <br />paragraph 16<br />