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Successful Youth Mentoring Practices


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This Webinar presentation was held on Tuesday, September 28, 2010, as part of the free monthly Webinar series from Friends for Youth's Mentoring Institute.

Youth mentoring is on the rise - again. More agencies are beginning mentoring programs as a component within other youth services and many existing programs are looking to refine their process. There are many excellent models and guidelines to help, including the Elements of Effective Practice from MENTOR and Foundations of Successful Mentoring from the National Mentoring Center.

Successful Youth Mentoring Practices: Considerations and Guidelines will review important youth mentoring programming basics, including California’s 10 Quality Assurance Standards, research and theoretical frameworks, and practical implementation ideas.

Published in: Education

Successful Youth Mentoring Practices

  1. 1. Successful Youth Mentoring Practices: Guidelines and Considerations<br />Transforming lives through<br />the power of mentoring<br />Friends for Youth’s<br /> Mentoring Institute<br />September 2010 Webinar<br />
  2. 2. Policy Brief: Strengthening Mentoring Opportunities for At-Risk Youth<br /><br />
  3. 3. Handbook of Youth Mentoring<br />Editors:<br />David DuBois, Ph.D. <br />Michael Karcher, Ed.D., Ph.D.<br />2nd edition 2011<br />
  4. 4. Spring 2002<br />Summer 2010<br />
  5. 5. Webinar Opportunity: PEAR The Program in Education, Afterschool, and Resiliency <br />Upcoming Action Dialogues•<br />Thursday, October 7, 2010<br />Promising Practices in Youth Mentoring: Implications of Emerging Frameworks<br />12:30- 2pm EST<br />Panelists: Michael J. Karcher, Michael Nakkula<br />Moderator: Dale Blyth<br />Registration link:<br /><br />
  6. 6. Who Mentored You?<br />
  7. 7. History and Models of Mentoring<br />
  8. 8. What is a mentor?<br />“Mentoring” describes a relationship <br />between an older, more experienced adult <br />and an unrelated, younger protégé or mentee, characterized by on-going guidance, instruction, <br />and encouragement provided by the adult <br />and aimed at developing the competence <br />and character of the mentee.<br />Rhodes, 2002<br />
  9. 9. Brief History of Mentoring<br />Mentor from The Odyssey<br />Traditional apprenticeship programs<br />BBBS movement - 1904<br />Friends for Youth, Inc. - 1979<br />Corporate mentoring model - 1980s<br />MENTOR/National Mentoring Partnership - 1990<br />EMT/Center for Applied Research Solutions - 1990<br />School-based mentoring model - 1990s<br />First Elements of Effective Practice - 1991<br />National Mentoring Center/NWREL - 1995<br />First major research on mentoring – 1995<br />America’s Promise - 1997<br />
  10. 10. Brief History of Mentoring<br />Friends for Youth’s Mentoring Institute - 1998<br />California Mentoring Initiative’s Best Practices - 1999<br />First White House event for mentoring - 1999<br />First National Mentoring Month - 2002<br />Major federal-level funding available - 2003<br />SafetyNET pilot program - 2004<br />Association of Mentoring Professionals - 2007<br />First Summer Institute on Youth Mentoring – 2007<br />White House Mentoring Program Press Conference - 2010<br />Major federal-level funding continues - 2011<br />Friends for Youth’s 12th Annual Conference - 2011<br />
  11. 11. Mentoring Program Models<br />One-to-one<br />Group<br />Team<br />Peer-to-peer or Cross-age<br />E-mentoring<br />EMT, 2002; MENTOR/National Mentoring Partnership, 2005<br />
  12. 12. At the of <br />positive mentoring effects <br />is the <br />development of a strong relationship<br />between mentor and youth.<br />Grossman and Johnson, 1999<br />
  13. 13. The relationshipis<br />the intervention.<br />Johnston, 2005<br />
  14. 14. Mentoring as aDevelopmental Intervention<br />Mentoring addresses developmental task of attachment<br />Mentors must be appropriate supplemental attachment figures<br />Assessment is essential<br />Mentoring is resource-intensive<br />Mentors must receive adequate supports<br />Johnston, 2005<br />
  15. 15. Mentoring within Relational Framework: Authenticity<br />“So I was like… not telling her anything. … I was telling her some stuff, yeah. But then we started seeing each other, so I’d tell her more stuff, like about me, and what I do and stuff like that.”<br />Shadow, a mentee<br />“He had to be real with me, you know. I can’t get close to nobody without them being real with me, you know… And without you being real with me, you can’t be close with me. … He brought it to me real, so I was like, okay.” <br />Demetrious, a mentee<br />Spencer, 2006<br />
  16. 16. Mentoring within Relational Framework: Empathy<br />“Um…she is…a bright light. She really is, I mean, she’s just…she’s got a good heart. She knows right and wrong. Although she doesn’t always follow through. But I mean, heck, who didn’t do that when they were a teenager, you know? …I think that she definitely does like to push the envelope, test the limits, …which I think goes along with being a teenager…but as far as like…like her… her core… like I think everybody has a core, you know?”<br />Sophie, a mentor<br />Spencer, 2006<br />
  17. 17. Mentoring within Relational Framework: Collaboration<br />“He supports me in like, he asks me… what I’ve been doing in like, science since I like science a lot. And what I’ve been doing in math and it supports me… to do more work in science and math and other subjects.”<br />JaShawn, a mentee<br />“I’d talk to him on Monday and he’d say oh, I can’t wait for Saturday. He just really hated school.” <br />Wolfgang, a mentor<br />Spencer, 2006<br />
  18. 18. Mentoring within Relational Framework: Companionship<br />“He’s my best, best, best friend.”<br />Maurice, a mentee<br />“Until I have to go buy him adult diapers for an old folks home.” <br />Shaggy, a mentee<br />“I just really like him and I enjoy spending time with him… and now five hours goes by like nothing… it’s become very easy.”<br />Frank, a mentor<br />“The best part is being together and being with Frank.” <br />T.K. Williams, Frank’s mentee<br />Spencer, 2006<br />
  19. 19. Mentoring supportsResiliency Research<br />“Research finds that resilient youth - those who successfully transition from risk-filled backgrounds to the adult world of work and good citizenship - are consistently distinguished by the presence of a caring adult in their lives.”<br />Cavell, DuBois, Karcher, Keller, Rhodes 2009<br />
  20. 20. Resilience<br /><ul><li>Capacity to spring back and rebound
  21. 21. Ability to successfully adapt in face of adversity
  22. 22. Possibility of developing social competence despite exposure to severe stress</li></ul>Colby Rivkin & Hoopman<br />
  23. 23. Kauai Longitudinal Study<br />Werner & Smith studied cohort (210) of children from Kauai, Hawaii<br />Risk factors: poverty; perinatal health factors; low-educated mothers; familial alcoholism, violence, instability, discord, mental illness<br />Follow up surveys at 1, 2, 10, 18, 32, 40<br />Two-thirds exhibited destructive behaviors in later teen years - chronic unemployment, substance abuse, and out-of-wedlock births<br />One-third did not exhibit destructive behaviors – “resilient”<br />Resilient children and families had traits different from non-resilient children and families<br />
  24. 24. Protective Factors<br />CARING AND SUPPORT: Described someone to whom they felt important, whom they felt knew them and believed in them<br />HIGH EXPECTATIONS: Had responsibilities, including “required acts of helpfulness”<br />YOUTH PARTICIPATION: Possess belief that odds can be overcome and have some control over own future<br />Benard, 1991; Werner 1990<br />
  25. 25. I see what is right with you, <br />no matter what you have done in the past, <br />no matter what problems you currently face. <br />Your strengths are more powerful than your “risks.”<br />And whatever risks, problems, or adversity <br />you are facing are steps on the road to bouncing back - they are not the end of the road!<br />Henderson, 1997<br />Resiliency Attitude<br />
  26. 26. Mentoring Impacts<br />Young persons who lack a strong relationship with a caring adult while growing up are much more vulnerable to a host of difficulties, ranging from academic failure to involvement in serious risk behaviors.<br />Cavell, DuBois, Karcher, Keller, & Rhodes 2009 <br />February 2009 National Policy Brief<br />
  27. 27. Mentoring Impacts<br />“Youth who participate in mentoring relationships experience positive benefits:<br /><ul><li>Better school attendance and attitude
  28. 28. Better chance of higher education
  29. 29. Help in preventing substance abuse
  30. 30. Reduce negative risk behaviors
  31. 31. More positive social attitudes and relationships
  32. 32. Trust and communicate more with parents
  33. 33. Experience more emotional support from friends</li></ul>Child Trends Research Brief, 2005<br />
  34. 34. Mentoring Impacts<br />“Successful mentoring…has been shown to have a positive effect on some forms of delinquent behavior, including skipping school and skipping class, initiating alcohol and drug use, and getting in physical fights.<br />Bauldry, 2006<br />
  35. 35. Mentoring Impacts<br />. . . growing number of studies which find significant associations between youth’s involvement in mentoring relationships and positive developmental outcomes, including reduced delinquency and gang involvement and improved academic performance and attendance.<br />Rhodes and DuBois2008<br />
  36. 36. Safe & Effective Mentoring<br />
  37. 37. Effective Programming<br />“Research does NOT indicate that <br />ANY mentoring relationship or program produces benefits.”<br />Sipe, 1998<br />“Good intentions and a ready corps of volunteers are not enough to deliver an effective youth mentoring program - <br />a solid infrastructure is essential.”<br />Cavell, DuBois, Karcher, Keller, Rhodes 2009<br />
  38. 38. Effective Programming<br />Engaging in Social Activities<br />Engaging in Academic/Learning Activities<br />Time Commitment and Relationship Duration & Closure<br />Youth Involvement in Decision Making<br />Matching Practices<br />Pre-match Training<br />Post-match Training, Monitoring, and Support<br />Age of Mentee<br />Mentor Screening<br />Sipe and Roder, 1999<br />
  39. 39. Ineffective Programming<br />“Mentor practices that lead <br />to a disappointing relationship <br />can have an adverse effect, <br />eroding a youth’s self-esteem <br />and trust in adults.”<br />Grossman and Rhodes, 1999<br />
  40. 40. Ineffective Programming<br />Grossman and Rhodes, 2001<br />
  41. 41. Recommended Best Practices<br />Mission Statement and Long Range Plan<br />Recruitment Plan for Mentors and Mentees<br />Customized Orientations for Mentors and Mentees<br />Eligibility Screening/Application Process for Mentors and Mentees<br />Training Curriculum for Mentors and Mentees<br />Matching Strategy <br />Monitoring Process<br />Support, Recognition, and Retention Component<br />Relationship Closure Steps<br />Evaluation Process<br />California Governor’s Mentoring Partnership, 2002<br />
  42. 42. Evidence-Based Best Practices<br />Target children and youth most likely to benefit<br />Use rigorous screening and training processes for mentors<br />Clearly state program goals and expectations to all<br />Develop activities to facilitate mentor-youth relationship<br />Provide consistent ongoing support for mentors to strengthen relationships and minimize early termination<br />Support and involve parents<br />Use systematic monitoring and evaluation in order to improve quality of services<br />Cavell, DuBois, Karcher, Keller, Rhodes 2009<br />
  43. 43. Promising Practices<br />Youth Participation in Program Voluntary<br />Involve Youth in Planning and Mentoring Process<br />Mentor Selection for Safety<br />Mentor Selection for Quality<br />Community of Caring Approach<br />Asset Building<br />Friends for Youth, 2010<br />
  44. 44. Foundations of Successful Youth Mentoring<br /><br />
  45. 45. Elements of Effective Practice, 3rd Edition<br /><br />
  46. 46. Our vision: Transforming lives through the power of mentoring relationships<br />Our mission: Creating quality mentoring relationships for youth who need them most<br />
  47. 47. Achievements in Field<br />31 years of direct service + 12 years of support service<br />Winner 2008 NMM ReelPeople Project - Jennifer & Iliana<br />California Governor’s Mentoring Partnership’s Recommended Best Practices contributor<br />Becky Cooper named Mentoring Expert in California<br />Mentoring Consultants for CARS, MENTOR, NMC, MANY<br />10 years of annual mentoring conferences<br />MENTOR’sNational Working Group on Accreditation<br />Summer Institute of Youth Mentoring at Portland State University<br />
  48. 48. Programs<br />Mentoring Services creates and sustains community-based, long-term one-to-one relationships<br />since 1979<br />Mentoring Institute disseminates information to the mentoring community on safe and effective practices<br />since 1998<br />
  49. 49. Mentoring Services<br /><ul><li>8 - 17 years old
  50. 50. San Mateo & Santa Clara Counties
  51. 51. Referred by youth professionals
  52. 52. Identified as needing positive, supportive adult & at risk of not reaching full potential because of challenges in community, family, or school environment
  53. 53. Parent support & voluntary participation</li></ul>Junior Friends<br />
  54. 54. Mentoring Services<br />Senior Friends<br /><ul><li>22+ years old
  55. 55. Live/work in or near San Mateo/Santa Clara Counties
  56. 56. Desire to make difference in life of young person
  57. 57. Able to make 3 hours per week commitment for 1 year
  58. 58. Successfully completes application process</li></li></ul><li>Mentoring Services<br />Friendships<br /><ul><li>1:1 or 2:1 matches (couples)
  59. 59. Average 3 hours/week for 1 year
  60. 60. Meet on own time in community with variety of activities
  61. 61. Program Coordinators monitor Friendship (20-25 matches max)
  62. 62. 3-month & 12-month Reviews, incl. parents
  63. 63. 4 group activities
  64. 64. Recreational
  65. 65. Learning/Academic
  66. 66. Community Service
  67. 67. Life Skill Workshop
  68. 68. 1 Senior Friend Group</li></li></ul><li>Friends for Youth’s Impact<br />Nearly 1,800 matches <br />88% overall success rate of mentors and mentees reaching one year together<br />Program Coordinator contacts<br />1x/week for first 3 months + 2x/weeks for remainder (Senior Friends)<br />1x/month (Junior Friends + parents/caregivers)<br />Junior Friend Evaluation outcomes<br />Developed by Cindy Sipe, Ph.D.<br />Evaluation by William Lapp, Ph.D.<br />Nearly 10 years of data on matches<br />
  69. 69. 5 Outcome Areas<br />Increase in involvement in school (attendance, truancy, attitude, grades, suspensions)<br />Reduce risk behaviors (drug/alcohol use, police involvement, probation)<br />Increase positive behaviors (community service, new activities)<br />Increase opportunities to influence future potential (office visits, talking about college & career with adult)<br />Improve self-concept (trusting relationships, self-assuredness, self-reliance, handle unexpected problems)<br />
  70. 70. Friends for Youth’s Impact<br />After 12-month period, youth made significant changes<br />Improved school attendance: 81% reported not skipping school at all & 75% reported avoiding suspensions<br />Improved attitude toward school: 100% showed positive change in at least 1 aspect & 69% showed positive change in 2 or more aspects<br />Reduction in risk behaviors: reduced self-reported incidents of police involvement (13% vs. 28%), stealing (4% vs. 23%), hurting others (12% vs. 32%); alcohol & drug use decreased in time & showed delay in starting use<br />Increase in positive behaviors: 87% participated in community service project vs. 35% at start; significant increase in new activities<br />Improved self esteem: 95% reported increase in at least 1 aspect of self-esteem & 63%reported increase in all 3 aspects<br />Increase in number of trusting relationships with family, peers, & other adults: nearly 90% reported positive overall change<br />Lapp 2009 (2007-2009 results)<br />
  71. 71. Resources for Organizations<br />
  72. 72. Mentoring Institute Products<br />
  73. 73. Mentoring Institute Products<br />"One of the most comprehensive and scholarly publications that addresses the need to insure maximum protection for individuals involved in mentoring programs. The document will serve well to guide professionals in the field of mentoring.”<br />Susan Weinberger, Dr. Mentor<br />Cited as an initiative to promote program quality in the field in 2009 Policy Brief Cavell, DuBois, Karcher, Keller, Rhodes 2009<br />
  74. 74. Mentoring Institute Products<br />“Friends for Youth’s Mentoring Journal is the most sophisticated and creative tool I’ve seen for structuring and documenting the life of a match. When fully utilized by mentors, the Mentoring Journal appears to provide a flexible, fun, and engaging mentoring activity, especially for older teens with whom it can be quite difficult to establish a connection. With sufficient training, support, and encouragement from program staff in its use, the Mentoring Journal may prove to be a valuable resource for community- and school-based matches alike.”<br />Michael Karcher, Ed.D., Ph.D.<br />
  75. 75. Mentoring Institute Training<br />Mentoring 101: <br />Core Principles & Practices<br />Going Beyond the Background Check: Incorporating SAFE Practices<br />Mentor and Mentee Training<br />Specialty Trainings<br />
  76. 76. Mentoring Institute Conference<br />12th Annual Mentoring Conference<br />Share What You Know: Collaboration and Networking in Youth Mentoring<br />January 27-28, 2011<br />Oracle Conference Center<br />
  77. 77. Mentoring Institute Coalitions<br />Mentoring<br />Coalition of<br />San Mateo<br />County<br />(ACAT)<br />
  78. 78. Mentoring Institute Networking<br />National <br />Mentoring <br />Center<br />
  79. 79. Summary<br />
  80. 80. “Positive relationships <br />are seen as the primary way <br />that mentoring <br />leads to improved outcomes <br />for youth who are mentored.”<br />Nation, Keener, Wandersman, & DuBois, 2005<br />
  81. 81. My Mentor by Karla Sagastume, mentee matched in 2000<br />The day you walked into my house<br />I had a great feeling that my life would stop falling apart.<br />I could not wait for our friendship to start.<br />The memories began to roll and soon our hard shells began to break away.<br />We were not afraid to speak our minds or tell what was in our hearts.<br />My mentor, my friend, the one I can confide in. <br />She’ll help me if I’m in a jam and need a helping hand.<br />She’s the award of the year, the first prize, the one of gold.<br />The priceless gift of friendship that she gives.<br />My mentor has changed my life.<br />From now until 4ever.<br />My mentor is my 4ever friend.<br />And 4ever has no end.<br /> Robin & Karla (2000)<br />
  82. 82. Questions?<br />
  83. 83. Safe & Effective Mentoring<br />IS an effective intervention<br /><ul><li>Increasing interest in learning
  84. 84. Prevention of or delaying use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs
  85. 85. Decreasing other negative risk behaviors
  86. 86. Increasing positive behaviors and experiences
  87. 87. Bringing hope for the future
  88. 88. Increasing social/emotional skills</li></li></ul><li>Safe & Effective Mentoring<br />IS NOT easy or cheap <br /><ul><li>Strong infrastructure
  89. 89. Professional and trained staff
  90. 90. Screening and monitoring
  91. 91. Support and activities for mentors and mentees
  92. 92. Sustainable funding</li></li></ul><li>Thank you!<br />Slides posted to SlideShare:<br /><br />
  93. 93.<br />650-559-0200<br /><br /><br />Check out our Blog<br /><br /><ul><li>Products and resources for mentoring programs
  94. 94. Trainings for program staff, mentors, and mentees
  95. 95. Individual consultations</li>