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Feels Like Ruby - Ruby Kaigi 2010

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Feels Like Ruby - Ruby Kaigi 2010

  1. 1. Feels Like Ruby Sarah Mei Pivotal Labs @sarahmei sarah@pivotallabs.com 1 すみませんーはじまりましょうか。
  2. 2. 皆さん、こんにちは Hi everybody 2 みんなさん、こんにち は。
  3. 3. メイ サラ 名前は MEI Sarah です。 I’m Sarah Mei. 3 なまえ は Mei Sarah です。はじめまして、どうぞう よろしく おねがいします。
  4. 4. 日本語がよく話せないですから、 すみません。 I don’t speak Japanese very well, so thanks in advance for your patience. 4 にほんご が よく はなせない です から、すみません。
  5. 5. http://www.flickr.com/photos/sunrise/4064417/ 5 San Franciscoにすんでいます。
  6. 6. アメリカ人です。 I’m American. http://www.flickr.com/photos/junewess/3756778580/ 6 Americaじんです。
  7. 7. RubyとRailsの開発者です。 I’m a Ruby & Rails developer. Image copyright 2006-2010 Yukihiro Matsumoto 7 Ruby の かいはつしゃ です。
  8. 8. I work at ピヴォタルラブス に勤めています。 8 Pivotal Labs に つとめて います。Pivotal Labs は Pivotal Tracker を せいさく して い ます。でも、ほとんど の Pivotal Labs の しゃいん は コンソルタンット です. 
  9. 9. I work at ピヴォタルラブス に勤めています。 ピヴォタルトラッカー 8 Pivotal Labs に つとめて います。Pivotal Labs は Pivotal Tracker を せいさく して い ます。でも、ほとんど の Pivotal Labs の しゃいん は コンソルタンット です. 
  10. 10. (この先から英語です。ごめんね) 9 じこしょうかい が おわり です から、この さき から 英語 です。ごめん ねえ。。。
  11. 11. (この先から英語です。ごめんね) Feels Like Ruby 9 じこしょうかい が おわり です から、この さき から 英語 です。ごめん ねえ。。。
  12. 12. (この先から英語です。ごめんね) Feels Like Ruby Making JavaScript a Real Language 9 じこしょうかい が おわり です から、この さき から 英語 です。ごめん ねえ。。。
  13. 13. What I like about Ruby 10 I want to set the stage by talking about what I enjoy about Ruby. First and foremost, it’s the language itself. I love the expressiveness and accessibility. But as a working developer, what I appreciate the most is the ability to test-drive everything. Between rspec, test::unit, cucumber, capybara, webrat, shoulda, steak....I can pick the most appropriate test tools for each project.
  14. 14. What I like about Ruby • The language itself. 10 I want to set the stage by talking about what I enjoy about Ruby. First and foremost, it’s the language itself. I love the expressiveness and accessibility. But as a working developer, what I appreciate the most is the ability to test-drive everything. Between rspec, test::unit, cucumber, capybara, webrat, shoulda, steak....I can pick the most appropriate test tools for each project.
  15. 15. What I like about Ruby • The language itself. • I can test-drive everything. 10 I want to set the stage by talking about what I enjoy about Ruby. First and foremost, it’s the language itself. I love the expressiveness and accessibility. But as a working developer, what I appreciate the most is the ability to test-drive everything. Between rspec, test::unit, cucumber, capybara, webrat, shoulda, steak....I can pick the most appropriate test tools for each project.
  16. 16. What I like about Ruby • The language itself. JavaScript • I can test-drive everything. JavaScript 11 So let’s see how these options stack up in JavaScript. The language itself...?
  17. 17. What I like about Ruby • The language itself. X JavaScript • I can test-drive everything. JavaScript 12 Well, I’m never going to be able to change that. I don’t dislike JavaScript, but Ruby fits my personality better. But what about test-driving?
  18. 18. What I like about Ruby • The language itself. X JavaScript O • I can test-drive everything. JavaScript 13 We should be able to test-drive JavaScript. But until earlier this year, I didn’t. And some of the best Rails developers I know, who test-drive all their Ruby code, still don’t test-drive their JavaScript. So the question is...
  19. 19. http://www.flickr.com/photos/petereed/496392956 14 Why not? Why do we make JavaScript development so painful? I think part of it is a philosophical mismatch in the way Rails treats JavaScript.
  20. 20. 15 Web applications are fundamentally written in multiple languages. Here’s a very generic representation of a Ruby web application. On the front end, there’s HTML, CSS, and Javascript, and on the back end there is one (or more!) server languages, plus SQL. And of course, normal applications have other front-end languages too, like ActionScript or Objective-J, and other back-end languages interacting with Ruby, and usually additional data stores as well. I can’t remember the last time I worked on an application that had ONLY a relational database for storage. But traditionally, in this setup, programming languages sit here in the middle. But frameworks try to extend on either side. That’s what Rails does.
  21. 21. ActiveRecord Rails 16 For example, Rails extends this direction, and abstracts away SQL with ActiveRecord. It’s pretty successful with that. Even on really complex applications, I can get away with the generated SQL most of the time.
  22. 22. erb sass rjs ActiveRecord Rails/gems Rails 17 But it also extends the way with erb and rjs to generate HTML and JavaScript. And with other gems, you can generate CSS too. And although this was a good idea with SQL and ActiveRecord, and it works decently well with HTML and CSS, RJS is kind of a disaster. I’ll show you an example in moment. But first I want to point out that this is not a failing of Rails, or of the people who wrote it. This is the nature of Javascript. It might be the one language whose use is evolving even faster than Ruby. SQL has an ISO standard and a committee, and if they make any significant changes, we’ll have five years’ notice. Moreover, the database products that implement SQL have committees, so as SQL end-users, we’re exceedingly well-insulated from any language churn.
  23. 23. JavaScript Developers http://www.flickr.com/photos/gem66/387400306 18 But Javascript...is the wild west. It’s the frontier. While the language itself is relatively stable, its libraries and usage patterns are changing faster than that of Ruby, or of Rails, or of any other framework. What does that mean for us as web application developers, as multi-lingual programmers?
  24. 24. erb sass rjs ActiveRecord Rails/gems Rails 19 It means we need to opt-out, to make an exception, and to handle JavaScript differently. Now, that’s the philosophical reason - now I want to show you the practical reason.
  25. 25. 20 In Rails 2, using RJS means you have little bits of Javascript all over your code. Here’s an example I adapted from the “complex forms” railscast. This is a to-do list app, in which you can create a project with any number of tasks attached. This is the new project form. It has 3 task textfields, but you can add another one by clicking “Add a task”, and you can delete one by clicking the “remove” link that’s next to it. Both of these are implemented as simple JavaScript that modified the DOM. For the purposes of this example, we’re going to focus on the remove link. So let’s look at how that’s implemented.
  26. 26. 21 This is the partial that is rendered for each task. The important part is the link_to_function, where when we click remove, it calls that little piece of javascript.
  27. 27. 22 Here’s what the rendered HTML looks like. You’ve got that little bit of inline javascript, which on its own, is fairly simple. But it’s not really testable. Sure, you could write a selenium test that tests that it actually removes the dom element. However, Selenium is slow. This is one simple interaction - in a typical modern web application, there’s likely to be dozens of these on one page, if not hundreds. Testing them all with Selenium would mean you’d have a test suite that never stopped running. Plus, Selenium is an integration test. If all you’re doing is integration tests, you’re doing it wrong. You need both unit tests and integration tests to probe all the behavior of your code. So how can we re-do this in a way that is testable and repeatable?
  28. 28. A different approach 23 1. Forget RJS - it gets in your way once you do anything beyond the very simple. 2. Put your JS in classes - of course JS is a prototype-based language instead of an inheritance-based language, but you can still organize your functions into sets. I’ll show you what that looks like in a moment. 3. Organize your JS by behavior, and by location. 4. Test-drive all your JS.
  29. 29. A different approach • Forget RJS - write functions 23 1. Forget RJS - it gets in your way once you do anything beyond the very simple. 2. Put your JS in classes - of course JS is a prototype-based language instead of an inheritance-based language, but you can still organize your functions into sets. I’ll show you what that looks like in a moment. 3. Organize your JS by behavior, and by location. 4. Test-drive all your JS.
  30. 30. A different approach • Forget RJS - write functions • Put your functions in classes 23 1. Forget RJS - it gets in your way once you do anything beyond the very simple. 2. Put your JS in classes - of course JS is a prototype-based language instead of an inheritance-based language, but you can still organize your functions into sets. I’ll show you what that looks like in a moment. 3. Organize your JS by behavior, and by location. 4. Test-drive all your JS.
  31. 31. A different approach • Forget RJS - write functions • Put your functions in classes • Organize classes by behavior and location 23 1. Forget RJS - it gets in your way once you do anything beyond the very simple. 2. Put your JS in classes - of course JS is a prototype-based language instead of an inheritance-based language, but you can still organize your functions into sets. I’ll show you what that looks like in a moment. 3. Organize your JS by behavior, and by location. 4. Test-drive all your JS.
  32. 32. A different approach • Forget RJS - write functions • Put your functions in classes • Organize classes by behavior and location • Test-drive your classes. 23 1. Forget RJS - it gets in your way once you do anything beyond the very simple. 2. Put your JS in classes - of course JS is a prototype-based language instead of an inheritance-based language, but you can still organize your functions into sets. I’ll show you what that looks like in a moment. 3. Organize your JS by behavior, and by location. 4. Test-drive all your JS.
  33. 33. A different approach Unobtrusive JavaScript • Forget RJS - write functions • Put your functions in classes • Organize classes by behavior and location • Test-drive your classes. 24 These first two techniques are collectively known as “unobtrusive JavaScript.” I am happy to report that Rails 3 is moving to unobtrusive JavaScript. So Rails 3 will help this problem quite a bit, but, as you can see, there is more to do beyond “unobtrusiveizing.” Let’s look at how we’d do it.
  34. 34. 25 Here’s our original example, with the remove link. How we could re-implement it? Before, the code looked like this...
  35. 35. 26 But we can simplify this now. All we really have here is a link that we want to add a behavior to.
  36. 36. 27 So in the erb template, we’ll just make a link with a class on it. No reference to JavaScript anywhere here. And here is...
  37. 37. 28 ...the HTML it generates. So. If we don’t put our Javascript in the HTML...where should we put it?
  38. 38. public/javascripts ! 29 In general, I keep my JavaScript files in public/javascripts. So we’ll create a file in public/ javascripts called project_form.js
  39. 39. project_form.js 30 In this file, we create a class called RubyKaigi.ProjectForm, and we put in two functions. The two functions are initialize and remove_task.
  40. 40. project_form.js 31 In initialize, we add a click event to all links with class .remove-link. When that link is clicked, our other function is called.
  41. 41. project_form.js 32 That function, remove_task, actually removes the element with class ‘task’ from the DOM.
  42. 42. project_form.js 33 The last thing that’s important here is the document.ready, which calls initialize, which sets up the click events, once the page is loaded.
  43. 43. 34 So I’ve created a JavaScript class that encapsulates the behavior of the project form. Once I implement the “Add a task” link, that behavior will go in the same class.
  44. 44. 35 Then it might look something like this, with a new function at the bottom, and some extra initialization at the top.
  45. 45. Organizing by page What if you use the ProjectForm JS on more than one page? 36
  46. 46. Organizing by page What if you use the ProjectForm JS on more than one page? Move ProjectForm.initialize to a page class initializer 36
  47. 47. 37
  48. 48. project_edit_page.js 38
  49. 49. project_new_page.js 39
  50. 50. http://www.flickr.com/photos/uwehermann/132244826 40 So that’s how you organize your JavaScript so it’s all in one place. But what about testing?
  51. 51. Jasmine @jasminebdd 41 That’s where Jasmine comes in. Jasmine is Pivotal’s open-source JavaScript testing framework. It lets you do “rspec-style” testing. The philosophy of Jasmine is that JavaScript should be tested with JavaScript. There are gems out there such as harmony that let you test JavaScript with Ruby, but that just adds another layer of indirection. JavaScript should be a first-class language in web applications. Also, it is not dependent on the DOM, so it can be used to test other types of JavaScript, such as for WebOS.
  52. 52. Jasmine • Open-source JavaScript test framework from Pivotal @jasminebdd 41 That’s where Jasmine comes in. Jasmine is Pivotal’s open-source JavaScript testing framework. It lets you do “rspec-style” testing. The philosophy of Jasmine is that JavaScript should be tested with JavaScript. There are gems out there such as harmony that let you test JavaScript with Ruby, but that just adds another layer of indirection. JavaScript should be a first-class language in web applications. Also, it is not dependent on the DOM, so it can be used to test other types of JavaScript, such as for WebOS.
  53. 53. Jasmine • Open-source JavaScript test framework from Pivotal • BDD in the style of rspec @jasminebdd 41 That’s where Jasmine comes in. Jasmine is Pivotal’s open-source JavaScript testing framework. It lets you do “rspec-style” testing. The philosophy of Jasmine is that JavaScript should be tested with JavaScript. There are gems out there such as harmony that let you test JavaScript with Ruby, but that just adds another layer of indirection. JavaScript should be a first-class language in web applications. Also, it is not dependent on the DOM, so it can be used to test other types of JavaScript, such as for WebOS.
  54. 54. Jasmine • Open-source JavaScript test framework from Pivotal • BDD in the style of rspec • Philosophy: @jasminebdd 41 That’s where Jasmine comes in. Jasmine is Pivotal’s open-source JavaScript testing framework. It lets you do “rspec-style” testing. The philosophy of Jasmine is that JavaScript should be tested with JavaScript. There are gems out there such as harmony that let you test JavaScript with Ruby, but that just adds another layer of indirection. JavaScript should be a first-class language in web applications. Also, it is not dependent on the DOM, so it can be used to test other types of JavaScript, such as for WebOS.
  55. 55. Jasmine • Open-source JavaScript test framework from Pivotal • BDD in the style of rspec • Philosophy: • Test JavaScript with JavaScript @jasminebdd 41 That’s where Jasmine comes in. Jasmine is Pivotal’s open-source JavaScript testing framework. It lets you do “rspec-style” testing. The philosophy of Jasmine is that JavaScript should be tested with JavaScript. There are gems out there such as harmony that let you test JavaScript with Ruby, but that just adds another layer of indirection. JavaScript should be a first-class language in web applications. Also, it is not dependent on the DOM, so it can be used to test other types of JavaScript, such as for WebOS.
  56. 56. Jasmine • Open-source JavaScript test framework from Pivotal • BDD in the style of rspec • Philosophy: • Test JavaScript with JavaScript • No DOM dependency @jasminebdd 41 That’s where Jasmine comes in. Jasmine is Pivotal’s open-source JavaScript testing framework. It lets you do “rspec-style” testing. The philosophy of Jasmine is that JavaScript should be tested with JavaScript. There are gems out there such as harmony that let you test JavaScript with Ruby, but that just adds another layer of indirection. JavaScript should be a first-class language in web applications. Also, it is not dependent on the DOM, so it can be used to test other types of JavaScript, such as for WebOS.
  57. 57. gem install jasmine 42
  58. 58. 43 When you install jasmine, it comes with a rake task that creates a javascripts directory under spec.
  59. 59. 44 I create a new file called project_form_spec.js. In this file I describe the behavior of the functions in the RubyKaigi.ProjectForm class. Here’s the spec for removeTask.
  60. 60. 45 It starts with a “describe”, like rspec, and the describe contains an “it” block. Both the describe and the it take a string describing the behavior you’re expecting. Jasmine comes with a small set of matchers - here you see expect().toEqual(). You can also write custom matchers, as in rspec.
  61. 61. 46 It comes with a little server built in, that starts on port 8888 by default, where you can run your specs in a browser. To re-run them, just reload the page. Jasmine also comes with a continuous integration task that runs the specs in a browser and uses selenium to determine whether they pass or fail. There are plug-ins that run your specs headlessly.
  62. 62. Summary • Respect your JavaScript! • Test-drive 47
  63. 63. http://www.flickr.com/photos/zachklein/54389823 48
  64. 64. http://www.flickr.com/photos/rappensuncle/248625025 49
  65. 65. Questions? 質問がありますか。 @jasminebdd @sarahmei sarah@pivotallabs.com http://www.flickr.com/photos/rappensuncle/248625025 50 じゃ、これは いじょう です。

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