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  1. 1. Year 9 Module 4 Extreme Environments Hot Deserts Antarctica Mountains Cold Deserts
  2. 2. <ul><li>Aims- </li></ul><ul><li>To know where Antarctica is located and what it is like there </li></ul><ul><li>To develop a sense of place </li></ul>the last wilderness?
  3. 3. <ul><li>How big is Antarctica? </li></ul><ul><li>How many people live </li></ul><ul><li>here? </li></ul><ul><li>How low do temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>there get? </li></ul><ul><li>How windy does it get? </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a sketch of what you see paused on the screen- label Africa, South America, the southern Ocean and of course- Antarctica! </li></ul><ul><li>How much of Earth’s fresh </li></ul><ul><li>water is stored in Antarctica? </li></ul><ul><li>How thick is the Ice? </li></ul>1 and half times the size of the United States, larger than Europe 800 people at one time- none permanent -70 degrees centigrade 120 miles an hour 75% Over 3 miles thick
  4. 4. Antarctica South America Africa Australia Southern Ocean Where on Earth?
  5. 6. unique landscape!
  6. 7. There isn’t anywhere else to find scenery like this!
  7. 8. Antarctica should be left as it is ‘the world’s last wilderness
  8. 9. <ul><li>Q: How much daylight is there in Antarctica during summer and winter? </li></ul><ul><li>A: On Antarctica's coast, where stations are located, there is usually a couple of weeks in June (winter) when the sun does not rise, and a couple of weeks in summer around Christmas when there is 24-hour sunlight. The opposite is true in the Northern hemisphere where we live! </li></ul>In June the sun does not reach Antarctica for a few weeks (so it is completely dark!) when it is pointing away from the sun, at this time we in the northern hemisphere have long daylight hours
  9. 10. Antarctica in Winter! Total darkness for a month! Antarctica in Summer! Total daylight for a month! Sun never rises Sun never sets
  10. 11. The sun skims the horizon. Sea ice thickens. Pancakes form. The sea freezes over. Antarctica doubles in size! In winter… Only one animal doesn’t leave town. . . ?
  11. 13. 1½ times as big as the USA. Coldest – lowest temp - 89.2°C Vostok Windiest continent - up to 327 km/hour. Driest – 3cm of snow per year. As dry as hot deserts. Highest – 2,500m above sea level, because it is covered in an ice sheet 2-3km thick. Vinson Massif = 4,897m. History 1773 – Capt Cook saw seals & ice bergs, but no land. Too cold. 1819 – until humans saw it. (Russians) 1839- 43 – British expedition sets foot on Ross ice Shelf. 1911- Amundsen reaches South Pole. By 1900 – millions of seals and whales wiped out. Antarctica: the last wilderness
  12. 14. Who owns Antarctica? <ul><li>The Antarctic Treaty came into force on 23 June 1961 </li></ul><ul><li>It denotes Antarctica as a region of Peace and science </li></ul><ul><li>45 world countries agreed to the treaty </li></ul><ul><li>Its aims were- </li></ul><ul><li>Ban all military activity </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages scientific research </li></ul><ul><li>And encourages cooperation between countries claiming areas </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1980’s people wanted to dig for minerals but other groups opposed. Greenpeace wanted to make Antarctica a World park. </li></ul><ul><li>Today the treaty governs- </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of wildlife and its habitat (home) </li></ul><ul><li>Controls pollution levels </li></ul><ul><li>Has a 50 year ban on mining </li></ul><ul><li>Today you can find minerals in more accessible places meaning they are cheaper to obtain. </li></ul>What do you think will happen when these other mineral supplies run out?
  13. 15. <ul><li>Who lives in Antarctica? </li></ul>Very few scientists live there permanently. In the winter they go back home. Scientists Research Global warming Antarctic ice goes back 650,000 years. Drilling tells us about climate history so we can understand global warming. We need to see if ice is melting to predict sea level rises. Ozone layer Antarctic scientists found the hole in the ozone layer. Antarctica is a giant fridge. Under the ice are prehistoric lakes & fossils, frozen in time. We haven’t begun to learn what they could teach us about the earth’s history.
  14. 16. Tasks <ul><li>Where is Antarctica? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it so cold there? </li></ul><ul><li>Which animal stays n Winter Why? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Antarctic treaty? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it do? </li></ul><ul><li>Who lives in Antarctica? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does no-one live there permanently? </li></ul>
  15. 17. Isn't this big! Aren't I small! Why do tourists visit Antarctica?
  16. 18. Tourists visit in summer - from mid-November - early March. In summer the Antarctic peninsular gets just above freezing. There is less ice and more visible wildlife. Cruise ship voyages - 10 days – weeks. Most (except largest ships, 500+ passengers) go ashore. 1½ hour limit. <ul><li>$6,500 - $20,000/person. (Length of tour & accommodation) </li></ul><ul><li>Depart - from Ushuaia, S Argentina – for Antarctic peninsular. </li></ul><ul><li>New Zealand/Australia- for East Antarctica - $11,500 -$35,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Yacht charters. (8 passengers) - $3,000/day, or 1 month $12k. </li></ul>Cost?
  17. 19. Movie <ul><li>Watch the movie write down reasons why people might want to visit Antarctica </li></ul>
  18. 21. should we be allowed ? Antarctica Aims- To understand why Antarctica could be known as the last Wilderness To understand why people want to visit Antarctica To begin to think about the issues facing Antarctica
  19. 22. Krill Penguins Seals Fish Whales The Antarctic food chain . . . . . .depends on krill and.. … plankton
  20. 23. Southern Elephant seals Leopard Seal Antarctic Fur Seal Weddell Seal
  21. 24. Macaroni penguin Adelie penguin Chinstrap penguins Gentoo penguin  Emperor penguins
  22. 25. Antarctica as nature intended! This....?
  23. 26. .                                                                                                                                                         Abandoned fuel drums at the now closed Wilkes Station. Antarctica with tourist intervention! or this?
  24. 27. Should Antarctica be developed? Oil companies and tourist operators say yes. Environmentalists like Greenpeace say no.
  25. 28. Scientists aren’t allowed to dispose of rubbish or sewage, but leaks cause pollution. So do tourists. Birds could be disturbed in their breeding season. Some whales have nearly been ‘fished’ to extinction. Seals depend on fish. Fish and krill are fished by Japan and Russia. Against development Antarctica should be left as ‘the last wilderness.’ Oil drums
  26. 29. Oil is running out. Antarctica could keep cars running & bring down petrol prices. Tourism = money It does good, not harm. Only 100 are allowed at a time. For 1½ hours! More people see Antarctica’s unspoilt beauty and want to preserve it. For development There are other useful minerals there too.
  27. 30. You humans have affected my breeding!
  28. 31. Clean-up of abandoned sites is a current priority for the Australian Antarctic Division. Photograph Wayne Papps  Even though tourists are not allowed to leave rubbish- this is what happens!!!!
  29. 32. The Issue- <ul><li>You have learnt that Antarctica is a wilderness and that there are lots of ways it could be used in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>There are lots of groups interested in using Antarctica in different ways in the future </li></ul>We want things left as nature intended I think we should learn all we can from the Antarctic Ice We need all the fish we can get!!!!!
  30. 33. Task <ul><li>In your group you have 15 minutes to prepare a speech and poster to put forward your opinion of what should happen to the Antarctic in future. </li></ul><ul><li>Your speech should last no longer than 3 minutes and be persuasive </li></ul>
  31. 34. Task <ul><li>During the presentations you should fill in your table. </li></ul><ul><li>Circle whether the group presenting are for or against developing the Antarctic </li></ul><ul><li>Fill in 3 arguments highlighted by each group of people </li></ul>
  32. 35. Task <ul><li>Using the sheet you have been add to your table explaining whether each interest group is for or against developing Antarctica </li></ul><ul><li>Fill in the 3 reasons on your table to show whether that group thinks developing Antarctica is good or bad </li></ul>