Time response

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Time response

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Time Response
  2. 2. POLES,ZEROS,AND SYSTEM RESPONSE <ul><li>The output response of a system is the sum of two responses: the forced response and natural response </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of poles and zeros , fundamental to the analysis and design of control systems, simplifies the evaluation of a system’s response. </li></ul>
  3. 3. POLES OF TRANSFER FUNCTION <ul><li>The poles of transfer function are </li></ul><ul><li>The value of Laplace transform variable, s, that cause the transfer function become infinite. Or </li></ul><ul><li>Any roots of the denominator of the transfer function that are common to roots of the numerator. </li></ul>
  4. 4. ZEROS OF A TRANSFER FUNCTION <ul><li>The zeros of a transfer function are </li></ul><ul><li>the values of the Laplace transform variable, s, that cause the transfer function to become zero. </li></ul><ul><li>Any roots of the numerator of the transfer function that are common to roots of denominator </li></ul>
  5. 5. POLES AND ZEROS OF A FIRST-ORDER SYSTEM <ul><li>Given the function G(s) a pole exists at s= -5 and a zero exists at-2. These values are plotted on the complex s-plane, using an x for the pole and 0 for the zero. = </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>From the example, we draw the following conclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>1. A pole of the input functions generate the form of the forced response (that is, the pole at the origin generated a step function at t5he output). </li></ul><ul><li>2. A pole of the transfer function generates the form of the natural response (that is, the pole at -5 generated e^-5t). </li></ul><ul><li>3. The pole on the real axis generates an exponential response of the form e^-at where –a is the pole location on the real axis. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The zeros and poles generate the amplitudes for both the forced and natural responses. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Figure 4.1 a. System showing input and output; b. pole-zero plot of the system; c. evolution of a system response. Follow blue arrows to see the evolution of the response component generated by the pole or zero.
  8. 8. Figure 4.2 Effect of a real-axis pole upon transient response
  9. 9. Figure 4.3 System for Example 4.1
  10. 10. FIRST ORDER SYSTEMS <ul><li>A first order systems without zeros can be described by the transfer function shown in the figure4.4(a). If the input is a unit step, where R(s)=1/s, the Laplace transform of the step response is C(s), where . </li></ul><ul><li>Taking the inverse transform, the step response given by </li></ul>
  11. 11. Figure 4.4 a. First-order system; b. pole plot
  12. 12. Figure 4.5 First-order system response to a unit step
  13. 13. <ul><li>TIME CONSTANT </li></ul><ul><li>We. The call 1/a the time constant of the response. The time constant can be described as the time for to decay to 37%.of its initial value. </li></ul><ul><li>reciprocal of the time constant has the units (1/seconds), or frequency. Thus we call the parameter a the exponential frequency </li></ul><ul><li>RISE TIME Tr </li></ul><ul><li>defined as the time for the waveform to go from 0.1 to 0.9 of its initial value. Rise time is found by solving Eq. 4.6 for the difference in time at c(t)= 0.9 and c(t)= 0.1 </li></ul><ul><li>SETTLING TIME Ts </li></ul><ul><li>settling time is defined as the time for the response to reach and stay within 2% of its final value. Letting c(t)= 0.98 in eq. 4.6 and solving the time t, we find the settling time to be </li></ul>
  14. 14. Figure 4.6 Laboratory results of a system step response test
  15. 15. SECOND ORDER SYSTEMS <ul><li>Second order system exhibits a wide range of responses that must be analyzed and described. Whereas varying a first order system's parameter simply changes the speed of response, changes in the parameters of a second order system can change the form of the response. For example a second order system can display characteristics much like a first order system or depending on component values, display damped or pure oscillations for its transient response. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Figure 4.7 Second-order systems, pole plots, and step responses
  17. 17. <ul><li>OVERDAMPED RESPONSE (4.7b) </li></ul><ul><li>UNDERDAMPED RESPONSE (4.7c) </li></ul><ul><li>This function has a pole at the origin that comes from the unit step input and two complex poles that come from the system. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Figure 4.8 Second-order step response components generated by complex poles
  19. 19. Figure 4.9 System for Example 4.2
  20. 20. <ul><li>Solution: First determine that the form of the forced response is a step. Next we find the form of the natural response. Factoring the denominator of the transfer function, we find the poles to be s=- 5 ± j13.23. The real part -5, is the exponential frequency for the damping. It is also the reciprocal of the time constant of the decay of the oscillations. The imaginary part, 13.23, is the radian frequency for the sinusoidal oscillations </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>UNDAMPED RESPONSE (4.7d) </li></ul><ul><li> This function has a pole at the origin that comes from the unit step input and two imaginary poles that come from the system. The input pole at the origin generates the constant forced response and the two system poles on the imaginary axis at ±j3 generate a natural response whose frequency is equal to the location of the imaginary poles. Hence the output can be estimated as c(t)=K1+K4 cos(3t-ø). </li></ul><ul><li>CRITICALLY UNDAMPED RESPONSE (4.7e) </li></ul><ul><li>This function has a pole at the origin that comes from the unit step input and two multiple real poles that come from the system. The input pole at the origin generates the constant forced response and the two poles on the real axis at -3 generate a natural response consisting of an exponential and an exponential multiplied by time where the exponential frequency is equal to the location of real poles. Hence the output can </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>1. Overdamped responses </li></ul><ul><li>Poles : two real at –ø 1 ,-ø 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural response: two exponentials with time constant equal to the reciprocal of the pole locations or </li></ul><ul><li>2. Underdamped response </li></ul><ul><li>poles: two complex at ød±jwd </li></ul><ul><li>natural responses: damped sinusoid with an exponential enveloped whose time constant is equal to the reciprocal of the poles part. The radian frequency of the sinusoid, the damped frequency of oscillation, is equal to the imaginary part of the poles or </li></ul><ul><li>3.Undamped responses </li></ul><ul><li>Poles: Two imaginary at ±jwt </li></ul><ul><li>Natural response: Undamped sinusoid with radian frequency equal to the imaginary part of the poles or </li></ul>
  23. 23. Figure 4.10 Step responses for second-order system damping cases
  24. 24. THE GENERAL SECOND ORDER SYSTEM <ul><li>NATURAL FREQUENCY, W N </li></ul><ul><li>the natural frequency of a second order system is the frequency of oscillation of the system without damping. </li></ul><ul><li>DAMPING RATIO </li></ul>
  25. 25. Figure 4.11 Second-order response as a function of damping ratio
  26. 26. Figure 4.12 Systems for Example 4.4
  27. 27. Figure 4.13 Second-order underdamped responses for damping ratio values
  28. 28. Figure 4.14 Second-order underdamped response specifications
  29. 29. Figure 4.15 Percent overshoot vs. damping ratio
  30. 30. Figure 4.16 Normalized rise time vs. damping ratio for a second-order underdamped response
  31. 31. Figure 4.17 Pole plot for an underdamped second-order system
  32. 32. Figure 4.18 Lines of constant peak time,T p , settling time,T s , and percent overshoot, %OS Note: T s 2 < T s 1 ; T p 2 < T p 1 ; %OS 1 < %OS 2
  33. 33. Figure 4.19 Step responses of second-order underdamped systems as poles move: a. with constant real part; b. with constant imaginary part; c. with constant damping ratio
  34. 34. Figure 4.20 Pole plot for Example 4.6
  35. 35. Figure 4.21 Rotational mechanical system for Example 4.7
  36. 36. Figure 4.22 The Cybermotion SR3 security robot on patrol. The robot navigates by ultrasound and path programs transmitted from a computer, eliminating the need for guide strips on the floor. It has video capabilities as well as temperature, humidity, fire, intrusion, and gas sensors . Courtesy of Cybermotion, Inc.
  37. 37. Figure 4.23 Component responses of a three-pole system: a. pole plot; b. component responses: nondominant pole is near dominant second-order pair (Case I), far from the pair (Case II), and at infinity (Case III)
  38. 38. Figure 4.24 Step responses of system T 1 (s), system T 2 (s), and system T 3 (s)
  39. 39. Figure 4.25 Effect of adding a zero to a two-pole system
  40. 40. Figure 4.26 Step response of a nonminimum-phase system
  41. 41. Figure 4.27 Nonminimum-phase electrical circuit
  42. 42. Figure 4.28 Step response of the nonminimum-phase network of Figure 4.27 (c(t)) and normalized step response of an equivalent network without the zero (-10c o (t))
  43. 43. Figure 4.29 a. Effect of amplifier saturation on load angular velocity response; b. Simulink block diagram
  44. 44. Figure 4.30 a. Effect of deadzone on load angular displacement response; b. Simulink block diagram
  45. 45. Figure 4.31 a. Effect of backlash on load angular displacement response; b. Simulink block diagram
  46. 46. Figure 4.32 Antenna azimuth position control system for angular velocity: a. forward path; b. equivalent forward path
  47. 47. Figure 4.33 Unmanned Free-Swimming Submersible (UFSS) vehicle Courtesy of Naval Research Laboratory.
  48. 48. Figure 4.34 Pitch control loop for the UFSS vehicle
  49. 49. Figure 4.35 Negative step response of pitch control for UFSS vehicle
  50. 50. Figure 4.36 A ship at sea, showing roll axis
  51. 51. Figure P4.1
  52. 52. Figure P4.2
  53. 53. Figure P4.3
  54. 54. Figure P4.4
  55. 55. Figure P4.5
  56. 56. Figure P4.6
  57. 57. Figure P4.7
  58. 58. Figure P4.8
  59. 59. Figure P4.9 ( figure continues )
  60. 60. Figure P4.9 ( continued )
  61. 61. Figure P4.10 Steps in determining the transfer function relating output physical response to the input visual command
  62. 62. Figure P4.11 Vacuum robot lifts two bags of salt Courtesy of Pacific Robotics, Inc.
  63. 63. Figure P4.12
  64. 64. Figure P4.13
  65. 65. Figure P4.14
  66. 66. Figure P4.15
  67. 67. Figure P4.16
  68. 68. Figure P4.17
  69. 69. Figure P4.18
  70. 70. Figure P4.19
  71. 71. Figure P4.20 Pump diagram © 1996 ASME.

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