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  1. 1. NATIONAL COLLEGE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Amafel Bldg. Aguinaldo Highway Dasmariñas City, Cavite Assignment 1 Classes of AmplifierTagasa, Jerald A. September 01, 2011Electronics 3/BSECE 41A1 Score: Engr. Grace Ramones Instructor
  2. 2. Class A AmplifierCommon emitter amplifiers are the most commonly used type of amplifieras they have a large voltage gain. They are designed to produce alarge output voltage swing from a relatively small input signalvoltage of only a few millivolts and are used mainly as "small signalamplifiers" as we saw in the previous tutorials. However, sometimes anamplifier is required to drive large resistive loads such as aloudspeaker or to drive a motor in a robot and for these types ofapplications where high switching currents are needed PowerAmplifiers are required.The main function of the power amplifier, which are also known as a"large signal amplifier" is to deliver power, which is the product ofvoltage and current to the load. Basically a power amplifier is also avoltage amplifier the difference being that the load resistanceconnected to the output is relatively low, for example a loudspeakerof 4 or 8Ωs resulting in high currents flowing through the collectorof the transistor. Because of these high load currents the outputtransistor(s) used for power amplifier output stages such as the2N3055 need to have higher voltage and power ratings than the generalones used for small signal amplifiers such as the BC107.Since we are interested in delivering maximum AC power to the load,while consuming the minimum DC power possible from the supply we aremostly concerned with the "conversion efficiency" of the amplifier.However, one of the main disadvantage of power amplifiers andespecially the Class A amplifier is that their overall conversionefficiency is very low as large currents mean that a considerableamount of power is lost in the form of heat. Percentage efficiency inamplifiers is defined as the r.m.s. output power dissipated in theload divided by the total DC power taken from the supply source asshown below.Power Amplifier EfficiencyWhere:η% - is the efficiency of the amplifier.Pout - is the amplifiers output power delivered to the load.
  3. 3. Pdc - is the DC power taken from the supply.For a power amplifier it is very important that the amplifiers powersupply is well designed to provide the maximum available continuouspower to the output signal.Class A AmplifierThe most commonly used type of power amplifier configuration isthe Class A Amplifier. The Class A amplifier is the most common andsimplest form of power amplifier that uses the switching transistor inthe standard common emitter circuit configuration as seen previously.The transistor is always biased "ON" so that it conducts during onecomplete cycle of the input signal waveform producing minimumdistortion and maximum amplitude to the output. This means then thatthe Class A Amplifier configuration is the ideal operating mode,because there can be no crossover or switch-off distortion to theoutput waveform even during the negative half of the cycle. Class Apower amplifier output stages may use a single power transistor orpairs of transistors connected together to share the high loadcurrent. Consider the Class A amplifier circuit below.Single-ended Amplifier CircuitThis is the simplest type of Class A power amplifier circuit. It usesa single-ended transistor for its output stage with the resistive loadconnected directly to the Collector terminal. When the transistorswitches "ON" it sinks the output current through the Collectorresulting in an inevitable voltage drop across the Emitter resistancethereby limiting the negative output capability. The efficiency ofthis type of circuit is very low (less than 30%) and delivers smallpower outputs for a large drain on the DC power supply. A Class Aamplifier stage passes the same load current even when no input signalis applied so large heatsinks are needed for the output transistors.However, another simple way to increase the current handling capacityof the circuit while at the same time obtain a greater power gain isto replace the single output transistor with a Darlington Transistor.These types of devices are basically two transistors within a singlepackage, one small "pilot" transistor and another larger "switching"
  4. 4. transistor. The big advantage of these devices are that the inputimpedance is suitably large while the output impedance is relativelylow, thereby reducing the power loss and therefore the heat within theswitching device.Darlington Transistor ConfigurationsThe overall current gain Beta (β) or Hfe value of a Darlington deviceis the product of the two individual gains of the transistorsmultiplied together and very high β values along with high Collectorcurrents are possible compared to a single transistor circuit.To improve the full power efficiency of the Class A amplifier it ispossible to design the circuit with a transformer connected directlyin the Collector circuit to form a circuit called a TransformerCoupled Amplifier. This improves the efficiency of the amplifier bymatching the impedance of the load with that of the amplifiers outputusing the turns ratio (N) of the transformer and an example is givenbelow.Transformer-coupled Amplifier CircuitAs the Collector current, Ic is reduced to below the quiescent Q-pointset up by the base bias voltage, due to variations in the basecurrent, the magnetic flux in the transformer core collapses causingan induced emf in the transformer primary windings. This causes aninstantaneous collector voltage to rise to a value of twice the supply
  5. 5. voltage 2Vcc giving a maximum collector current of twice Ic when theCollector voltage is at its minimum. Then the efficiency of this typeof Class A amplifier configuration can be calculated as follows.The r.m.s. Collector voltage is given as:The r.m.s. Collector current is given as:The r.m.s. Power delivered to the load (Pac) is therefore given as:The average power drawn from the supply (Pdc) is given by:and therefore the efficiency of a Transformer-coupled Class Aamplifier is given as:This improves the efficiency of the amplifier by matching theimpedance of the load with that of the amplifier using the turns ratioof the transformer and efficiencies reaching 40% are possible withmost commercially available Class-A type power amplifiers of this typeof configuration, but the use of inductive components is best avoided.Also one big disadvantage of this type of circuit is the additionalcost and size of the audio transformer required.The type of "Class" or classification that an amplifier is givenreally depends upon the conduction angle, the portion of the 360o ofthe input waveform cycle, in which the transistor is conducting. Inthe Class A amplifier the conduction angle is a full 360o or 100% ofthe input signal while in other amplifier classes the transistorconducts during a lesser conduction angle. It is possible to obtaingreater power output and efficiency than that of the Class Aamplifier by using two complementary transistors in the output stagewith one transistor being an NPN or N-channel type while the othertransistor is a PNP or P-channel (the complement) type connected in a"push-pull" configuration. This type of configuration is generallycalled
  6. 6. The Class B AmplifierTo improve the full power efficiency of the previous Class A amplifierby reducing the wasted power in the form of heat, it is possible todesign the power amplifier circuit with two transistors in its outputstage producing what is commonly termed as a "push-pull" typeamplifier configuration. Push-pull amplifiers use two "complementary"or matching transistors, one being an NPN-type and the other being aPNP-type with both power transistors receiving the same input signaltogether that is equal in magnitude, but in opposite phase to eachother. This results in one transistor only amplifying one half or180o of the input waveform cycle while the other transistor amplifiesthe other half or remaining 180o of the input waveform cycle with theresulting "two-halves" being put back together again at the outputterminal. Then the conduction angle for this type of amplifier circuitis only 180o or 50% of the input signal. This pushing and pullingeffect of the alternating half cycles by the transistors gives thistype of circuit its amusing name, but these types of audio amplifiercircuit are more generally known as the Class B Amplifier as shownbelow.Class B Push-pull Transformer Amplifier CircuitThe circuit above shows a standard Class B Amplifier circuit that usesa balanced centre-tapped input transformer, which splits the incomingwaveform signal into two equal halves and which are 180o out of phasewith each other. Another centre-tapped transformer on the output isused to recombined the two signals providing the increased power tothe load. The transistors used for this type of transformer push-pullamplifier circuit are both NPN transistors with their emitterterminals connected together. Here, the load current is shared betweenthe two power transistor devices as it decreases in one device andincreases in the other throughout the signal cycle reducing the outputvoltage and current to zero. The result is that both halves of theoutput waveform now swings from zero to twice the quiescent current
  7. 7. thereby reducing dissipation. This has the effect of almost doublingthe efficiency of the amplifier to around 70%.Assuming that no input signal is present, then each transistor carriesthe normal quiescent collector current, the value of which isdetermined by the base bias which is at the cut-off point. If thetransformer is accurately centre tapped, then the two collectorcurrents will flow in opposite directions (ideal condition) and therewill be no magnetization of the transformer core, thus minimizing thepossibility of distortion. When a signal is present across thesecondary of the driver transformer T1, the transistor base inputs arein "anti-phase" to each other as shown, thus if TR1 base goes positivedriving the transistor into heavy conduction, its collector currentwill increase but at the same time the base current of TR2 will gonegative further into cut-off and the collector current of thistransistor decreases by an equal amount and vice versa. Hence negativehalves are amplified by one transistor and positive halves by theother transistor giving this push-pull effect. Unlike the DCcondition, these AC currents areADDITIVE resulting in the two outputhalf-cycles being combined to reform the sine-wave in the outputtransformers primary winding which then appears across the load.Class B Amplifier operation has zero DC bias as the transistors arebiased at the cut-off, so each transistor only conducts when the inputsignal is greater than the base-emitter voltage. Therefore, at zeroinput there is zero output and no power is being consumed. This thenmeans that the actual Q-point of a Class B amplifier is on the Vce partof the load line as shown below.Class B Output Characteristics Curves The Class B Amplifier has the big advantage over their Class A amplifier cousins in that no current flows through the transistors when they are in their quiescent state (ie, with no input signal), therefore no power is dissipated in the output transistors or transformer when there is no signal present unlike Class A amplifier stages that require significant base bias thereby dissipating lots of heat - even with no input signal present. So the overall conversion efficiency ( η ) of the amplifier is greater than that of the equivalent Class A with efficiencies reaching as high as 70% possible resulting in nearly all modern types of push-pull amplifiers operated in this Class B mode.
  8. 8. Transformerless Class B Push-Pull AmplifierOne of the main disadvantages of the Class B amplifier circuit aboveis that it uses balanced centre-tapped transformers in its design,making it expensive to construct. However, there is another type ofClass B amplifier called a Complementary-Symmetry Class BAmplifier that does not use transformers in its design therefore, itis transformerless using instead complementary or matching pairs ofpower transistors. As transformers are not needed this makes theamplifier circuit much smaller for the same amount of output, alsothere are no stray magnetic effects or transformer distortion toeffect the quality of the output signal. An example of a"transformerless" Class B amplifier circuit is given below.Class B Transformerless Output StageThe Class B amplifier circuit above uses complimentary transistors foreach half of the waveform and while Class B amplifiers have a muchhigh gain than the Class A types, one of the main disadvantages ofclass B type push-pull amplifiers is that they suffer from an effectknown commonly as Crossover Distortion.We remember from our tutorials about Transistors that it takesapproximately 0.7 volts (measured from base to emitter) to get abipolar transistor to start conducting. In a pure class B amplifier,the output transistors are not "pre-biased" to an "ON" state ofoperation. This means that the part of the output waveform which fallsbelow this 0.7 volt window will not be reproduced accurately as thetransition between the two transistors (when they are switching overfrom one to the other), the transistors do not stop or startconducting exactly at the zero crossover point even if they arespecially matched pairs. The output transistors for each half of thewaveform (positive and negative) will each have a 0.7 volt area in
  9. 9. which they will not be conducting resulting in both transistors being"OFF" at the same time.A simple way to eliminate crossover distortion in a Class B amplifieris to add two small voltage sources to the circuit to bias both thetransistors at a point slightly above their cut-off point. This thenwould give us what is commonly called an Class AB Amplifier circuit.However, it is impractical to add additional voltage sources to theamplifier circuit so pn-junctions are used to provide the additionalbias in the form of silicon diodes.
  10. 10. The Class AB AmplifierWe know that we need the base-emitter voltage to be greater than 0.7vfor a silicon bipolar transistor to start conducting, so if we were toreplace the two voltage divider biasing resistors connected to thebase terminals of the transistors with two silicon Diodes, the biasingvoltage applied to the transistors would now be equal to the forwardvoltage drop of the diode. These two diodes are generallycalled Biasing Diodes or Compensating Diodes and are chosen to matchthe characteristics of the matching transistors. The circuit belowshows diode biasing.Class AB AmplifierThe Class AB Amplifier circuit is a compromise between the Class A andthe Class B configurations. This very small diode biasing voltagecauses both transistors to slightly conduct even when no input signalis present. An input signal waveform will cause the transistors tooperate as normal in their active region thereby eliminating anycrossover distortion present in pure Class B amplifier designs. Asmall collector current will flow when there is no input signal but itis much less than that for the Class A amplifier configuration. Thismeans then that the transistor will be "ON" for more than half a cycleof the waveform but much less than a full cycle giving a conductionangle of between 180 to 360o or 50 to 100% of the input signaldepending upon the amount of additional biasing used. The amount ofdiode biasing voltage present at the base terminal of the transistorcan be increased in multiples by adding additional diodes in series.Class B amplifiers are greatly preferred over Class A designs forhigh-power applications such as audio power amplifiers and PA systems.Like the Class A Amplifier circuit, one way to greatly boost the currentgain ( Ai ) of a Class B push-pull amplifier is to use Darlingtontransistors pairs instead of single transistors in its outputcircuitry.

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