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1. 1. NATIONAL COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Amafel Building, Aguinaldo Highway Dasmariñas City, Cavite ASSIGNMENT # 1 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERCauan, Sarah Krystelle P. July 26, 2011Electronics 3/BSECE 41A1 Score: Engr. Grace Ramones Instructor
2. 2. OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS Operational Amplifiers, or Op-amps, are one of the basic building blocks of AnalogueElectronic Circuits. Operational amplifiers are linear devices that have all the properties required fornearly ideal DC amplification and are therefore used extensively in signal conditioning, filtering orto perform mathematical operations such as add, subtract, integration and differentiation. Anideal Operational Amplifier is basically a three-terminal device which consists of two highimpedance inputs, one called the Inverting Input, marked with a negative sign, ("-") and the otherone called the Non-inverting Input, marked with a positive plus sign ("+"). The third terminal represents the op-amps output port which can both sink and source eithera voltage or a current. In a linear operational amplifier, the output signal is the amplification factor,known as the amplifiers gain (A) multiplied by the value of the input signal and depending on thenature of these input and output signals, there can be four different classifications of operationalamplifier gain. Operational amplifiers (op amps) were originally used for mathematical operations inanalog computers. They typically have 2 inputs, a positive (non_inverting) input and a negative(inverting) input. A signal fed into the positive (non_inverting) input will produce an output signalwhich is in phase with the input. If the signal is fed into the negative (inverting) input, the outputwill be 180 degrees out of phase when compared to the input. Voltage – Voltage "in" and Voltage "out" Current – Current "in" and Current "out" Transconductance – Voltage "in" and Current "out" Transresistance – Current "in" and Voltage "out" Since most of the circuits dealing with operational amplifiers are voltage amplifiers, we willlimit this section to voltage amplifiers only, (Vin and Vout).Equivalent Circuit for Ideal Operational Amplifiers
3. 3. Differential Amplifier The amplified output signal of an Operational Amplifier is the difference between the twosignals being applied to the two inputs. In other words the output signal is a differential signalbetween the two inputs and the input stage of an Operational Amplifier is in fact a differentialamplifier as shown below. The circuit below shows a differential amplifier with two inputs marked V1 and V2. The twoidentical transistors TR1 and TR2 are both biased at the same operating point with their emittersconnected together and returned to the common rail, -Vee by way of resistor Re. The circuit operates from a dual supply +Vcc and -Vee which ensures a constant supply. Thevoltage that appears at the output, Vout of the amplifier is the difference between the two inputsignals as the two base inputs are in anti-phase with each other. So as the forward bias oftransistor,TR1 is increased, the forward bias of transistor TR2 is reduced and vice versa. Then if thetwo transistors are perfectly matched, the current flowing through the common emitterresistor, Re will remain constant. Like the input signal, the output signal is also balanced and since the collector voltages eitherswing in opposite directions (anti-phase) or in the same direction (in-phase) the output voltagesignal, taken from between the two collectors is, assuming a perfectly balanced circuit the zerodifference between the two collector voltages. This is known as the Common Mode ofOperation with the common mode gain of the amplifier being the output gain when the input is zero. Ideal Opamps also have one output (although there are ones with an additional differentialoutput) of low impedance that is referenced to a common ground terminal and it should ignore anycommon mode signals that is, if an identical signal is applied to both the inverting and non-invertinginputs there should no change to the output. However, in real amplifiers there is always somevariation and the ratio of the change to the output voltage with regards to the change in the commonmode input voltage is called the Common Mode Rejection Ratio or CMRR. Opamps on their own have a very high open loop DC gain and by applying some form ofNegative Feedback we can produce an operational amplifier circuit that has a very precise gaincharacteristic that is dependant only on the feedback used. An operational amplifier only responds tothe difference between the voltages on its two input terminals, known commonly as the "DifferentialInput Voltage" and not to their common potential. Then if the same voltage potential is applied toboth terminals the resultant output will be zero. An Operational Amplifiers gain is commonlyknown as the Open Loop Differential Gain, and is given the symbol (Ao).
4. 4. Op-amp Idealized Characteristics Parameter Idealized characteristic Open Loop Gain, (Avo) Infinite - The main function of an operational amplifier is to amplify the input signal and the more open loop gain it has the better. Open- loop gain is the gain of the op-amp without positive or negative feedback and for an ideal amplifier the gain will be infinite but typical real values range from about 20,000 to 200,000. Input impedance, (Zin) Infinite - Input impedance is the ratio of input voltage to input current and is assumed to be infinite to prevent any current flowing from the source supply into the amplifiers input circuitry (Iin =0). Real op- amps have input leakage currents from a few pico-amps to a few milli- amps. Output impedance, (Zout) Zero - The output impedance of the ideal operational amplifier is assumed to be zero acting as a perfect internal voltage source with no internal resistance so that it can supply as much current as necessary to the load. This internal resistance is effectively in series with the load thereby reducing the output voltage available to the load. Real op-amps have output-impedance in the 100-20Ω range. Bandwidth, (BW) Infinite - An ideal operational amplifier has an infinite frequency response and can amplify any frequency signal from DC to the highest AC frequencies so it is therefore assumed to have an infinite bandwidth. With real op-amps, the bandwidth is limited by the Gain- Bandwidth product (GB), which is equal to the frequency where the amplifiers gain becomes unity. Offset Voltage, (Vio) Zero - The amplifiers output will be zero when the voltage difference between the inverting and the non-inverting inputs is zero, the same or when both inputs are grounded. Real op-amps have some amount of output offset voltage. From these "idealized" characteristics above, we can see that the input resistance is infinite,so no current flows into either input terminal (the "current rule") and that the differential input offsetvoltage is zero (the "voltage rule").
5. 5. Open-loop Frequency Response Curve of Op-amps However, real Operational Amplifiers such as the commonly available uA741, for exampledo not have infinite gain or bandwidth but have a typical "Open Loop Gain" which is defined as theamplifiers output amplification without any external feedback signals connected to it and for atypical operational amplifier is about 100dB at DC (zero Hz). This output gain decreases linearlywith frequency down to "Unity Gain" or 1, at about 1MHz and this is shown in the following openloop gain response curve. From this frequency response curve we can see that the product of the gain against frequencyis constant at any point along the curve. Also that the unity gain (0dB) frequency also determines thegain of the amplifier at any point along the curve. This constant is generally known as the GainBandwidth Product or GBP. Therefore, GBP = Gain x Bandwidth or A x BW. For example, from the graph above the gain of the amplifier at 100kHz = 20dB or 10, thenthe GBP = 100,000Hz x 10 = 1,000,000. Similarly, a gain at 1kHz = 60dB or 1000, therefore the GBP = 1,000 x 1,000 = 1,000,000. The same!. The Voltage Gain (A) of the amplifier can be found using the following formula: and in Decibels or (dB) is given as:
6. 6. An Operational Amplifiers Bandwidth The operational amplifiers bandwidth is the frequency range over which the voltage gain ofthe amplifier is above 70.7% or -3dB (where 0dB is the maximum) of its maximum output value asshown below. Here we have used the 40dB line as an example. The -3dB or 70.7% of Vmax down pointfrom the frequency response curve is given as 37dB. Taking a line across until it intersects with themain GBP curve gives us a frequency point just above the 10kHz line at about 12 to 15kHz. We cannow calculate this more accurately as we already know the GBP of the amplifier, in this particularcase 1MHz.
7. 7. THE INVERTING AMPLIFIER The Open Loop Gain, (Avo) of an ideal operational amplifier can be very high, as much as1,000,000 (120dB) or more. However, this very high gain is of no real use to us as it makes theamplifier both unstable and hard to control as the smallest of input signals, just a few micro-volts,(μV) would be enough to cause the output voltage to saturate and swing towards one or the other ofthe voltage supply rails losing complete control. As the open loop DC gain of an operationalamplifier is extremely high we can therefore afford to lose some of this gain by connecting asuitable resistor across the amplifier from the output terminal back to the inverting input terminal toboth reduce and control the overall gain of the amplifier. This then produces and effect knowncommonly as Negative Feedback, and thus produces a very stable Operational Amplifier basedsystem. Negative Feedback is the process of "feeding back" a fraction of the output signal back to theinput, but to make the feedback negative, we must feed it back to the negative or "inverting input"terminal of the op-amp using an external Feedback Resistor called Rf. This feedback connectionbetween the output and the inverting input terminal forces the differential input voltage towardszero. This effect produces a closed loop circuit to the amplifier resulting in the gain of the amplifiernow being called its Closed-loop Gain. A closed-loop amplifier uses negative feedback to accuratelycontrol the overall gain but at a cost in the reduction of the amplifiers bandwidth. This negative feedback results in the inverting input terminal having a different signal on itthan the actual input voltage as it will be the sum of the input voltage plus the negative feedbackvoltage giving it the label or term of a Summing Point. We must therefore separate the real inputsignal from the inverting input by using an Input Resistor, Rin. As we are not using the positive non-inverting input this is connected to a common ground or zero voltage terminal as shown below, butthe effect of this closed loop feedback circuit results in the voltage potential at the inverting inputbeing equal to that at the non-inverting input producing a Virtual Earth summing point because itwill be at the same potential as the grounded reference input. In other words, the op-amp becomes a"differential amplifier".Inverting Amplifier Configuration
8. 8. In this Inverting Amplifier circuit the operational amplifier is connected with feedback toproduce a closed loop operation. For ideal op-amps there are two very important rules to rememberabout inverting amplifiers, these are: "no current flows into the input terminal" and that "V1 equalsV2", (in real op-amps both these rules are broken). This is because the junction of the input andfeedback signal (X) is at the same potential as the positive (+) input which is at zero volts or groundthen, the junction is a"Virtual Earth". Because of this virtual earth node the input resistance of theamplifier is equal to the value of the input resistor, Rin and the closed loop gain of the invertingamplifier can be set by the ratio of the two external resistors. We said above that there are two very important rules to remember about InvertingAmplifiers or any operational amplifier for that matter and these are. 1. No Current Flows into the Input Terminals 2. The Differential Input Voltage is Zero as V1 = V2 = 0 (Virtual Earth) The Closed-Loop Voltage Gain of an Inverting Amplifier is given as. and this can be transposed to give Vout as: The negative sign in the equation indicates an inversion of the output signal with respect tothe input as it is 180o out of phase. This is due to the feedback being negative in value. The equation for the output voltage Vout also shows that the circuit is linear in nature for afixed amplifier gain as Vout = Vin x Gain. This property can be very useful for converting a smallersensor signal to a much larger voltage.
9. 9. Transresistance Amplifier Circuit Another useful application of an inverting amplifier is that of a "transresistance amplifier"circuit. A Transresistance Amplifier also known as a "transimpedance amplifier", is basically acurrent-to-voltage converter They can be used in low-power applications to convert a very smallcurrent generated by a photo-diode or photo-detecting device etc, into a usable output voltage whichis proportional to the input current as shown. The simple light-activated circuit above, converts a current generated by the photo-diode intoa voltage. The feedback resistor Rf sets the operating voltage point at the inverting input andcontrols the amount of output. The output voltage is given as Vout = Is x Rf. Therefore, the outputvoltage is proportional to the amount of input current generated by the photo-diode.
10. 10. THE NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER The second basic configuration of an operational amplifier circuit is that of a Non-invertingAmplifier. In this configuration, the input voltage signal, (Vin) is applied directly to the non-inverting (+) input terminal which means that the output gain of the amplifier becomes "Positive" invalue in contrast to the "Inverting Amplifier" circuit we saw in the last tutorial whose output gain isnegative in value. The result of this is that the output signal is "in-phase" with the input signal. Feedback control of the non-inverting amplifier is achieved by applying a small part of theoutput voltage signal back to the inverting (-) input terminal via a Rf - R2 voltage divider network,again producing negative feedback. This closed-loop configuration produces a non-invertingamplifier circuit with very good stability, a very high input impedance, Rin approaching infinity, asno current flows into the positive input terminal, (ideal conditions) and a low outputimpedance, Rout as shown below.Non-inverting Amplifier Configuration In the Inverting Amplifier , "no current flows into the input" of the amplifier and that "V1equals V2". This was because the junction of the input and feedback signal (V1) are at the samepotential in other words the junction is a "virtual earth" summing point. Because of this virtual earthnode the resistors, Rf and R2 form a simple potential divider network across the non-invertingamplifier with the voltage gain of the circuit being determined by the ratios of R2 and Rf. The closed loop voltage gain of a Non-inverting Amplifier is given as: We can see from the equation above, that the overall closed-loop gain of a non-invertingamplifier will always be greater but never less than one (unity), it is positive in nature and is
11. 11. determined by the ratio of the values of Rf and R2. If the value of the feedback resistor Rf is zero,the gain of the amplifier will be exactly equal to one (unity). If resistor R2 is zero the gain willapproach infinity, but in practice it will be limited to the operational amplifiers open-loopdifferential gain, (Ao). We can easily convert an inverting operational amplifier configuration into a non-invertingamplifier configuration by simply changing the input connections as shown.Voltage Follower (Unity Gain Buffer) If we made the feedback resistor, Rf equal to zero, (Rf = 0), and resistor R2 equal to infinity,(R2 = ∞), then the circuit would have a fixed gain of "1" as all the output voltage would be presenton the inverting input terminal (negative feedback). This would then produce a special type of thenon-inverting amplifier circuit called a Voltage Follower or also called a "unity gain buffer". As the input signal is connected directly to the non-inverting input of the amplifier the outputsignal is not inverted resulting in the output voltage being equal to the input voltage, Vout = Vin.This then makes the voltage follower circuit ideal as a Unity Gain Buffer circuit because of itsisolation properties as impedance or circuit isolation is more important than amplification whilemaintaining the signal voltage. The input impedance of the voltage follower circuit is very high,typically above 1MΩ as it is equal to that of the operational amplifiers input resistance times its gain(Rin x Ao). Also its output impedance is very low since an ideal op-amp condition is assumed. In this non-inverting circuit configuration, the input impedance Rin has increased to infinityand the feedback impedance Rf reduced to zero. The output is connected directly back to thenegative inverting input so the feedback is 100% and Vin is exactly equal to Vout giving it a fixedgain of 1 or unity. As the input voltage Vin is applied to the non-inverting input the gain of theamplifier is given as:
12. 12. Since no current flows into the non-inverting input terminal the input impedance is infinite(ideal op-amp) and also no current flows through the feedback loop so any value of resistance maybe placed in the feedback loop without affecting the characteristics of the circuit as no voltage isdissipated across it, zero current flows, zero voltage drop, zero power loss. Since the input current iszero giving zero input power, the voltage follower can provide a large power gain. However in mostreal unity gain buffer circuits a low value (typically 1kΩ) resistor is required to reduce any offsetinput leakage currents, and also if the operational amplifier is of a current feedback type. The voltage follower or unity gain buffer is a special and very useful type of Non-invertingamplifier circuit that is commonly used in electronics to isolated circuits from each other especiallyin High-order state variable or Sallen-Key type active filters to separate one filter stage from theother. Typical digital buffer ICs available are the 74LS125 Quad 3-state buffer or the more common74LS244 Octal buffer. One final thought, the output voltage gain of the voltage follower circuit with closed loopgain is Unity, the voltage gain of an ideal operational amplifier with open loop gain (no feedback)is Infinite. Then by carefully selecting the feedback components we can control the amount of gainproduced by an operational amplifier anywhere from one to infinity. Thus far we have analysed an inverting and non-inverting amplifier circuit that has just oneinput signal, Vin.
13. 13. THE SUMMING AMPLIFIER The Summing Amplifier is a very flexible circuit based upon the standard InvertingOperational Amplifier configuration that can be used for combining multiple inputs. We sawpreviously in the inverting amplifier tutorial that the inverting amplifier has a single input voltage,(Vin) applied to the inverting input terminal. If we add more input resistors to the input, each equalin value to the original input resistor, Rinwe end up with another operational amplifier circuit calleda Summing Amplifier, "summing inverter" or even a "voltage adder" circuit as shown below.Summing Amplifier Configuration Circuit The output voltage, (Vout) now becomes proportional to the sum of the inputvoltages, V1, V2, V3 etc. Then we can modify the original equation for the inverting amplifier totake account of these new inputs. Summing Amplifier Equation We now have an operational amplifier circuit that will amplify each individual input voltageand produce an output voltage signal that is proportional to the algebraic "SUM" of the threeindividual input voltagesV1, V2 and V3. We can also add more inputs if required as each individualinput "sees" their respective resistance, Rin as the only input impedance. This is because the inputsignals are effectively isolated from each other by the "virtual earth" node at the inverting input ofthe op-amp. A direct voltage addition can also be obtained when all the resistances are of equalvalue and Rf is equal to Rin. A Scaling Summing Amplifier can be made if the individual input resistors are "NOT" equal.Then the equation would have to be modified to: This allows the output voltage to be easily calculated if more input resistors are connected tothe amplifiers inverting input terminal. The input impedance of each individual channel is the valueof their respective input resistors, ie, R1, R2, R3 ... etc.
14. 14. Summing Amplifier Applications Summing Amplifier Audio Mixer – If the input resistances of a summing amplifier areconnected to potentiometers the individual input signals can be mixed together by varying amounts.For example, measuring temperature, you could add a negative offset voltage to make the displayread "0" at the freezing point or produce an audio mixer for adding or mixing together individualwaveforms (sounds) from different source channels (vocals, instruments, etc) before sending themcombined to an audio amplifier. Digital to Analogue Converter – Another useful application of a Summing Amplifier is as aweighted sum digital-to-analogue converter. If the input resistors, Rin of the summing amplifierdouble in value for each input, for example, 1kΩ, 2kΩ, 4kΩ, 8kΩ, 16kΩ, etc, then a digital logicalvoltage, either a logic level "0" or a logic level "1" on these inputs will produce an output which isthe weighted sum of the digital inputs.
15. 15. DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER Thus far we have used only one of the operational amplifiers inputs to connect to theamplifier, using either the "inverting" or the "non-inverting" input terminal to amplify a single inputsignal with the other input being connected to ground. But we can also connect signals to both of theinputs at the same time producing another common type of operational amplifier circuit calleda Differential Amplifier. Basically, as we saw in the first pages about operational amplifiers, all op-amps are"Differential Amplifiers" due to their input configuration. But by connecting one voltage signal ontoone input terminal and another voltage signal onto the other input terminal the resultant outputvoltage will be proportional to the "Difference" between the two input voltage signals of V1 and V2.Then differential amplifiers amplify the difference between two voltages making this type of circuita Subtractor unlike a summing amplifier which adds or sums together the input voltages. This typeof operational amplifier circuit is commonly known as a Differential Amplifier configuration and isshown below:Differential Amplifier ConfigurationBy connecting each input in turn to 0v ground we can use superposition to solve for the outputvoltage Vout. Then the transfer function for a Differential Amplifier circuit is given as: Differential Amplifier Equation If all the resistors are all of the same ohmic value, that is: R1 = R2 = R3 = R4 then the circuitwill become a Unity Gain Differential Amplifier and the voltage gain of the amplifier will beexactly one or unity. Then the output expression would simply be Vout = V2 - V1.
16. 16. THE INTEGRATOR AMPLIFIER In the previous tutorials we have seen circuits which show how an operational amplifier canbe used as part of a positive or negative feedback amplifier or as an adder or subtractor type circuitusing just pure resistances in both the input and the feedback loop. But what if we were to changethe purely resistive (Rf) feedback element of an inverting amplifier to that of a frequency dependantimpedance, (Z) type complex element, such as a Capacitor, C. What would be the effect on theoutput voltage. By replacing this feedback resistance with a capacitor we now have an RCNetwork across the operational amplifier as shown below.Integrator Amplifier Configuration Circuit As its name implies, the Integrator Amplifier is an operational amplifier circuit that performsthe mathematical operation of Integration, that is we can cause the output to respond to changes inthe input voltage over time. The integrator amplifier acts like a storage element that "produces avoltage output which is proportional to the integral of its input voltage with respect to time". Inother words the magnitude of the output signal is determined by the length of time a voltage ispresent at its input as the current through the feedback loop charges or discharges the capacitor asthe required negative feedback occurs through the capacitor. When a voltage, Vin is firstly applied to the input of an integrating amplifier, the unchargedcapacitor Chas very little resistance and acts a bit like a short circuit (voltage follower circuit) givingan overall gain of less than one. No current flows into the amplifiers input and point X is a virtualearth resulting in zero output. As the feedback capacitor C begins to charge up, itsreactance Xc decreases this results in the ratio of Xc/Rin increasing producing an output voltage thatcontinues to increase until the capacitor is fully charged. At this point the capacitor acts as an open circuit, blocking anymore flow of DC current. Theratio of feedback capacitor to input resistor (Xc/Rin) is now infinite resulting in infinite gain. Theresult of this high gain (similar to the op-amps open-loop gain), is that the output of the amplifier
17. 17. goes into saturation as shown below. (Saturation occurs when the output voltage of the amplifierswings heavily to one voltage supply rail or the other with little or no control in between). The rate at which the output voltage increases (the rate of change) is determined by the valueof the resistor and the capacitor, "RC time constant". By changing this RC time constant value,either by changing the value of the Capacitor, C or the Resistor, R, the time in which it takes theoutput voltage to reach saturation can also be changed for example.If we apply a constantly changing input signal such as a square wave to the input of an IntegratorAmplifier then the capacitor will charge and discharge in response to changes in the input signal.This results in the output signal being that of a saw tooth waveform whose frequency is dependentupon the RC time constant of the resistor/capacitor combination. This type of circuit is also knownas a Ramp Generator and the transfer function is given below.Ramp Generator We know from first principals that the voltage on the plates of a capacitor is equal to thecharge on the capacitor divided by its capacitance giving Q/C. Then the voltage across the capacitoris output Vouttherefore: -Vout = Q/C. If the capacitor is charging and discharging, the rate of chargeof voltage across the capacitor is given as:Where jω = 2πƒ and the output voltage Vout is a constant 1/RC times the integral of the inputvoltageVin with respect to time. The minus sign (-) indicates a 180o phase shift because the inputsignal is connected directly to the inverting input terminal of the op-amp.
18. 18. THE DIFFERENTIATOR AMPLIFIER The basic Differentiator Amplifier circuit is the exact opposite to that ofthe Integrator operational amplifier circuit that we saw in the previous tutorial. Here, the position ofthe capacitor and resistor have been reversed and now the reactance, Xc is connected to the inputterminal of the inverting amplifier while the resistor, Rf forms the negative feedback element acrossthe operational amplifier as normal. This circuit performs the mathematical operation of Differentiation, that is it "produces avoltage output which is directly proportional to the input voltages rate-of-change with respect totime". In other words the faster or larger the change to the input voltage signal, the greater the inputcurrent, the greater will be the output voltage change in response, becoming more of a "spike" inshape. As with the integrator circuit, we have a resistor and capacitor forming an RCNetwork across the operational amplifier and the reactance (Xc) of the capacitor plays a major rolein the performance of a Differentiator Amplifier. The input signal to the differentiator is applied to the capacitor. The capacitor blocks any DCcontent so there is no current flow to the amplifier summing point, X resulting in zero outputvoltage. The capacitor only allows AC type input voltage changes to pass through and whosefrequency is dependant on the rate of change of the input signal. At low frequencies the reactance ofthe capacitor is "High" resulting in a low gain (Rf/Xc) and low output voltage from the op-amp. Athigher frequencies the reactance of the capacitor is much lower resulting in a higher gain and higheroutput voltage from the differentiator amplifier. However, at high frequencies a differentiator circuit becomes unstable and will start tooscillate. This is due mainly to the first-order effect, which determines the frequency response of theop-amp circuit causing a second-order response which, at high frequencies gives an output voltagefar higher than what would be expected. To avoid this the high frequency gain of the circuit needs tobe reduced by adding an additional small value capacitor across the feedback resistor Rf. From which we have an ideal voltage output for the Differentiator Amplifier is given as:
19. 19. Therefore, the output voltage Vout is a constant -Rf.C times the derivative of the inputvoltage Vin with respect to time. The minus sign indicates a 180o phase shift because the inputsignal is connected to the inverting input terminal of the operational amplifier. One final point to mention, the Differentiator Amplifier circuit in its basic form has twomain disadvantages compared to the previous integrator circuit. One is that it suffers from instabilityat high frequencies as mentioned above, and the other is that the capacitive input makes it verysusceptible to random noise signals and any noise or harmonics present in the source circuit will beamplified more than the input signal itself. This is because the output is proportional to the slope ofthe input voltage so some means of limiting the bandwidth in order to achieve closed-loop stabilityis requiredDifferentiator Waveforms If we apply a constantly changing signal such as a Square-wave, Triangular or Sine-wavetype signal to the input of a differentiator amplifier circuit the resultant output signal will bechanged and whose final shape is dependant upon the RC time constant of the Resistor/Capacitorcombination.
20. 20. Improved Differentiator Amplifier The basic single resistor and single capacitor differentiator circuit is not widely used toreform the mathematical function of Differentiation because of the two inherent faults mentionedabove, Instability and Noise. So in order to reduce the overall closed-loop gain of the circuit at highfrequencies, an extra resistor, Rin is added to the input as shown below. Improved Differentiator Amplifier Circuit Adding the input resistor Rin limits the differentiators increase in gain at a ratio of Rf/Rin.The circuit now acts like a differentiator amplifier at low frequencies and an amplifier with resistivefeedback at high frequencies giving much better noise rejection. Additional attenuation of higherfrequencies is accomplished by connecting a capacitor C1 in parallel with the differentiator feedbackresistor, Rf. This then forms the basis of a Active High Pass Filter.
21. 21. Other Application of Op-AmpComparator Compares two voltages and switches its output to indicate which voltage is larger. . Voltage follower (Unity Buffer Amplifier) Used as a buffer amplifier to eliminate loading effectsSchmitt trigger - A bistable multivibrator implemented as a comparator with hysteresis.Relaxation oscillator - By using an RC network to add slow negative feedback to theinverting Schmitt trigger, a relaxation oscillator is formed. The feedback through the RC networkcauses the Schmitt trigger output to oscillate in an endless symmetric square wave
22. 22. Inductance gyrator - Simulates an inductor (i.e., provides inductance without the use of apossibly costly inductor). The circuit exploits the fact that the current flowing through a capacitorbehaves through time as the voltage across an inductor. The capacitor used in this circuit is smallerthan the inductor it simulates and its capacitance is less subject to changes in value due toenvironmental changes. Zero level detector - Voltage divider reference; Zener sets reference voltage; Acts as acomparator with one input tied to ground; When input is at zero, op-amp output is zero (assumingsplit supplies.) Negative impedance converter (NIC) - Creates a resistor having a negative value for any signalgenerator Wien bridge oscillator - Produces a very low distortion sine wave. Uses negative temperaturecompensation in the form of a light bulb or diode .
23. 23. Precision rectifier - The voltage drop VF across the forward biased diode in the circuit of a passiverectifier is undesired. In this active version, the problem is solved by connecting the diode in thenegative feedback loop. The op-amp compares the output voltage across the load with the inputvoltage and increases its own output voltage with the value of VF. As a result, the voltage drop VF iscompensated and the circuit behaves very nearly as an ideal (super) diode with VF = 0 V. Logarithmic output Exponential output