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  1. 1. NATIONAL COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Amafel Bldg. Aguinaldo Highway Dasmariñas City, Cavite ASSIGNMENT 1 CLASSES OF AMPLIFIERAlido, Ronald C. September 01, 2011Electronics 3/BSECE 41A1 Score: Engr. Grace Ramones Instructor
  2. 2. AMPLIFIER CLASSESThe class of operation of an amplifier is determined by the amount of time (in relation to the inputsignal) that current flows in the output circuit. This is a function of the operating point of the amplifyingdevice. The operating point of the amplifying device is determined by the bias applied to the device.There are four classes of operation for an amplifier. These are: A, AB, B and C. Each class of operationhas certain uses and characteristics. No one class of operation is "better" than any other class. Theselection of the "best" class of operation is determined by the use of the amplifying circuit. The bestclass of operation for a phonograph is not the best class for a radio transmitter.
  3. 3. Class A OperationA simple transistor amplifier that is operated class A is shown in figure 1-4. Since the output signal is a100% (or 360º) copy of the input signal, current in the output circuit must flow for 100% of the inputsignal time. This is the definition of a class A amplifier. Amplifier current flows for 100% of the inputsignal.Figure 1-4.—A simple class A transistor amplifier.The class A amplifier has the characteristics of good FIDELITY and low EFFICIENCY. Fidelity meansthat the output signal is just like the input signal in all respects except amplitude. It has the same shapeand frequency. In some cases, there may be a phase difference between the input and output signal(usually 180º), but the signals are still considered to be "good copies." If the output signal is not like theinput signal in shape or frequency, the signal is said to be DISTORTED. DISTORTION is any undesiredchange in a signal from input to output. The efficiency of an amplifier refers to the amount of powerdelivered to the output compared to the power supplied to the circuit. Since every device takes power tooperate, if the amplifier operates for 360º of input signal, it uses more power than if it only operates for180º of input signal. If the amplifier uses more power, less power is available for the output signal andefficiency is lower. Since class A amplifiers operate (have current flow) for 360º of input signal, they arelow in efficiency. This low efficiency is acceptable in class A amplifiers because they are used whereefficiency is not as important as fidelity.
  4. 4. Class AB OperationIf the amplifying device is biased in such a way that current flows in the device for 51% - 99% of theinput signal, the amplifier is operating class AB. A simple class AB amplifier is shown in figure 1-5.Figure 1-5.—A simple class AB transistor amplifier.Notice that the output signal is distorted. The output signal no longer has the same shape as the inputsignal. The portion of the output signal that appears to be cut off is caused by the lack of currentthrough the transistor. When the emitter becomes positive enough, the transistor cannot conductbecause the base-to-emitter junction is no longer forward biased. Any further increase in input signalwill not cause an increase in output signal voltage.Class AB amplifiers have better efficiency and poorer fidelity than class A amplifiers. They are usedwhen the output signal need not be a complete reproduction of the input signal, but both positive andnegative portions of the input signal must be available at the output.Class AB amplifiers are usually defined as amplifiers operating between class A and class B becauseclass A amplifiers operate on 100% of input signal and class B amplifiers (discussed next) operate on50% of the input signal. Any amplifier operating between these two limits is operating class AB.
  5. 5. Class B OperationAs was stated above, a class B amplifier operates for 50% of the input signal. A simple class Bamplifier is shown in figure 1-6.Figure 1-6.—A simple class B transistor amplifier.In the circuit shown in figure 1-6, the base-emitter bias will not allow the transistor to conductwhenever the input signal becomes positive. Therefore, only the negative portion of the input signal isreproduced in the output signal. You may wonder why a class B amplifier would be used instead of asimple rectifier if only half the input signal is desired in the output. The answer to this is that the rectifierdoes not amplify. The output signal of a rectifier cannot be higher in amplitude than the input signal.The class B amplifier not only reproduces half the input signal, but amplifies it as well. Class Bamplifiers are twice as efficient as class A amplifiers since the amplifying device only conducts (anduses power) for half of the input signal. A class B amplifier is used in cases where exactly 50% of theinput signal must be amplified. If less than 50% of the input signal is needed, a class C amplifier isused.
  6. 6. PUSH PULL OperationAn electronic circuit in which two transistors (or vacuum tubes) are used, one as a source of currentand one as a sink, to amplify a signal. One device “pushes’’ current out into the load, while the other“pulls” current from it when necessary. A common example is the complementary-symmetry push-pulloutput stage widely used to drive loudspeakers (see illustration), where an npn transistor can source(push) current from a positive power supply into the load, or a pnp transistor can sink (pull) it into thenegative power supply. The circuit functions as an amplifier in that the current levels at the output arelarger than those at the input.Complementary-symmetry push-pull output stage. Q1 is an npn transistor and Q2 is a pnp transistor; IBis a bias current; positive (+VCC) and negative (−VCC) power supplies,A so-called bias network in a complementary-symmetry push-pull output stage (see illustration)functions to maintain a constant voltage difference between the bases of the two transistors. It can bedesigned either by setting a bias current, and diode sizes or by replacing it with a different network forclass B, class A, or the common compromise, class AB mode of operation. In class B operation, wherethe bases of the transistors might simply be shorted together, only one transistor is “on’’ at a time andeach is on average “on” for only 50% of the time; when the output current is zero, no current at all flowsin the circuit. In class A operation a large voltage is maintained between the bases so that both devicesstay “on’’ at all times, although their currents vary so that the difference flows into the load; and evenwhen the output is zero, a large quiescent current flows from the power supplies. Class B operation ismuch more efficient than class A, which wastes a large amount of power when the signal is small.However, class B suffers from zero-crossing distortion as the output current passes through zero,because there is generally a delay involved as the input swings far enough to turn one transistorentirely off and then turn the other on. In class AB operation, some intermediate quiescent current ischosen to compromise between power and distortion.Class AB amplifiers are conventionally used as loudspeaker drivers in audio systems because they areefficient enough to be able to drive the required maximum output power, often on the order of 100 W,without dissipating excessive heat, but can be biased to have acceptable distortion. Audio signals tendto be near zero most of the time, so good performance near zero output current is critical, and that iswhere class A amplifiers waste power and class B amplifiers suffer zero-crossing distortion. A class ABpush-pull amplifier is also conventionally used as the output stage of a commercial operationalamplifier. See also Audio amplifier; Operational amplifier; Power amplifier; Transistor.