Task 5 Job Roles and Structures


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Task 5 Job Roles and Structures

  1. 1. Task 5: Job Roles and Structures<br />Sarah Kerry<br />
  2. 2. Job roles in the media<br />Creative jobs are shown in blue<br />
  3. 3. Non-Creative role:Public Relations (PR) Officer<br />Job description:<br />Public relations (PR) is about managing reputation, whether this be of a company, production, voluntary oranisation or person. <br />They communicate key messages, often using third party endorsements, to defined target audiences in order to establish and maintain goodwill and understanding between an organisation and its public.<br />PR officers monitor publicity and conduct research to find out the concerns and expectations of an organisation's stakeholders. They then report and explain the findings to its management.<br />Typical tasks:<br />liaising with colleagues and key spokespeople<br />liaising with and answering enquiries from media, individuals and other organisations, often via telephone and email<br />researching, writing and distributing press releases to related media<br />collating and analysing media coverage<br />preparing and supervising the production of publicity brochures, handouts, direct mail leaflets, promotional videos, photographs, films and multimedia programs<br />devising and coordinating photo opportunities<br />organising events including press conferences, exhibitions, open days and press tours;<br />maintaining and updating information on the organisation's website;<br />managing the PR aspect of a potential crisis situation.<br />
  4. 4. Salary<br />A typical starting salary for a public relations officer can range from £16,000 to £25,000- with the more experienced in the role earning around £30,000<br />Working patterns<br />Working hours are generally nine to five but often increase depending on workload, with some unsocial hours. PR officers may have to attend events in the evening or be on-call at weekends in order to deal quickly with the PR aspect of a crisis.<br />Self-employment and freelance work are possible, although this is more common for experienced PR professionals. Career breaks and part-time work are also possible.<br />Entry<br />There are no set qualifications needed to become a public relations (PR) officer, but most entrants tend to have a degree. There are few specific PR degree courses available, and entry to the profession is generally open to all graduates. However, as PR ranks as one of the most popular career choices for graduates in the UK, the following degree subjects may be particularly helpful: <br />communication and media studies<br />English and literary studies<br />Business/management<br />Marketing.<br />
  5. 5. Creative Role:Make-up artist<br />Job description:<br />A make-up artist ensures that models, performers and presenters have suitable make-up and hairstyles before they appear in front of cameras or an audience. This may be in a variety of settings, including film, television, theatre, live music and photographic shoots. Make-up artists interpret the make-up requirements of clients to produce both a creative and technically accurate visual representation. This may involve very basic make-up for a TV presenter through to more complex period make-up or special effects.<br />Typical tasks:<br />production study: reading scripts to ascertain the materials and the look required, budget implications and identifying areas where research is required<br />producing and sketching design ideas for hairstyles and make-up<br />ensuring continuity in hair and make-up and liaising with other members of the design team to ensure the overall look/effect is consistent and coherent<br />taking detailed notes and photographs of work, maintaining an up-to-date portfolio of work<br />maintaining awareness of health and safety issues and legislation<br />casting facial and body moulds and sculpting latex foam - known as prosthetics<br />fitting and maintaining wigs, hairpieces and prosthetics<br />maintaining an up-to-date knowledge of available make-up and beauty products<br />sourcing, budgeting and ordering materials and equipment from specialist suppliers<br />time management - knowing how long a subject will take to be made-up<br />working quickly and accurately in time-pressured conditions.<br />
  6. 6. Salary<br />The rates of the Producers Alliance for Cinema and Television (PACT) and the Broadcasting Entertainment Cinematographic and Theatre Union (BECTU) set the recommended industry minimum for film and television work. <br />Latest rates are as follows:<br />£200 for a 10 hour day for junior make-up/hair assistant and £300 for make-up designer prosthetics. (These rates are for peak-time drama television production and high budget feature films. Rates are negotiable and individuals who are well regarded in the industry are in great demand and are paid well above the average rate. Low-budget feature and off-peak TV productions pay less because of budget constrictions.)<br /> Commercials may be very lucrative with more than £400 per day for experienced artists. <br />Working patterns<br />A typical working day includes long and unsocial hours and shifts and weekend work are common. Working on a film or television project means a make-up artist is required to be on set before filming commences and to remain on set throughout filming in order to re-apply make-up. <br />The majority of make-up artists work on a self-employed/freelance basis.<br />Entry<br />Traditionally, academic qualifications are not as important as creative and practical skills. It is possible to become a make-up artist without a degree or HND. However, entrance generally is becoming formalised with degrees such as the following becoming more admirably desired. <br />creative/performing arts<br />make-up artistry<br />Hairdressing<br />media studies<br />creative/performing arts<br />fine art/visual art<br />history of art<br />fashion and textile/costume design<br />
  7. 7. Job roles in the media<br />Many jobs in the media sector cannot be defined into a single category of work and overlap into various different structures of work patterns. For example, directing fits under various categories as it encompasses many different tasks within it’s role. <br />
  8. 8. Job Structures<br />In the media industry, the way in which jobs are paid and the contracts by which a job is drawn up is very dependent the job role itself, as apposed to in other industries where the pay and of a job is fairly structured throughout the industry.<br />Each job role varies from another, with different ways of working, different hours and different ways of entering the business. <br />The patterns of work are another area which vary from job to job, for both convenience and to compete in the industry. There are many patterns to which employees in the TV and film industry work to. These include shift work, fixed term, office hours, freelance, irregular pattern, hourly rates, piece work.<br />It is common for those in non-creative roles such as finance and marketing to work office hours or hourly rate, whereas those working freelance for example, script writers are commonly paid for each piece of work they do (piece work.) Those in editing and technical areas may often work fixed term for the running time of a television show or film, then moving onto another television show. <br />
  9. 9. Working in Freelance<br />The media as an industry includes many jobs which work freelance. This includes those working as journalists, directors, make-up artists and photographers. <br />Competition can be fierce as freelancing is a career which is seen by many as the ideal route towards the achievement of a good work-life balance.  The image of freelance professionals has changed in recent years.  In the past people may have thought that freelancers were inexperienced and lacked focus, now they are seen as highly skilled and efficient professionals who are able to provide expert assistance, often at very short notice.<br />Advantages:<br />The main advantage is being your own boss therefore having the freedom to choose your working hours. Other advantages include a greater variety of work and potentially higher earnings, working from home and not having to travel and having greater control over the work done. Flexibility is a strong motivating factor for those undertaking work and family responsibilities.<br />Disadvantages:<br />The main disadvantages is often social isolation, followed by the irregular work-flow and therefore the irregular income, sometimes working unsociable hours to meet deadlines, and working in a very competitive market. Other disadvantages include lack of employment benefits, such as paid holidays or sick pay, the problems of setting boundaries between work and home life, and rarely getting any feedback on your work.<br />
  10. 10. Internships and Work Experience<br />An internship is an opportunity offered by an employer to potential employees, called "interns", to work at a firm for a fixed or limited period of time.<br /> Interns are usually undergraduates or students, and most internships last for any length of time between one week and 12 months. Internships have an emphasis on training, rather than employment itself as the aim of the majority of interns is to gather experience and basic skills. <br />Internships offer students a period of practical experience in the industry relating to the industry of interest. This experience is valuable to students as a way of allowing them to experience the "real world.” It is also valuable as as work experience can be highly attractive to potential employers on a candidate’s CV and potentially boost a candidate’s employability. <br />Many employers in the highly sought after professions, such as TV and politics, demand that graduate level job candidates undergo a period of unpaid "work experience" before being able to get paid work. In most cases this "work experience" is actually simply unpaid work and is contrary to the minimum wage regulations if unpaid. Such is the demand for this kind of work that very few complaints are made about this, and so the practice continues albeit illegally.<br />It is possible to convert an internship into fully paid employment, graduate recruitment surveys have found that almost half of all employers convert at least a fifth of their interns into permanent staff members.<br />The downside of internships is that due to their high demand, the frequency of when these become available is rare. This compiled with the fact that they are unpaid make it difficult for less well-off people to complete internships as the cost of living whilst working unpaid for a long length of time is very costly. This often keeps internships exclusive to the more ‘well-off’ families. <br />