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Domestic biogas in asia1


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Domestic biogas in asia1

  1. 1. Domestic Biogas in Asia Dr David Fulford CEnv MEI
  2. 2. What is biogas?• Anaerobic Digestion (AD) breaks down wet biomass to gas and compost• Relies on microbes (bacteria and archaea) in animal dung• Several possible applications• Talk focuses on biogas in rural areas for domestic uses, with dung as feed
  3. 3. Background• SNV (Netherlands Development Organisation) Asia Biogas programme - focus on rural domestic biogas fed by animal dung.• Started in Nepal (1993) - extended to Vietnam, Bangladesh, Cambodia and Laos• Based on previous programme set up Development and Consulting Services of United Mission to Nepal (1976 to 1984)
  4. 4. Technology• Dung mixed with water and allowed to flow into underground pit lined with masonry• Plants built for individual households• Need 3 to 6 cows or 6 to 12 pigs• Gas piped to kitchen for cooking • Slurry from plant collected • Can be used as a fertilizer after some processing • Removes smell
  5. 5. Benefits (1)• Clean gaseous cooking fuel• No smoke• Instant availability• Does not need constant attention• Reduced danger of burns• Resource (dung) available from animal sheds• No need to walk to collect firewood
  6. 6. Benefits (2)• Cooking pots easy to clean (no soot)• Saving of time (3 hours a day)• Saving of firewood (2,000 kg a year)• Reduced deforestation (1,000 biogas plants saves 33.8 ha forest from clear felling) • Much reduced smell from the animal sheds (in Vietnam, pig sties are close to the house)
  7. 7. Benefits (3)• Biogas can be used for lights• Reduced smell from kerosene lamps• Savings of 32 litres kerosene a year• Reduced risk of house fires• Saving of carbon (4,900 kg a year)• Since gas available in the morning, children get cooked breakfast before school.
  8. 8. Benefits (4)• A latrine can be attached• Improved sanitation• Reduced transfer of pathogens (especially if slurry is properly processed) • Reduced risk to women (who go out at dawn or dusk to use the fields) • Reduce incidence of snake bites
  9. 9. Benefits (5)• Slurry is a good quality compost (better than raw dung)• Liquid slurry should be absorbed in dry biomass and composted for 1 month• Compost even better if use vermi-culture• Growers prepared to pay cash for vermi- compost
  10. 10. Economics• With so many benefits, what is drawback?• Cost - most cost:benefit analyses show financial benefit as marginal• BUT high value for “externalities” - e.g. saving forests, health benefits etc. • Biogas becomes attractive with subsidy • SNV Asia Biogas Programme offered reliable subsidy
  11. 11. Asia Biogas Programme• Involve people at all levels, from government policy makers to masons who build plants• Promotion, Education and Training• Emphasis on quality of technology• Use a local design, but ensure it works well• Train staff to check quality of construction• Release subsidy for each plant only when it meets specification
  12. 12. Tasks involved in running a biogas programme Construction Quality Training Management Household Micro Credit, Marketing & Sales Biogas SME Development Sector R&D Subsidy Extra servicesRef: Dagmar Zwebe, “SNV Renewable Energy Developments: The Biogas Programme for AnimalHusbandry Sector of Vietnam”, Presentation (May 2012).
  13. 13. Project Achievements Start Built in Built by InvestCountry Year 2011 2011 Cost $Nepal 1992 19,246 250,476 663Vietnam 2003 23,372 123,714 621Cambodia 2006 4,826 20,756 488Bangladesh 2006 5,049 14,972 430Laos 2007 439 2,405 448Total 52,932 412,323Based on: Brief progress and planning report the Working Group on Domestic Biogas under the Energy for All Partnership as per May 2012
  14. 14. Starting a Programme• Find a group interested in biogas to manage programme (or set up a group)• Involve people from government and encourage renewable energy policy• Design a subsidy & micro-finance scheme • Develop a local design that works well • Use local companies to build plants • Train staff regularly
  15. 15. Subsidy Issues (1)• Who funds externalities? i.e.• Who pays to save forests, improve people’s health, reduce carbon emissions?• National governments - but other priorities• International Community• Bilateral Aid (SNV, KfW, DANIDA, USAID etc)• UN agencies:World Bank, ADB, UNDP, UNEP, UNFCCC• Danger of corruption
  16. 16. Subsidy Issues (2)• WWF puts high value on certain habitats: e.g. tiger ranges - pay extra• CDM designed to fund carbon offsets - CER certified emissions reductions• Also VER - voluntary emissions reductions • Carbon offset trading under voluntary market mechanisms (Big companies want to look “Green”) • Complex - large nos. needed
  17. 17. Carbon Offset Biogas• New Charitable Company established• Foundation SKG Sangha - based on biogas programme in South India• Aim: to use voluntary carbon offset finance to encourage biogas projects elsewhere• Also interest in other renewable energy projects• First project in Egypt funded by UNDP
  18. 18. Thank you
  19. 19. Technical Aspects• Underground dome made from masonry (bricks or concrete)• Gas stored by displacing slurry into reservoir tank• Volume 4 m3 (2 m3 to 10 m3)
  20. 20. Biogas Displacement Principle
  21. 21. Thank you
  22. 22. Other applications (1)• Sewage Treatment• KIST project in Rwanda processing sewage from prisons (10,000 people)• Saves 50% of wood fuel for cooking• Volume 100 m3 x 10 = 1,000 m3
  23. 23. Other applications (2)• Urban biogas to process food wastes• Volume 1 m3, food waste gives more gas• Family’s own food waste saves 25% LPG• Use extra food waste from local shops• Can use sewage in addition
  24. 24. Other applications (3)• Local authority wastes• Market wastes• Office canteen wastes• Municipal solid wastes• Food processing wastes
  25. 25. Thank you