Human Anatomy STORRES 1B


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Human Anatomy STORRES 1B

  1. 1. Human Anatomy<br />By Sarah Torres<br />
  2. 2. 1A: Components (Specialized Cells)<br />Neuron<br />Sarcomere<br />Structure: consists of a nucleus, dendrites, axons, a cell body, a terminal branch, and a myelin sheath formed by Schwann cells<br />Function: to receive stimuli and/or transfer info to the brain<br />System: Nervous<br />Villus(Villi)<br />Structure: Tiny, finger-like substances filled with blood capillaries that outline the small intestine<br />Function: to absorb nutrients from food into the body<br />System: Digestive<br />Structure: filaments that form muscles, surrounded by I-,A-, & H-bands followed by Z-lines for appearance<br />Function: makes up muscle fiber cells<br />System: Muscular<br />
  3. 3. 1A: Components (Specialized Cells Cont.)<br />Capillary<br />Nephron<br />Structure: consists of capillaries, the Glomerulus (capillary tuft for filtering blood), the Bowman’s capsule, and the renal tubule<br />Function: filtration, secretion, reabsorption, and excretion<br />System: Urinary<br />Structure: tiny vessels of cells that happen to be only one cell thick<br />Function: to run blood, water, CO2, nutrients, and waste throughout the body<br />System: Circulatory<br />
  4. 4. 1A: Components (Specialized Cells Cont.)<br />Alveolus<br />B and T Cells<br />Structure: (B cells): Antigen molecules, integral membrane proteins, genes-(T cells): mature in the thymus gland<br />Function: (B cells): fight disease by making antibodies-(T cells): fight pathogens after being infected with bacteria and viruses<br />System: Immune<br />Structure: clusters of cells filled with collagen & elastic fibers surrounded by capillaries, where bronchiole are terminated<br />Function: to exchange blood and CO2 in the lungs<br />System: Respiratory<br />
  5. 5. The Immune System<br />A system that protects the body from foreign pathogens and viruses by producing responses<br />Consists of antibodies, lymph nodes, lymphocytes, bone marrow, b-cells, t-cells, and more<br />
  6. 6. 1B: Immune System<br />Phagocytes<br />Natural Killer Cells<br />Cytotoxic T Cells<br />Role: to destroy virus-infected and cancerous cells by attacking the cell membranes and making them burst<br />Role: to kill body cells infected with viruses, pathogens, and/or cancer<br />Role: to migrate to infected sites and ingest any harmful substances like bacteria or foreign particles<br />
  7. 7. 1B: Immune System<br />Helper T Cells<br />Memory Cells<br />Plasma Cells<br />Role: to fight antigens immediately once encountered<br />Role: to bear receptors that are specific to antigens and to activate if the antigens are found in the body again<br />Role: to inform the immune system that foreign antigens enter the body<br />
  8. 8. 1B: Immune System<br />Acquired Immunity<br />Innate/Natural Immunity<br />-Immunity that is acquired through the use of immunization or the presence of foreign antigens after birth<br />-Immunity that is naturally present at birth without the presence of foreign antigens<br />Humoral Response<br />Barrier Defenses<br />-responds to antigens and causes the body to form antibodies<br />-Outer layer of the<br /> body, such as the skin, that keeps viruses from entering the body, and our eyelashes and nose hair, which protect our bodies from some harmful antigens<br />Internal Defenses<br />Cell Mediated Response<br />-Located inside the body. For example, the antigens don’t stand a change against the acid located in our stomachs<br />-rids of antigens with the use of cytotoxic T cells, NK cells, and K cells instead of using antibodies<br />
  9. 9. The Nervous System<br />The network of nerves and cells that transfer information through bodily networks<br />Consists of the Central Nervous System (the brain and spinal cord) and the Peripheral Nervous System (Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Divisions)<br />
  10. 10. 1B: Nervous System<br />Chemical Synapses<br />How they work: Depolarization (changes in cell membrane) causes Ca++ ions to rush to the terminal branch through calcium-gated channels, which then stimulates vesicles to fuse with the pre-synaptic membrane and release neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitters then bond with receptors on the postsynaptic side, altering membrane potential. The neurotransmitter is then destroyed by esterase enzymes.<br />
  11. 11. 1B: Nervous Systems<br />Central vs. Peripheral<br />-Made up with the brain and spinal cord<br />-Controls body movements & actions<br />-Central nervous system (CNS) interprets messages from outlying receptors and send out reaction impulses<br />-Consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the spinal cord<br />-carries messages from CNS for processing to muscles & organs<br />Parasympathetic vs. Sympathetic<br />-increases adrenaline, plays a big role in body’s “Fight or Flight” response<br />-can increase heart rate, blood pressure<br />-can slow down digestion<br />-Relaxes the body<br />-tries to establish homeostasis by decreasing heart rate and blood pressure, can also speed up digestion process<br />
  12. 12. 1B: Nervous Systems<br />Motor vs. Autonomic<br />-Controls voluntary movements of the body and mobility<br />-Can consciously control movements<br />-Example: walking<br />-Controls involuntary movements of the body<br />-Cannot consciously control these movements<br />-Example: raising blood pressure and/or heart rate<br />Efferent Neurons vs. Afferent Neurons<br />-neurons that transport impulses from the peripheral nervous system to the central nervous system<br />-Neurons that conduct impulses outwards from the central nervous system<br />
  13. 13. 1B: Nervous System<br />Cerebral Cortex<br />-made up neurons and supporting cells<br />-maintains cognitive functions, like perceiving and thinking<br />Midbrain<br />-helps make up the brainstem along with the hindbrain<br />-responsible for handling auditory and visual stimuli<br />Hindbrain<br />Forebrain<br />-contains pons (connects cerebral cortex & medulla oblongata) and the cerebellum<br />-assists in movement, maintaining balance, and conducing sensory information<br />-consists of the diencephalon (thalamus & hypothalamus) , which is responsible for motor control, relaying sensory info and autonomic functions, and the telencephalon (cerebrum), which processes information<br />
  14. 14. The Circulatory System<br />The system of the body that transports blood to the body’s organs<br />Consists of: the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins<br />
  15. 15. 1B: Circulatory System<br />The Heart<br />How Blood Moves Through the Mammalian Heart<br />Role: to pump blood through the blood vessels of the body, around the body<br /> BLOOD PRESSURES<br />First, blood enters through the Vena Cava. From there it continues to the right atrium, right atrioventricular valve, right ventricle, pulmonary semilunar valve, pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary vein, left atrium, left AV valve, left ventricle, aortic semilunar valve, aorta, and then finally to all the cells in the body<br />Systolicvs. Diastolic<br />-represents the max. number of pressure exerted when the heart contracts<br />-represents the min. pressure in the arteries when the heart’s at rest<br />How is the heart’s rhythmic beat maintained?<br />The autonomic nervous system consists of nerves that travel from your brain to your heart in order to increase the beat during rigorous activity or decrease the beat during rest, in order to maintain homeostasis, maintain a beat, and keep the heart functioning as well as possible<br />Ideal blood pressure for a teen: 120/80 (Systolic/Diastolic)<br />
  16. 16. 1B: Circulatory System<br />Double Circulation<br />Mammalian Cardiovascular System<br />-a kind of circulation system where blood flows through the heart twice<br />
  17. 17. 1B: Circulatory System<br />Plasma<br />Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)<br />Blood<br />-liquid portion<br />-contains hormones, antibodies, nutrients, wastes, and more<br />Function: to maintain proper osmotic potential of blood<br />-consists of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets<br />-don’t have a nucleus, only live about 4 months, formed in bone marrow<br />Function: to carry hemoglobin and oxygen<br />White Blood Cells<br />(Leukocytes)<br />Platelets<br />-the B lymphocyte that produces antibodies<br />-formed in the bone marrow<br />Function: to fight infection <br />-cell fragments that are formed in the bone marrow<br />Function: to clot blood when necessary<br />
  18. 18. 1B: Circulatory System<br />Roles in blood circulation<br />Hemoglobin<br />Bicarbonate ions<br />Bicarbonate ions maintain pH balance in blood after encountering an amount of CO2 in blood. Most CO2 is transferred by bicarbonate ions than by hemoglobin.<br />Hemoglobin is a respiratory pigment that carries oxygen though the human body. It must be able to bind with oxygen in the lungs and unload it at any body cells. Hemoglobin is sensitive to pH.<br />
  19. 19. The Endocrine System<br />The body system that contains the glands and hormones that regulate the body<br />Consists of: the thymus, thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, pineal, adrenal, pancreas, ovaries, and testes<br />
  20. 20. 1B: Endocrine System<br />Hormones<br />Target Cells<br />-Substances that are produced in ductless glands, that are transported in tissue fluids. Hormones are used to stimulate specific cells or tissue into action.<br />-Abnormal red blood cells that most antigens try to attach to<br />-Viruses are attracted to target cells<br />How do hormones & target cells communicate?<br />Hormones only affect target cells. Target cells generally respond to hormones due to the fact that target cells possess receptors for hormones.<br />
  21. 21. 1B: Endocrine System<br />Negative Feedback Loop<br />-deals with hormone regulation<br />-how much the system outputs now affects future production of the system<br />Example: blood pressure regulation. If the heart pumps too much blood it will slow down its pace if necessary.<br />
  22. 22. 1B: Endocrine System: Types of Hormones<br />Steroids<br />Peptides<br />Modified Amino Acids<br />-can’t dissolve in the plasma membrane, so they bind to receptors on cell surfaces. Once bonded, it triggers a message that converts the signal to a response<br />Example: Vasopressin controls the reabsorbing of molecules<br />-an organic compound that contains proteins that act as messengers through the human body<br />Example: Glico-proteins are modified by covalent binding<br />-diffuse directly through plasma membranes and bind to receptors inside the nucleus that trigger the cell’s response<br />Example: Anabolic steroids that increase muscle and bone synthesis<br />
  23. 23. 1B: Endocrine System<br />The Hypothalamus<br />Role: sends electrical signals to the adrenal gland to release adrenaline while acting like a nerve as it secretes hormones<br />-also known as the “regulator” of the body, acting as the body’s thermostat and regulating hunger and thirst<br />
  24. 24. 1B: Endocrine System<br />Anterior Pituitary Hormones<br />-Regulate several internal processes in the body concerning stress, growth, and reproduction<br />Examples:<br />Luteinizing Hormone<br />Follicle Stimulating Hormone<br />-induces ovulation<br />Target: Gonads<br />-Causes development of the ovarian follicles & stimulates secretion of progesterone<br />Target: Gonads<br />Prolactin<br />Growth Hormone<br />Adrenocorticotrophic hormone<br />-maintains milk secretion in the body<br />Target: Ovaries & mammary glands<br />-promotes the growth of bone and soft tissue<br />Target: Liver, adipose tissue<br />-stimulates the conversion of cholesterol to cortisol<br />Target: Adrenal gland<br />
  25. 25. 1B: Endocrine System<br />Posterior Pituitary Gland<br />Thyroid Gland<br />Hormones Secreted<br />Hormones Secreted<br />Oxytocin A.K.A. “the love hormone”: has major roles in female reproduction, is secreted during labor and while facilitating birthTarget: Uterus and mammary glands<br />Vasopressin: can increase blood pressure, controls the reabsorption of molecules in the kidneysTarget: Kidneys or Arterioles<br />Thyroxine: helps stimulate proteins in the bodyTarget: All cells of the body<br />Triiodothyronine: affects growth, develoment, metabolism, heart rate, and body temperatureTarget: Tissues in the body<br />
  26. 26. 1B: Endocrine System<br />Pancreas<br />Parathyroid Gland<br />Hormones Secreted<br />Insulin: regulates carbohydrates and fat metabolism in the bodyTarget: mainly the liver<br />Glucagon: raises blood glucose levelsTarget: Liver<br />Somatostatin: inhibits the release of growth hormone into the bodyTarget: the brain<br />Hormone Secreted<br />1. Parathyroid Hormone: regulates calcium and phosphorus concentration in the bodyTarget: Bones and kidneys<br />
  27. 27. 1B: Endocrine System<br />Adrenal Glands<br />Hormones Secreted<br />2. Hydrocortisone: control’s the body’s use of fats, carbohydrates, & proteins. It also suppresses the immune system.Target: bones and target tissues<br />3. Corticosterone: suppresses inflammatory reactions into the bodyTarget: Blood stream<br />1. Epinephrine: increases heart rate and force of heart contractions, causes relaxation, facilitates blood flow to the brainTarget: heart, brain<br />4. Aldosterone: regulates the amount of salt in urine, maintains blood pressureTarget: Kidneys and blood stream<br />5. Norepinephrine: can increase blood pressureTarget: heart, blood stream<br />
  28. 28. 1B: Endocrine System<br />Pineal Gland<br />Gonads (Testes & Ovaries)<br />Hormones Secreted<br />Luteinizing hormone: induces ovulation and maintains the corpus luteumTarget: Ovaries & testes<br />Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): develops the ovarian follicle and stimulates the secretion of oestradiol and progesteroneTarget: Ovaries & testes<br />Hormone Secreted<br />1. Melatonin: transfers information about environmental lighting to various parts of the body, regulates sleep and wake cyclesTarget: bloodstream, optic nerves<br />
  29. 29. 1C: Bibliography<br />Website URL’s<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />Schedule of times<br />Tuesday, July 19: 2:00PM-3:00PM<br />Friday, July 29: 11:00AM-12:00PM<br />Monday, August 15: 5:00PM-6:30PM<br />Tuesday, August 16: 4:00PM-5:00PM<br />Friday, August 26: 9:30AM-10:30AM<br />Saturday, August 27: 9:00PM-11:00PM<br />Sunday, August 28: 7PM-10PM (on and off)<br />Monday, August 29: 5:30PM-7:00PM<br />Total: 13 hours<br />Books<br />Goldberg, Deborah T. AP Biology. 3rd ed. Hauppauge: Barron's Educational Series, 2010. Print. Barron's.<br />Matt, Margaret. Human Anatomy Coloring Book. Mineola: Dover Publications, 1982. Print. Pictorial Archive.<br />I did not work with other students for this assignment. <br />