ADV319 - ch 8


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  • ADV319 - ch 8

    1. 1. Chapter 8 Attitude Change and Interactive Communications
    2. 2. Changing Attitudes Through Communication <ul><li>Persuasion: effectiveness of marketing communications to change attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>What influences people to change their minds or comply: </li></ul>Reciprocity Scarcity Authority Consistency Liking Consensus
    3. 3. Changing Attitudes <ul><li>Principles of Persuasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reciprocity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>My sister put a lot of effort into buying her brother a birthday present. He was not sufficiently enthusiastic about it and so she decided to spend more time on her own rather than 'being ignored' by him. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scarcity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Scarcity—BMW
    5. 5. Scarcity—BMW
    6. 6. Model as Authority in Ad
    7. 7. Product/Brand as Authority in Ad
    8. 8. Changing Attitudes <ul><li>Principles of Persuasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency/ Commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Consistency—Still Shaving Like a Man?
    10. 10. Commitment—Wild Animal Protection
    11. 11. Commitment—FedEx
    12. 12. Commitment—FedEx
    13. 13. Liking—BMW
    14. 14. Liking—Perrier
    15. 15. Consensus
    16. 16. Assignment <ul><li>Imagine you work at an advertising agency in Austin. You have been asked to develop an ad for the “Don’t Mess with Texas” anti-litter campaign. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an ad or headline that uses one of the principles of persuasion. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Tactical Communications Options <ul><li>Who will be source of message? </li></ul><ul><li>How should message be constructed? </li></ul><ul><li>What media will transmit message? </li></ul><ul><li>What target market characteristics will influence ad’s acceptance? </li></ul>
    18. 18. Traditional Communication Model <ul><li>Communications model: a number of elements are necessary for communication to be achieved </li></ul>Figure 8.1
    19. 19. Interactive Communications <ul><li>The traditional communications model doesn’t tell the whole story… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers have many more choices available and greater control to process messages </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Interactive Communications <ul><li>Consumers have many more choices available and greater control to process messages </li></ul><ul><li>Permission marketing: marketer will be much more successful in persuading consumers who have agreed to let him try </li></ul><ul><li>Sony Metreon Video </li></ul>
    21. 21. Uses and Gratifications Theory <ul><li>Consumers are active, goal-directed, and draw on mass media to satisfy needs </li></ul><ul><li>Media compete with other sources of entertainment and information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising = entertainment, escaping, play, self-affirmation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Media play both positive and negative role </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Updated Communications Model <ul><li>Consumers are now proactive in communications process: VCRs, DVRs, video-on-demand, pay-per-view TV, Caller ID, Internet </li></ul>Figure 8.2
    23. 23. New Message Formats <ul><li>M-commerce (mobile commerce): marketers promote goods and services via wireless devices </li></ul><ul><li>Blogging: people post messages to the Web in diary form </li></ul><ul><li>New forms of blogging: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moblogging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video blogging (vlogging) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Podcasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RSS (Really Simple Syndication) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flogs (fake blogs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twittering </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. The Source <ul><li>Source effects: the same words by different people can have very different meanings </li></ul><ul><li>A “source”often a spokesperson in an ad — may be chosen because s/he is expert, famous, attractive, or a “typical” consumer </li></ul><ul><li>What makes a good source? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source credibility: a source’s perceived expertise, objectivity, or trustworthiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source attractiveness: movie star, super model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very Irresistible Givenchy 2009 - Liv Tyler </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Source Credibility <ul><li>A source’s perceived expertise, objectivity, or trustworthiness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers’ beliefs that communicator is competent and provides credible information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top Chef—Tom Colicchio Diet Coke </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http:// =q1aHcrjDDTs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Credible source is persuasive when consumer has formed no opinion about product </li></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><ul><li>Lipitor ad </li></ul></ul>What cues does this Lipitor ad use to show source credibility?
    27. 27. Source Credibility <ul><li>Reputation influences credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency influences credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prisoner argues that justice system is too lenient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-sided messages </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. One- versus Two-Sided Arguments <ul><li>One-sided: supportive arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Two-sided: both positive and negative information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refutational argument: negative issue is raised, then dismissed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive attributes should refute presented negative attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective with well-educated and not-yet-loyal audiences </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. One- vs. Two-sided Arguments <ul><li>One-sided: supportive arguments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective for people who already like the product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective for are unknowledgable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two-sided: both positive and negative information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refutational arguments increase source credibility by reducing reporting bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective with unattractive brands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective with knowledgable audiences </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Two-Sided Message in Ad
    31. 31. Two-Sided Message in Ad
    32. 32. Oral-B presents a two-sided message. Tells you that your teeth won’t be three times healthier, but they will be a lot healthier, with less plaque due to the micro-textured bristles.
    33. 35. Sleeper Effect <ul><li>Sometimes sources become irritating or disliked </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeper effect: over time, disliked sources can still get a message across effectively </li></ul><ul><li>We “forget” about negative source while changing our attitudes </li></ul>恒源祥 Heng Yuan Xiang
    34. 36. Source Biases <ul><li>Consumer beliefs about product can be weakened by a source perceived to be biased </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge bias: source’s knowledge about a topic is not accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting bias: source has required knowledge but source’s willingness to convey it is compromised </li></ul>
    35. 37. Hype versus Buzz <ul><li>Buzz: authentic message generated by customers </li></ul><ul><li>Hype: inauthentic message generated by corporate propaganda </li></ul>Table 8.1 Credibility Skepticism Authentic Fake Grass-roots Corporate Covert Overt Word-of-mouth Advertising Buzz Hype
    36. 38. Hype versus Buzz (cont.) <ul><li>“ Stealth” buzz building: marketers create buzz by implying that they had nothing to do with the buzz </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Blair Witch Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Old granny told stories of the past on MySpace </li></ul></ul>
    37. 39. Source Attractiveness <ul><li>Perceived social value of source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarity — Geico Spot </li></ul></ul>
    38. 40. “ What Is Beautiful Is Good” <ul><li>Halo effect: people who rank high on one dimension are assumed to excel at other dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: good-looking people are thought to be smarter, cooler, happier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physically attractive source leads to attitude change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directs attention to marketing stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beauty = source of information </li></ul></ul>
    39. 41. Nicole Kidman's Chanel No. 5 <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>I </li></ul>
    40. 42. Star Power <ul><li>Celebrities as communications sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiger Woods—$62 million/year in endorsements! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Famous faces capture attention and are processed more efficiently by the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance company image and brand attitudes </li></ul></ul>
    41. 43. Star Power <ul><li>Celebrities embody cultural and product meanings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product Meaning— Congruency between the celebrity and the product/brand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personality type </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Deniro—American Express, My Life, My Card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
    42. 44. Star Power <ul><li>Cultural meaning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within-country cultural meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover Girl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keri Russell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rihanna </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 45. Star Power <ul><li>Cultural meaning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zhang Ziyi-Visa Ad-Dining Out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three stars (JLO, Beyonce, & Beckham) in one Japanese commercial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>American stars in Japanese ads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friends- Ichiban </li></ul></ul>
    44. 46. Star Power <ul><li>Q-Score for celebrity endorsers </li></ul><ul><li>Match-up hypothesis: celebrity’s image and that of product are similar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicole vs. Chanel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tom vs. Coca </li></ul></ul>
    45. 50. Star Power <ul><li>When celeb endorsements go bad </li></ul>
    46. 52. Nonhuman Endorsers <ul><li>Often, celebrities’ motives are suspect as endorsers of mismatched products </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, marketers seek alternative endorsers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartoon characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mascots/animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avatars </li></ul></ul>
    47. 53. <ul><li>M & Ms </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geico lizard </li></ul>
    48. 54. The Message (cont.) <ul><li>Message: is it conveyed in words or pictures? </li></ul><ul><li>Message issues facing a marketer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How often should message be repeated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should it draw an explicit conclusion? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should it show both sides of argument? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should it explicitly compare product to competitors? </li></ul></ul>
    49. 55. Sending the Message <ul><li>Visual vs. verbal communication of message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual images: big emotional impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong memory trace </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infer meaning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal message: high-involvement situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Factual information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More effective when reinforced by a framed picture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Require more frequent exposures (due to decay) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    50. 56. Ross's Accent Scenes <ul><li> </li></ul>
    51. 57. Dual Component of Brand Attitudes Figure 8.3
    52. 58. Vividness <ul><li>Powerful description/graphics command attention and are strongly embedded in memory </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete discussion of product attribute </li></ul>
    53. 59. Vividness <ul><li>The joy of Cola </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comparative Advertising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    54. 60. Comparative Advertising <ul><li>Comparative advertising: message compares two+ recognizable brands on specific attributes </li></ul><ul><li>But, confrontational approach can result in source derogation </li></ul><ul><li>An ad for a new product should not: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merely, say it is better than leading brand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare itself to an obviously superior competitor </li></ul></ul>
    55. 61. Two-Factor Theory <ul><li>Two-factor theory: fine line between familiarity and boredom </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition can be a double-edged sword… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mere exposure phenomenon vs. habituation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide variety </li></ul></ul>Figure 8.4
    56. 62. Constructing the Argument <ul><li>Type of message appeal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recall: Subway button-popping commercial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Award-winning condom commercial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-aids commercial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-domestic-violence commercial </li></ul></ul></ul>
    57. 63. Emotional versus Rational Appeals <ul><li>Appeal to the head or to the heart? </li></ul><ul><li>Many companies use an emotional strategy when consumers do not find differences among brands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially brands in well-established, mature categories (e.g., cars and greeting cards) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Rock Star Commercial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
    58. 64. Sex Appeals <ul><li>Sexual appeals vary by country </li></ul><ul><li>Nude models generate negative feelings/tension among same-sex consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Erotic ads draw attention, but strong sexual imagery may make consumers less likely to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buy a product (unless product is related to sex) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process and recall ad’s content </li></ul></ul>
    59. 68. Humorous Appeals <ul><li>Different cultures have different senses of humor </li></ul><ul><li>Humorous ads get attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They’re a source of distraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They inhibit counterarguing, thus increasing message acceptance </li></ul></ul>
    60. 69. Humorous Appeals (cont.) <ul><li>Humor is more effective when it: </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t “swamp” message of clearly defined brand </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t make fun of potential consumer </li></ul><ul><li>Is appropriate to product’s image </li></ul>
    61. 71. Fear Appeals <ul><li>Emphasize negative consequences that can occur unless consumer changes behavior/attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Fear is common in social marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Most effective when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Threat is moderate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution to problem is presented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source is highly credible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The strongest threats are not always the most persuasive </li></ul>
    62. 72. Fear Appeals <ul><li>Deodorant </li></ul><ul><li>Auto insurance </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS, condom etc. </li></ul>
    63. 73. Uses mild fear appeal to promote tooth brushing.
    64. 74. This ad uses both emotion (sadness) and fear (that one’s child, friend sibling may be killed) to argue for gun control.
    65. 75. <ul><li>Thai Life Insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Beat a cartoon child </li></ul>
    66. 76. Message As Art Form <ul><li>Advertisers use literary elements to communicate benefits and meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Allegory: story about an abstract concept personified in a fictional character </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M & Ms Adams Family </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metaphor: two dissimilar objects in a close relationship (“A is B”) </li></ul><ul><li>Simile: compares two objects (“A is like B”) </li></ul><ul><li>Resonance: play on words with pictures </li></ul>
    67. 77. Metaphor
    68. 78. Metaphor
    69. 79. Metaphor
    70. 80. Simile <ul><li>Dial-Up Man - Cincinnati Bell </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    71. 81. Simile
    72. 83. Resonance
    73. 84. Resonance
    74. 85. Examples of Advertising Resonance Table 8.3 Pepsi bottle cap lying on the sand “ This Year, Hit the Beach Topless” Pepsi Woman’s dress bunched up on her back due to static “ Is There Something Creeping Up Behind You?” Bounce fabric softener Man holding a shock absorber “ Out Lifetime Guarantee May Come as a Shock” Toyota auto parts Chocolate kisses with hotel names underneath each “ This Year, We’re Unwrapping Suites by the Dozen” Embassy Suites Visual Headline Product
    75. 86. Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of Persuasion <ul><li>ELM: assumes that once consumers receive message, they begin to process it </li></ul>Figure 8.5
    76. 87. Support for the ELM <ul><li>Variables crucial to the ELM: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Message-processing involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argument strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High-involvement consumers are swayed by powerful arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Low-involvement consumers are swayed by source attractiveness </li></ul>