ADV319 - ch 7


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  • ADV319 - ch 7

    1. 1. The Power of Attitudes <ul><li>Attitude: a lasting, general evaluation of people, objects, advertisements, or issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitude object ( A O ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anything we have an attitude toward </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enduring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are you a loyal republican or democrat? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help to determine a number of preferences and actions </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. Attitude Commitment <ul><li>Degree of commitment is related to level of involvement with attitude object </li></ul>COMPLIANCE Lowest level: consumer forms attitude because it gains rewards or avoids punishments IDENTIFICATION Mid-level: attitudes formed in order to conform to another person or group INTERNALIZATION Highest level: deep-seeded attitudes become part of consumer’s value system
    3. 3. <ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children see. Children do. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Internalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The new 2009 2010 Camaro Z28 Commercial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Functional Theory of Attitudes <ul><li>Katz: attitudes exist because they serve some function </li></ul>UTILITARIAN FUNCTION: Relates to rewards and punishments VALUE-EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION: Expresses consumer’s values or self-concept EGO-DEFENSIVE FUNCTION: Protect ourselves from external threats or internal feelings KNOWLEDGE FUNCTION: Need for order, structure, or meaning
    5. 5. Functional Theory of Attitudes <ul><li>Utilitarian function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thai Water Bill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ego-defensive function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Milwaukee’s best </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Value-expressive function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Porsche commercial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http:// =KRbzJ0L1Zn8 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle relaxant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Utilitarian Function
    7. 7. Functional Theory of Attitudes (cont.) <ul><li>Marketers emphasize the benefits a product serves for consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Example: study of football fans identified three clusters: </li></ul>Provide improved peripheral benefits (e.g., improved parking) Those who look for camaraderie Publicize aspects of visiting teams, such as sports stars Those who enjoy cheering for winning team Provide greater sports knowledge Relate attendance to personal values Die-hard team fans Sports Marketer’s Strategy Cluster
    8. 8. ABC Model of Attitudes <ul><li>Attitude has three interrelated components: </li></ul><ul><li>Affect: the way a consumer feels about an attitude object. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior: person’s intentions to do something with regard to an attitude object. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognition: beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Hierarchies of Effects <ul><li>Impact/importance of attitude components depends on consumer’s motivation toward attitude object </li></ul>Figure 7.1
    10. 10. Hierarchy of Effects <ul><li>Standard Learning Hierarchy (e.g., dating) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in strong brand loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumes high consumer involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low-Involvement Hierarchy (e.g., parents buy you an iPhone) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer does not have strong brand preference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers swayed by simple stimulus-response connections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experiential Hierarchy (e.g., Jack Link’s Beef Jerky) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers’ hedonic motivations and moods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional contagion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive-affective model versus independence hypothesis </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Cognitive-affective model versus independence hypothesis <ul><li>Contextual Marketing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing customers with information about competitors at the exact time when they are searching for details/shopping for a particular product category </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WHENU.COM </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Attitude Toward the Advertisement <ul><li>We form attitudes toward objects other than the product that can influence our product selections. </li></ul><ul><li>We often form product attitudes from its ads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A ad : attitude toward advertiser + evaluations of ad execution + ad evoked mood + ad arousal effects on consumer + viewing context </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>We often form product attitudes from its ads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A ad : attitude toward advertiser + evaluations of ad execution + ad evoked mood + ad arousal effects on consumer + viewing context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sparkle—Diet Coke Commercial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 19. Ads Have Feelings Too <ul><li>Commercials evoke emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Upbeat feelings: amused, delighted, playful </li></ul><ul><li>Warm feelings: affectionate, contemplative, hopeful </li></ul><ul><li>Negative feelings: critical, defiant, offended </li></ul>
    15. 20. <ul><li>Funny Thai Insurance Commercial (Bangkok Insurance) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thai Life Insurance Commercial </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    16. 21. Consistency Principle <ul><li>Principle of cognitive consistency: </li></ul><ul><li>We value/seek harmony among thoughts, feelings, and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>We will change components to make them consistent </li></ul>
    17. 22. Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony <ul><li>Theory of cognitive dissonance: when a consumer is confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes or behaviors, he will take action to resolve the “dissonance” </li></ul>
    18. 23. Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony <ul><li>Example: Two cognitive elements about smoking: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I know smoking causes cancer” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I smoke cigarettes” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer will resolve the dissonance by either satisfying urge to smoke or stopping the behavior </li></ul></ul>
    19. 26. Discussion <ul><li>Can you think of a time when cognitive consistency influenced your purchase decision? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of a time when cognitive dissonance influenced your purchase decision? </li></ul>
    20. 27. Self-Perception Theory <ul><li>Self-perception theory: we use observations of our own behavior to determine what our attitudes are. </li></ul>DOOR-IN-THE-FACE TECHNIQUE Person is first asked to do something extreme (which he refuses), then asked to do something smaller. LOW-BALL TECHNIQUE Person is asked for a small favor and is informed after agreeing to it that it will be very costly. FOOT-IN-THE-DOOR TECHNIQUE Consumer is more likely to comply with a request if he has first agreed to comply with a smaller request
    21. 28. Foot-in-the-Door & Door-in-the-Face Techniques <ul><li> </li></ul>
    22. 29. Low-Ball Technique <ul><li>Who wants to have more free cell phone minutes? </li></ul>
    23. 30. Discussion <ul><li>Think of a time when someone has used those techniques on you. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did you buy the product? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why or why not? </li></ul></ul>
    24. 31. More Techniques <ul><li>That’s-not-all technique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A deal that is changed into an even better deal before the consumer even has a chance to respond (e.g., car commercials; direct TV shopping) </li></ul></ul>
    25. 32. Discussion <ul><li>Imagine some of your friends are going to Cancun this summer, and you really want to go. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using one of the compliance techniques, how could you convince your parents to say yes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which technique do you think is most effective for this scenario? </li></ul></ul>
    26. 33. Social Judgment Theory <ul><li>Social judgment theory: we assimilate new information about attitude objects in light of what we already know/feel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial attitude = frame of reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you think about Obama? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on whether you are a Democrat or Republican </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 35. Wife Swapper?!
    28. 36. Social Judgment Theory <ul><li>Our level of ego involvement affects the size of our latitudes </li></ul>
    29. 37. Social Judgment Theory <ul><li>Small discrepancies between our current position and the advocated position can lead to change, not large discrepancies. </li></ul>
    30. 38. Social Judgment Theory <ul><li>What can we learn? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expect change to happen in many small steps over time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch out for ego involvement. </li></ul></ul>
    31. 39. Balance Theory <ul><li>Balance theory: considers relations among elements a consumer might perceive as belonging together </li></ul><ul><li>Involves triad attitude structures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of attitude object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of other person/object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perception can be positive or negative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Balanced/harmonious triad elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit relation and sentiment relation </li></ul></ul>
    32. 42. Adam likes to watch football on television, and Jenna does not like to watch football. Yet Jenna likes Adam, and values their relationship. Jenna Adam Football + - + Jenna Adam Football - - + Jenna Adam Football + + + What can Jenna do to get balance?
    33. 43. Marketing Applications of Balance Theory <ul><li>Marketers use celebrity endorsers of products to create positive associations </li></ul>Jennifer Aniston You Product + + ?
    34. 44. Marketing Applications of Balance Theory <ul><li>Barclaycard Ad - Jennifer Aniston </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heineken (Jennifer Aniston) commercial </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    35. 45. Marketing Applications of Balance Theory <ul><li>Celebrity endorsers of products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When could this be bad? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jennifer Aniston became a divorcee & she got dumped by the hottest man in the world! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Britney Spears? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 46. Multi-Attribute Attitude Models <ul><li>Multi-attribute models: consumer’s attitudes toward an attitude object depends on beliefs she has about several or many attributes of the object </li></ul><ul><li>Three elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attributes of A O (e.g., college) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: scholarly reputation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beliefs about A O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: University of Texas at Austin is strong academically </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance weights </li></ul></ul>
    37. 47. Fishbein Model <ul><li>Most influential multi-attribute model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall Attitude Score = (consumer’s rating of each attribute for all brands) x (importance rating for that attribute) </li></ul></ul>
    38. 48. Your College Decision Attitude Score 4 Library 2 Party Scene 3 Athletics 4 Proximity 6 Cost 7 Beautiful women 9 Acad rep ACC St. Edwards UT Import (I) Attribute
    39. 49. My Husband’s College Decision Attitude Score 1 2 7 4 Library 9 7 3 2 Party Scene 3 2 6 3 Athletics 1 1 1 4 Proximity 9 8 7 6 Cost 5 7 8 7 Beautiful women 1 5 9 9 Acad rep ACC St. Edwards UT Import (I) Attribute
    40. 50. Why Choose UT? 207 Attitude Score 28 7 4 Library 6 3 2 Party Scene 18 6 3 Athletics 4 1 4 Proximity 42 7 6 Cost 56 8 7 Beautiful women 81 9 9 Acad rep Total UT Import (I) Attribute
    41. 51. Marketing Applications of Multi-Attribute Model <ul><li>Capitalize on relative advantage: convince consumers that particular product attributes are important in brand choice (e.g., Mac vs. PC) </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen perceived product/attribute linkages: if consumers don’t associate certain attributes with the brand, make the relationship stronger </li></ul><ul><li>Add a new attribute: focus on unique positive attribute that consumer has not considered (e.g., make friends with a world-known movie star) </li></ul><ul><li>Influence competitors’ ratings: decrease the attributes of competitors (e.g., Mac vs. PC; Whittakers vs. Cadbury) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    42. 52. Extended Fishbein Model <ul><li>Theory of reasoned action: considers other elements of predicting behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Social pressure: acknowledge the power of other people in purchasing decision </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude toward buying: measure attitude toward the act of buying, not just the product </li></ul>
    43. 53. Obstacles to Predicting Behavior <ul><li>Fishbein model’s weaknesses include: </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t deal with outcomes of behavior, including those beyond consumer’s control (e.g., government regulations) </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t consider unintentional behavior, such as impulsive acts or novelty seeking </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t consider that attitudes may not lead to consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t differentiate between consumer’s direct, personal experience, and indirect experience </li></ul>
    44. 54. Theory of Trying: Example of Consumer Trying to Lose Weight <ul><li>Past frequency : How many times did he try to lose weight? </li></ul><ul><li>Recency : Did he try in the past week? </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs : Did he belief it would be healthier? </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of consequences : Will his girlfriend be happier if he succeeded in losing weight? </li></ul><ul><li>Process : Would the diet make him feel depressed? </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations of success and failure : Did he believe it likely that he would succeed? </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective norms toward trying : Would loved ones approve of his efforts to lose weight? </li></ul>
    45. 55. Trying to Reach a Goal—Sell the Textbook back to Co-op <ul><li>Past frequency : </li></ul><ul><li>Recency : </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs : </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of consequences : </li></ul><ul><li>Process : </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations of success and failure : </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective norms toward trying : </li></ul>
    46. 56. Trying to Reach a Goal—Skip Classes <ul><li>Past frequency : </li></ul><ul><li>Recency : </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs : </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of consequences : </li></ul><ul><li>Process : </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations of success and failure : </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective norms toward trying : </li></ul>
    47. 57. Tracking Attitudes over Time <ul><li>Attitude-tracking program: increases predictability of behavior by analyzing attitude trends during extended time period </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing tracking studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gallup Poll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pew Internet Research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Click photo </li></ul><ul><li>for </li></ul>
    48. 58. Tracking Attitudes over Time Figure 7.4 Will you still go to Facebook when you hit 30?