ADV319 - ch 6


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ADV319 - ch 6

  1. 1. Your major concerns My Strategy Comprehensive overview of the final Page-by-page slide review Final 40% vs. 60% Assignment/grade more gently OK; Free style—3 rd one More extra credits Class attendance, assignment Overview of each chapter From Chapter 7 Easier pop quiz & set quiz OK More American commercials/ ethnically diverse commercials/less videos Assignment; Try to control
  2. 2. Personality and Lifestyles Chapter 6
  3. 3. Personality <ul><li>A person’s unique psychological makeup and how it consistently influences the way a person responds to his/her environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stable vs. situation-specific </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marketers: lifestyles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leisure activities, political outlook, aesthetic tastes, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Auction Commercial <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of people love to auction off their articles or purchase articles through auction? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Discussion Question <ul><li>What is one personality characteristic that your friends know about you that your parents don’t know? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Where does Personality come from?
  7. 7. Freudian Systems <ul><li>Personality = conflict between gratification & responsibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Id: pleasure principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superego: our conscience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego: mediates between id and superego </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Reality principle: ego gratifies the id in such a way that the outside world will find acceptable </li></ul><ul><li>Banned Pepsi vs. Coca </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Discussion Question <ul><li>Can you think of a product that makes an appeal to the id? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Commercials that make an appeal to the id <ul><li>Adidas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// =Wsm2-9LnqVs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Orlando </li></ul><ul><li>Evian roller babies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// = XQcVllWpwGs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heniken commercial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// =IUVQz5kIQQc </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Freudian Systems (Cont’d) <ul><li>Marketing Implications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconscious motives underlying purchases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolism in products to compromise id & superego </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sports car as sexual gratification for men </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Freudian Symbolism
  13. 13. Freudian Symbolism
  14. 14. Freudian Symbolism
  15. 15. Freudian Symbolism <ul><li>Lance Armstrong & Nike Commercial </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  16. 16. Motivational Research <ul><li>Freudian ideas unlock deeper product & advertisement meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer depth interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Latent motives for purchases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of Dichter’s motives (Table 6.1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>White bread, cotton, bathing = moral purity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ice cream, beauty products = social acceptance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Dichter’s Consumption Motives Table 6.1 (abridged) Soups , paints, carbonated drinks, vodka Magic-mystery Home decorating, skiing, morning radio broadcasts Disalienation Kitchen appliances, boats, sporting goods Mastery over environment Cigarettes, candy, alcohol, ice cream, cookies Reward Cakes, dolls, silk, tea, household curios Femininity Scotch, carpets Status Gourmet foods, foreign cars, vodka, perfume Individuality Toys, sugar, honey, soap, beauty products Social acceptance White bread, cotton fabrics, bathing, oatmeal Moral purity-cleanliness Sweets, gloves Eroticism Ice cream, home baking, hospital care Security Power tools, hot rods, coffee, red meat, razors Power-masculinity-virility Associated Products Motive
  18. 18. Motivational Research (Cont’d) <ul><li>Criticisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invalid or works too well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too sexually-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Haagen Dazs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http:// =F5kbigvnaqQ&feature=related </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Appeal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less expensive than large-scale surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powerful hook for promotional strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intuitively plausible findings (after the fact) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced validity with other techniques </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Neo-Freudian Theories <ul><li>Karen Horney </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliant: tailgate commercial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http:// =95aUCVNx9xY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detached: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http:// =EmaZU5cI9j8 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alfred Adler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation to overcome inferiority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harry Stack Sullivan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality evolves to reduce anxiety </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Neo-Freudian Theories: Jung <ul><li>Carl Jung: analytical psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective unconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The cumulative experiences of past generations shape who we are today </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archetypes in advertising p. 223 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BrandAsset ® Archetypes model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shadow vs. Archetypes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early warning signs of brand trouble </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 22. The Lord of Rings
  22. 23. Discussion <ul><li>Think of celebrities, athletes or others from popular culture who try to show off an archetype characteristic but end up portraying the sick, shadow characteristic. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Joke <ul><li>Who is Benjamin Franklin? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer: The reason why the convenient store got robbed! </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. BrandAsset ® Archetypes + Brand Health <ul><li>Archetypes across cultures and time </li></ul><ul><li>Strong evidence of achieving business objectives with this model </li></ul><ul><li>“ Early warning” signal of brand trouble </li></ul>
  25. 27. Joke <ul><li>What is Second Amendment? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer: The reason why the convenient store got robbed! </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>Second Amendment allowed people to possess guns. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Throw Mud at Your Competitors <ul><li>Alltel Wireless Wizard </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verizon dead zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time Warner Cable and Death </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Trait Theory <ul><li>Personality traits: identifiable characteristics that define a person </li></ul><ul><li>Traits relevant to consumer behavior: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovativeness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for cognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frugality </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. Innovativeness
  30. 32. Self-Consciousness
  31. 33. Need for Cognition
  32. 34. Are You an Innie or an Outie? Visit library and read more More interested in traveling to other cultures Travel and Entertainment Less likely to work hard More likely to work hard and stay late at work Workaholics Love kitchen; spend more time preparing food Spend less time preparing food Food Preparation More likely to avoid unhealthy foods Less likely to avoid unhealthy foods Health Consciousness Less satisfied with current life More satisfied with current life Contentment Allocentrics (group orientation) Idiocentrics (individualist orientation)
  33. 35. Problems with Trait Theory <ul><li>Prediction of product choices using traits of consumers is mixed at best </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scales not valid/reliable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests borrow scales used for the mentally ill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriate testing conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ad hoc instrument changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of global measures to predict specific brand purchases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Shotgun approach” (fishing) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remember: traits are only part of the “story”… </li></ul>
  34. 36. General Self-Confidence
  35. 37. Consumer Self-Confidence
  36. 38. Brand Personality <ul><li>Set of traits people attribute to a product as if it were a person </li></ul><ul><li>Brand equity: extent to which a consumer holds strong, favorable, and unique associations with a brand in memory—and the extent to which s/he is willing to pay more for the branded version of a product than for a nonbranded (generic) version </li></ul>
  37. 39. <ul><li>Outsourcing production to focus on brand </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive consumer research goes into brand campaigns </li></ul>
  38. 40. Brand Personality (Cont’d) <ul><li>Animism: The common cultural practice whereby people give inanimate objects qualities that make them somehow alive </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level 1: brand = spokespersons, celebs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level 2: anthropomorphized brands </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 41. Brand Personality <ul><li>Mac vs. PC </li></ul>
  40. 42. Mac User vs. PC User Psychographic profile of Mac vs. PC Video
  41. 43. Brand Personality
  42. 44. Brand Personality Pg. 205 Burger King is going all out!
  43. 45. Table 6.2 (Abridged) Versatile, adaptable Brand offers many line extensions Cheap, uncultured Brand frequently available on deal Snobbish, sophisticated Brand charges high prices and uses exclusive distribution Familiar, comfortable Brand uses continuing character in advertising Flighty, schizophrenic Brand is repositioned several times or changes slogan repeatedly Trait Inference Brand Action
  44. 46. Lifestyles <ul><li>Lifestyle: patterns of consumption reflecting a person’s choices of how one spends time and money </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who we are and what we do </li></ul></ul>
  45. 47. <ul><li>Lifestyle marketing perspective: people sort themselves into groups on the basis of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What they like to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How they spend leisure time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How they spend disposable income </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: Magazines targeting specific lifestyles: WWF Magazine, 4 Wheel & Off Road, Reader’s Digest </li></ul>
  46. 48. <ul><li>Toyota prius </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heineken </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// =gjAZ5esOBZw </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sometimes your lifestyle can get you into trouble </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  47. 49. Joe Wong
  48. 50. Are You an Innie or an Outie? Visit library and read more More interested in traveling to other cultures Travel and Entertainment Less likely to work hard More likely to work hard and stay late at work Workaholics Love kitchen; spend more time preparing food Spend less time preparing food Food Preparation More likely to avoid unhealthy foods Less likely to avoid unhealthy foods Health Consciousness Less satisfied with current life More satisfied with current life Contentment Allocentrics (group orientation) Idiocentrics (individualist orientation)
  49. 51. <ul><li>What is Joe Wong’s prominent personality? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Undeniable humor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How to sell a book on humor to Chinese consumers? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Segment by personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hand out personality test or see the correlations between personality & demographics/lifestyles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 52. Global Marketing <ul><li>Target people with the same personality worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Target the cosmopolitan segment globally </li></ul>
  51. 53. Segment the World by Lifestyles <ul><li>Where can a researcher find well-educated young Brazilians in Brazil? </li></ul><ul><li>Where can a researcher find poorly educated young Brazilians in Brazil? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they the same in the US or in other South American countries? </li></ul>
  52. 54. Lifestyles as Group Identities <ul><li>Self-definition of group members = common symbol system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terms include lifestyle, taste public, consumer group, symbolic community, status culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each person provides a unique “twist” to be an “individual” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tastes/preferences evolve over time </li></ul>
  53. 55. Discussion Question <ul><li>What are some differences between your lifestyle and the lifestyle of your friends who decided not to come to college? </li></ul>
  54. 56. <ul><li>Reebok—Run Easy Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  55. 57. Building Blocks of Lifestyles <ul><li>Product usage in desirable social settings </li></ul>
  56. 58. Product usage in desirable social settings <ul><li>http:// </li></ul>
  57. 59. Product usage in desirable social settings <ul><li>Nike Street Soccer </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  58. 60. Building Blocks of Lifestyles <ul><li>Consumption style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People, products, and settings combine to express a consumption style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mercedes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrilife drink </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  59. 61. Consumption constellations: define, communicate, and perform social roles <ul><li>Doc Martins, Project Runway, flannel, smoking, tattoos </li></ul><ul><li>DQ: Pick a lifestyle in your generation. What products define it? </li></ul>
  60. 62. <ul><li>Bohemian? </li></ul><ul><li>Lolita? </li></ul><ul><li>Cosplay? </li></ul>
  61. 63. Co-Branding <ul><ul><li>Co-branding strategies: brands team up with other companies to promote their products understand this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product complementarity: symbolic meanings of different products relate to one another </li></ul></ul>
  62. 64. Co-Branding
  63. 68. Co-Branding <ul><li>Share brand personalities? </li></ul><ul><li>Share promotion timing? </li></ul><ul><li>Have some sort of similarities or connections? </li></ul><ul><li>Share same targets? </li></ul>
  64. 69. Psychographics <ul><li>Psychographics: use of psychological, sociological, and anthropological factors to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine market segments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine their reasons for choosing products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine-tune offerings to meet needs of different segments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumers can share the same demographics and still be very different! </li></ul>
  65. 70. Psychographics Roots <ul><li>Developed in 1960s & 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational research & survey research were flawed </li></ul><ul><li>Demographics tell us “who” buys, but psychographics tell us “why” they buy </li></ul>
  66. 71. Which Soup is Your Favorite? <ul><li>Vegetable </li></ul><ul><li>Clam Chowder </li></ul><ul><li>Chicken noodle </li></ul><ul><li>Chili </li></ul><ul><li>Tomato </li></ul><ul><li>Cream soups </li></ul><ul><li>French onion </li></ul><ul><li>Minestrone </li></ul>
  67. 72. Lifestyle/Personality Variables for Soup Table 6.3 <ul><li>Carefree (Minestrone): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I am: down-to-earth, affectionate, fun loving, optimistic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intellectually Stimulated Pastimes (French Onion): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I am: a technology whiz, world traveler, book lover </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Athletic (Cream Soups): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I am: athletic, competitive, adventurous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homebody (Tomato): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I am: a homebody, good cook, pet lover; I enjoy spending time alone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social (Chili): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I am: fun at parties, outgoing, spontaneous, trendsetter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Family Spirited (Chicken Noodle): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I am: family-oriented, churchgoer, traditional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mentally Alert (Clam Chowder): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I am: intellectual, sophisticated, creative, detail-oriented, witty, nutrition conscious </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active Lifestyle (Vegetable): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I am: outdoorsy, physically fit, workaholic, socially active </li></ul></ul>Personality Lifestyle
  68. 73. Best Buy Psychographic Segments <ul><li>“ Jill:” busy suburban mom who buys electronics for family </li></ul><ul><li>“ Buzz:” focused, active younger male interested in buying latest gadgets </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ray:” family man who likes his technology practical </li></ul><ul><li>“ BB4B (Best Buy for Business):” small employer </li></ul><ul><li>“ Barry:” affluent professional male who’ll drop tens of thousands of dollars on a home theater system </li></ul>
  69. 74. Best Buy <ul><li>Who is this ad targeted to? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is this ad targeted to? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// = DNJNkYkqdqo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who is this ad targeted to? </li></ul>
  70. 75. Doing a Psychographic Analysis <ul><li>Lifestyle profile: differentiates between users and nonusers of a product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to Mercedes & Nutrilife </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General lifestyle segmentation: places a large sample of respondents into homogeneous groups based on similarities of preferences </li></ul>
  71. 76. Doing a Psychographic Analysis <ul><li>Product-specific profile: identifies a target group and profiles consumers based on product-related dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wii </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product-specific segmentation: tailors questions to a product category </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can you have an active life? (NO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you have an active life by playing Wii? (YES) </li></ul></ul>
  72. 77. Associative Network University of Texas
  73. 78. Associative Network University of Texas Classes Longhorns Friends Austin
  74. 79. Associative Network University of Texas Books Classes Ranch Cow Basketball Football Longhorns Co-op 6th Street Parties Friends Study Study group Coffee All-nighter Expensive Austin Town Lake Lake Travis
  75. 80. AIOs <ul><li>Grouping consumers according to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opinions </li></ul></ul>
  76. 81. Lifestyle Dimensions Table 6.4 Stage in life cycle Culture Achievements Sports City size Future Media Shopping Geography Products Food Community Dwelling Education Fashion Club membership Family size Economics Recreation Entertainment Occupation Business Community Vacation Income Politics Job Social events Education Social issues Home Hobbies Age Themselves Family Work Demographics Opinions Interests Activities
  77. 82. Heavy Users <ul><li>80/20 Rule: lifestyle segments that produce the bulk of customers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy users and the benefits they derive from product </li></ul></ul>
  78. 83. Psychographic Segmentation Uses <ul><li>To define target market </li></ul><ul><li>To create new view of market </li></ul><ul><li>To position product </li></ul><ul><li>To better communicate product attributes </li></ul><ul><li>To develop overall strategy </li></ul><ul><li>To market social/political issues </li></ul>
  79. 84. <ul><li>To create new view of market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin-uplifting products do not target old people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To position product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hi, I am Wii. I am young and fun. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
  80. 85. <ul><li>To better communicate product attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>McDonald’s happy meal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http:// =0eN9KP6lOZs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I would beat my kid  if he showed up at the table with a boombox blaring the Cha Cha Slide. Luckily, I have no kids. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>To market social/political issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buckle up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
  81. 86. Global Psychographic Strategies <ul><li>Global MOSAIC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies segments across 19 countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RISC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifestyles/sociocultural change in 40+ countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divides population into 10 segments using 3 axes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exploration/Stability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social/Individual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Global/Local </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40 measured “trends” (e.g., “spirituality”) </li></ul></ul>
  82. 87. Figure 6.5 10 RISC SEGMENTS
  83. 88. Discussion <ul><li>Extreme sports. Blogging. Vegetarianism. Can you predict what will be “hot” in the near future? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify a lifestyle trend that is just surfacing in your universe. </li></ul></ul>
  84. 89. Geodemography <ul><li>Consumer expenditures/socioeconomic factors + geographic information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Birds of a feature flock together” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. 90210 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>78741 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussion: Geodemographic techniques assume that people who live in the same neighborhood have other things in common as well. Why do they make this assumption, and how accurate is it? </li></ul>
  85. 90. PRIZM by Claritas, Inc. <ul><li>66 clusters of U.S. zip codes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: “Young Influential,” “Money and Brains,” “Kids and Cul-de-Sacs” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranked by income, home value, and occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maximize effectiveness, cost-efficiency, and impact of marketing communications </li></ul>
  86. 91. Comparison of Two PRIZM Clusters Table 6.5 Low Usage Motorcycles Laxatives Nonfilter cigarettes Chewing tobacco Hunting magazine Chevrolet Chevette Canned stews High Usage Country clubs Wine by the case Lawn furniture Gourmet magazine BMW 5 Series Rye bread Natural cold cereal New money, parents in 40s and 50s Newly built subdivisions with tennis courts, swimming pools, gardens Furs and Station Wagons Low Usage Knitting Live theater Smoke detectors Ms. Magazine Ferraris Whole-wheat bread Mexican foods High Usage Travel by bus Asthma medicine Malt liquors Grit magazine Pregnancy tests Pontiac Bonneville Shortening Racially mixed farm town in South Small downtowns with thrift shops, diners, and laundromats; shanty-type homes without indoor plumbing Tobacco Roads
  87. 92. Food Cultures <ul><li>Food culture: pattern of food and beverage consumption that reflects the values of a social group </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in international food cultures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Mexico, Pepsi or Coca is sweeter than the US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Hong Kong, there are more seats in the eating places in Disney than in the US </li></ul></ul>
  88. 94. Food Court Musical <ul><li> </li></ul>
  89. 95. Figure 6.3 VALS2 TM VALS survey
  90. 96. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the VALS types at </li></ul><ul><li>Describe each type to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Take the VALS survey online </li></ul><ul><li>What were the results? </li></ul><ul><li>Comment on VALS as a means to explore consumer values </li></ul>