Roger Baroudi, SSHI

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Roger Baroudi, SSHI

  1. 1. District CoolingDesigning for Life Power & Cost Saving January 2011 District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  2. 2. Table ofContents Main 01. District Cooling 02. Case Studies Heading 03. Animation District Cooling Power and Cost savings District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  3. 3. 01 District CoolingDistrict Cooling Power & Cost Savings
  4. 4. District CoolingDescriptionInvolves the provision of cooling for multiple buildingsor facilities from one or more central plant via a pipe network.HistoryLarge District Cooling applications started in the 1930s forthe Rockefeller Center and United States Capitol Complex. District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  5. 5. District PipingCooling Distribution Pipes DC Plant Valve Chamber ETS District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  6. 6. District Pipes in Cooling Tunnel Pipes in Tunnel with Branch-outPipes in Trench Pipes in Tunnel District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  7. 7. District ValveCooling Chamber District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  8. 8. Energy District Transfer Cooling Station Heat ExchangerSchematic - Energy Transfer Station with Heat Exchanger to Apartment Block District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  9. 9. District District Cooling PlantCooling Tower at Roof Level Chiller Plant at Ground Level Pumps in Basement Vertical Arrangement DC Plant – Verticle Arrangement District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  10. 10. District DistrictCooling Plant Kuwait UniversityCooling Towers – Horizontal Arrangement District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  11. 11. District DistrictCooling Plant DC Plant– Horizontal Arrangement (Kuwait University) District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  12. 12. District Thermal Cooling Storage1. Chilled Water2. Ice3. Eutectic SaltsIce Storage Tank Pre-stressed Concrete Tank Thermal Energy Storage District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  13. 13. District District Cooling PlantDistrict Cooling Plant – Architecture District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  14. 14. 02 Case Study• Residential Areas• Inner-City District Cooling Power & Cost Savings
  15. 15. Residential Area Case Study based on Jaber Al-Ahmad City (Areas B & A5) District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  16. 16. Residential Area- Case Design Study BasisCooling Loads – Estimation Basis District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  17. 17. Case ResidentialStudy Areas Number of Houses = 1836 Estimated built up area of housing = 1,560,600 m2 (95% of total Built up area) Total Built up area including Mosques, Schools, Clinic, Shopping centre, Bank, Office Buildings etc. = 1,645,438 m2 Chiller plant capacity = 36,790 TR Thermal Storage = 4879.6 TR (11.7% of total) TOTAL DISTRICT COOLING PLANT CAPACITY = 41,670 TR District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  18. 18. Case ResidentialStudy Areas Plant Arrangement & Chilled Water Distribution District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  19. 19. Case Residential Study AreasRoof Plan Overall Area = 136m x 40m Foot Print = 7.66 M2/TR District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  20. 20. Case Residential Study AreasGround Floor Plan District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  21. 21. Case Residential Study Areas Enlarged viewBasement Floor Plan District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  22. 22. Case Residential Study AreasEnlarged View - Basement Plan District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  23. 23. Case Residential Enlarged view Study AreasSite Plan - Chilled Water Distribution District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  24. 24. Case Residential Study AreasSite Plan Enlarged view - Chilled Water Distribution District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  25. 25. Case Residential Study AreasChilled Water Network Flow Simulation District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  26. 26. Case Residential Study AreasTypical Cross Section of Local Road with Bldg. Connection District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  27. 27. Case ResidentialStudy Areas Chilled Water Pipe Network • System Static Pressure - 6 bar • Pressure difference between closest and furthest node is 24m. District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  28. 28. Case ResidentialStudy Areas Chilled Water Temperature Increase • Calculations indicate that water temperature increase over the longest route is 0.3 deg-C • The calculations were based on Supply at 5.0 Deg-C, Return at 14.0 Deg-C • Loss in thermal energy due to pipe-work distribution is approximately 1 % overall District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  29. 29. Case ResidentialStudy Area Power & Energy District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  30. 30. Residential Area-Case CoolingStudy Load District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  31. 31. Residential Area-Case CoolingStudy Load District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  32. 32. Case Residential Study Areas Charging Mode Discharging ModeCharging / Discharging Mode (TES Tank) District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  33. 33. Residential Area-Case CoolingStudy Load District Cooling Efficiency With TES = 0.86 KW/TR Without TES = 1.00 KW/TR Based on R-134a Refrigerant Conventional Air Cooled Systems (excluding Indoor Units) Efficiency = 1.6 - 1.8 KW/TR (peak load/peak cooling) Assume Air Distribution Equipment Efficiency = 0.2 KW/TR Based on R22 Refrigerant and equivalent diverse electrical load PEAK POWER SAVING = 50% (on average) District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  34. 34. Residential Area- Case Cooling Study Load District Cooling vs. Air cooled Energy DemandAnnual DCSEnergy Demand = 101.9 GWhAnnual Air Cooled SystemEnergy Demand = 182.2 GWhYearly Energy Saving = 40% on averagewhen compared with conventionalAir-cooled systems (1.6-1.8 kW/TR) District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  35. 35. Residential Area-Case WaterStudy Demand Peak Daily Demand Total Demand = 7048 m3 Yearly Demand Fresh Water Demand = 1,156,000 m3 If TSE is utilized = 1,502,800m3 Sea Water can be utilized for installations near the sea District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  36. 36. Case ResidentialStudy Areas CODE OF PRACTICE MEW/R-6 (Revised) • Clause 8.8 District Cooling states "District cooling shall be applied for new townships, university campuses and similar neighborhood, in view of its proven advantage for energy saving and peak load shaving. HVAC design report shall include detailed feasibility study highlighting energy savings potential and cost effectiveness over a 30 year life for plant and equipment” District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  37. 37. Case ResidentialStudy Areas Opportunity Costs Electicity Cost VS Fuel Cost Electricity Unit Cost (Fills/KW-Hr) 90 80 70 60 50 Fuel Cost 40 Transmission Cost 30 20 10 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 0 10 12 Barrel of Oil Cost ($) District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  38. 38. Case ResidentialStudy Areas Power Plant Savings Saved Power (50% saving) 39,586 KW Capital Costs Power Generation 400 KD/KW 15,834,400 Distribution Saving 50 KD/KW 1,979,300 Total KD 17,813,700 Annual Energy Saving (40% on average) 73 GW-HR Power Generation & Distribution 60 Fils/Unit 4,138,000 Total KD 4,138,000 District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  39. 39. Case ResidentialStudy Areas Water Generation Costs Cost (KD) Plant Capital Cost Peak Day Water Requirement 7048 M3 Desalination Cost - RO Plant @ 820 KD/m3 5,779,360 Production & Distribution Annual Water Requirement 1,156,000 M3 Fresh Water Cost @ 768 Fils/M3 887,808 (3,494) (1000 Gal) District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  40. 40. Case ResidentialStudy Areas Capital and Running Cost Savings Potential Savings in Capital Cost = KD12,034,340 Case Study Potential Savings (Opportunity) = KD 3,250,192/year @ 90$ US/barrel District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  41. 41. Case Residential Study AreasExtract from MEW R-6“HVAC design report shall include detailed feasibility study highlighting energy savings potential and costeffectiveness over a 30 year life for plant and equipment”Suggested incentives to achieve cost effectiveness Passover some of the savings by Government to the DC Provider  Pass over some of the capital savings by:  Covering cost of chilled water pipe installation (same as other piped utilities)  Provide land (as for sub-stations)  Set chilled water generation charges based on ‘unsubsidized rates’ with incentives linked to production efficiencies District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  42. 42. Case ResidentialStudy Areas The Main Environmental Benefits • Smaller Carbon Emission Foot Print • Energy Conservation • Less Noise From Air- Cooled Units • Less Thermal Impact on Local Environment • Better usage of built space (roof garden etc.) • More Efficient Temperature Control District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  43. 43. Case ResidentialStudy Areas Carbon Emission Savings • Every MW-Hr Demand Produces 0.788 Tons of CO2 • 41,700TR DC Plant Reduces CO2 Emission by 65,800 Tons per Year District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  44. 44. Inner-City Inner-City Area Design Case Study based on Abdullah Al-Ahmed Street District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  45. 45. Case Study Inner-CityPerspective – Abdullah Al-Ahmed Street District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  46. 46. CaseStudy Inner-City District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  47. 47. CaseStudy Inner-City Building Type Built Up Area (m2) Residential 124,630 Offices 436,800 Commercial 133,463 Total 694,463 District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  48. 48. Case Study Inner-CityDC Plant integrated in Car Park Building to optimize on Parcel Usage District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  49. 49. Case Study Inner-CityGround Floor Plan – Chiller Plant Layout District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  50. 50. Case Study Inner-CityDetail view Basement Plan – Pump Room Layout District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  51. 51. Case Study Inner-City ImagesIce Storage Tank Lay-out Schematic – Detail view District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  52. 52. Case Study Inner-City Charging Mode Discharging ModeCharging / Discharging Mode (Internal Melt Ice Storage) District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  53. 53. Case Study Inner-CitySite-Wide Chilled Water Pipe Distribution Network District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  54. 54. CaseStudy Inner-City Power & Energy District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  55. 55. CaseStudy Inner-City District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  56. 56. CaseStudy Inner-City District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  57. 57. CaseStudy Inner-CityPlant Item Plant Cooling Capacity KWh Ton-hr KW TRWater Cooled Chillers 1,270,880 361,363 54,162 15,400Glycol Chiller Capacity 419,920 119,387 30,950 8,800Thermal Ice Storage 144,860 41,189 23,145 6,581Total DC Plant Capacity 1,835,660 521,939 108,257 30781Plant Efficiency – KW/TR 0.805 District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  58. 58. CaseStudy Inner-City Energy Demand Profile (DCS Ice Storage vs. Conventional Water-Cooled System) District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  59. 59. CaseStudy Inner-City Energy Demand Profile (DCS Ice Storage vs. A mix of 70% Capacity Conventional Water-Cooled System & 30 % Air Cooled District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  60. 60. CaseStudy Inner-City District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  61. 61. CaseStudy Inner-City Economical Consideration & Sustainable Design District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  62. 62. CaseStudy Inner-City EXCERPTS FROM LATEST MEW/R-6 REGULATION (2010) • Clause 8.5 Use of Partial Cool Storage (Chilled Water Storage) “Building with part-day occupancy pattern and chilled water systems serving building peak load of 100 RT or above, partial cool storage is mandatory. Some examples of building with part-day occupancy are: commercial offices, community centers, schools, public offices, banks, games and sports centers, gymnasiums, clubs etc.” District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  63. 63. CaseStudy Inner-City why District Cooling? • Larger chiller plant better efficiency (less power) • Better energy management through better qualified staff • Reduces building construction cost by removing central plant and improving building net-to-gross efficiency • Can help improve building aesthetics • Allows End User to better focus on core business. • Less noise generation District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  64. 64. CaseStudy Inner-City Incentive Factors • Pass over savings in central plant and building costs by the developer to the DC Provider (capacity and connection charges) • Pass over running costs savings (operation, maintenance, consumables) • Introduce Government incentives to offset capital costs –  allow integration of DC plants within multistory car parks or provide land  allow incentive schemes based on DC plant efficiencies (KW/TR) District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  65. 65. CaseStudy Inner-City Sustainable Design Considerations • Match capacity of the central chiller plant with the buildings • Select pipe sizes & material based on economical factors • Match Primary & Secondary flow arrangements (variable flow) • Install controls with good response times • Provide thermal storage to help operate plant at optimum condition • Maintain highest Chilled water ΔT possible • Maintain highest chilled water flow temperature possible • Use high efficiency motors • Consider Variable speed cooling tower fans • Use Water conservation and backwash recovery District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  66. 66. 03 AnimationDistrict Cooling Power & Cost Savings
  67. 67. DistrictCooling Animation District Cooling Power & Cost savings
  68. 68. Thank you District Cooling Power & Cost savings

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