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Jeevan joy, spig

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Jeevan joy, spig

  1. 1. Application of Field Erected Cooling Towers in District Cooling
  2. 2. INDEX What is a field erected cooling tower? Types of Induced Draft Cooling Towers Material of Construction MOC-Type Comparison FRP material properties and suitability in Field Erected Cooling Towers FRP Cooling Tower Construction Design Aspects Case Study
  3. 3. What is a Field Erected Cooling Tower <ul><li>Customized design to suit project specific requirement like space, noise and NO plume. </li></ul><ul><li>Engineered to meet stringent codes pertaining to Seismic, Wind and Maintenance loads. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally suited for handling large flow rates per cell with aggressive water. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical applications: Power Plants, Refinery, Petrochemical Plants and Large Tonnage District Cooling Plants </li></ul>
  4. 4. FIELD ERECTED COOLING TOWERS
  5. 5. INDUCED DRAFT CROSS FLOW COOLING TOWERS
  6. 6. INDUCED DRAFT CROSS FLOW
  7. 7. INDUCED DRAFT COUNTER FLOW COOLING TOWERS
  8. 8. INDUCED DRAFT COUNTER FLOW
  9. 9. MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION TIMBER COOLING TOWERS
  10. 10. MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION STEEL COOLING TOWERS
  11. 11. MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION REINFORCED CONCRETE COOLING TOWERS
  12. 12. FAILURES OCCURING IN RCC COOLING TOWERS
  13. 13. MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION Fiber Reinforced Polyester ( FRP ) COOLING TOWERS
  14. 14. MATERIAL COMPARISON WOOD STEEL CONCRETE FRP Corrosion resistance medium low medium highest Strenght to weight ratio low high very high highest Expansion and Contraction medium medium medium low Thermal conductivity low high medium low Maintenance high high medium low Possibility of Wet Dry operation low high high excellent Installation Time short long very long very short Basin Load medium high very high lightest Fire resistance low low medium highest Need for preservating treatment/coating high high high low Cost of maintenance and operation high high medium lowest
  15. 15. FRP MATERIAL PROPERTIES <ul><li>Life Cycle Cost: </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptionally low. </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to aggressive water. </li></ul><ul><li>Accepts all types of aggressive water. Sea water, TSE, Brackish water and geothermal water </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosion resistance: </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptional resistance to corrosion due to inert nature of the material </li></ul><ul><li>Weather resistance: </li></ul><ul><li>Not affected by UV, sunlight, sandstorm and rains. </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue Properties: </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent fatigue properties due to high glass content. </li></ul>
  16. 16. FRP MATERIAL PROPERTIES <ul><li>Impact Strength: </li></ul><ul><li>The high impact strength and rigidity </li></ul><ul><li>allow major deformation without fractures. </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Resistance: </li></ul><ul><li>Due to high fire resistance, there is no need for costly fire protection system . </li></ul><ul><li>Deposition rate : </li></ul><ul><li>Very low deposition and scale formation rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Bilological attack: </li></ul><ul><li>Inert to biological attack, and micro organisms. </li></ul>
  17. 17. FRP Structure Pultrusion Technology
  18. 18. FRP COOLING TOWER CONSTRUCTION The complete structure, columns and beams for the Cooling Tower structure are realised with pultruded profiles in fiber reinforced polyester.
  19. 19. FRP COOLING TOWER CONSTRUCTION One FRP main header distributes water in lateral uPVC pipes
  20. 20. Design Aspects INTERACTION BETWEEN CT and SURROUNDING ENVIRONMENT COOLING TOWER is NOT LOCATED in a FREE FIELD
  21. 21. IDEAL CONDITION <ul><li>FREE FIELD </li></ul><ul><li>ISOLATED BODY </li></ul><ul><li>NO WIND </li></ul>Warm Air and Visible Plume Are Dispersed In The Atmosphere
  22. 22. REAL CONDITION Large Vortices Are Generated Small Part of Warm Air is Mixed with Large Amount of Fresh Air Negligible changes in Inlet air Properties
  23. 23. STANDARD CONDITION <ul><li>WHAT HAPPENS WHEN </li></ul><ul><li>BUILDINGS </li></ul><ul><li>OBSTRUCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>TREES </li></ul><ul><li>HILLS </li></ul><ul><li>ARE PRESENT </li></ul>Fresh Air Feeding is reduced Warm Air Vortices are destroyed Larger amount of Warm Air is re-sucked in
  24. 24. STANDARD CONDITION <ul><li>WHAT HAPPENS WITH </li></ul><ul><li>More CTs </li></ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul>Feeding is reduced Warm Air is Deflected … And sucked in both the CTs Wakes & Vortices
  25. 25. RECIRCULATION – INTERFERENCE PLUME DISPERSION 3 METHODS ANALYTICAL EXPERIMENTAL COMPUTATIONAL NAVIER-STOKES Equations Simplified Rules Free Filed SCALE MODEL WIND TUNNEL SOPHISTICATED EQUIPMENT DEDICATED SW POWERFUL HD EXPERTS
  26. 26. RECIRCULATION & INTERFERENCE EXPERIMENTAL - 1 Wind Tunnel Scaled Model Warm Air Generator Plume Generator Sophisticated Measuring Equipment Simplifications
  27. 27. RECIRCULATION & INTERFERENCE COMPUTATIONAL - 1 Detailed Model Material Properties Boundary Conditions All air Parameters Are calculated
  28. 28. RECIRCULATION & INTERFERENCE COMPUTATIONAL - 2
  29. 29. VFD CONTROL <ul><li>Cooling Towers are usually designed for the worst conditions – Peak Summer Conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>In Winter conditions the CT is over performing. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of a variable Motor speed system can regulate the fan speed and consequently the airflow optimizing the cooling performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Fan speed optimization allows: consistent saving in absorbed power. Absorbed power is proportional to the cube of the fan speed so by reducing the fan speed at 50% means reducing the consumption by 12.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Drift reduction due to lower air velocity. </li></ul><ul><li>Visible plume reduction due to the lower concentration of water in the discharged air. </li></ul>
  30. 30. SUMMARY <ul><li>In the CT Design, it is fundamental to consider the mutual interaction between the CT and the surrounding environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounding environment can modify the free air circulation generating or intensifying recirculation, interference and plume formation phenomena. </li></ul><ul><li>The CT can modify the surrounding environment introducing moisture, fog and chemicals in the air. </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental methods can quantitatively estimate the recirculation and the interference but can only qualitatively estimate plume generation and dispersion. </li></ul><ul><li>Numerical methods can quantitatively estimate the recirculation, interference, plume generation and dispersion. </li></ul>
  31. 31. SEA WATER COOLING TOWERS <ul><li>Using sea water in cooling towers is technically and economically feasible. </li></ul><ul><li>Sea water CT can satisfy the cooling needs of petrochemical industries. </li></ul><ul><li>No significant O&M complications with seawater CT is reported </li></ul><ul><li>Seawater CT economics are favorable as compared with the once-through system </li></ul>CTI Journal, Vol 24, No 2
  32. 32. SEA WATER COOLING TOWER APPLICATION <ul><li>Using seawater in cooling towers is technically and economically feasible. </li></ul><ul><li>Seawater CT can sattisfy the cooling needs of petrochemical industries. </li></ul><ul><li>No significant O&M complications with seawater CT is reported </li></ul><ul><li>Seawater CT economics are favorable as compared with the once-through system </li></ul>CTI Journal, Vol 24, No 2
  33. 33. DUBAI FESTIVAL CITY 50,000 TR- DISTRICT COOLING 10 CELLS – CONCRETE COOLING TOWERS
  34. 34. CASE HISTORY EMIRATES AIRBUS A380 HANGAR DUBAI AIRPORT U.A.E- CUC Make up - Treated Sewage Effluent
  35. 35. CASE HISTORY BAHRAIN CITY CENTRE 7 CELLS – FRP COOLING TOWERS HVAC
  36. 36. CASE HISTORY BAHRAIN BAY UTILITIES FRP COOLING TOWERS 2 Seawater Cooling Towers 45,000 TR District Cooling Plant for Bahrain Bay
  37. 37. CASE HISTORY PETRORABIGH REFINING COMPANY; KSA TOTAL WATER FLOW- 210,000 m3/hr 48 Cells – FRP COOLING TOWERS
  38. 38. CASE HISTORY SAHARA AL-WAHA; JUBAIL; KSA FRP COOLING TOWERS Sea Water Cooling Tower- Petrochemical
  39. 39. CASE HISTORY EMIRATES ALUMINIUM (EMAL) ABU DHABI Largest Seawater Cooling Tower – UAE Power Plant
  40. 40. CASE HISTORY MESAIEED POWER COMPANY QATAR 3 Sea water Cooling Towers 33 Cells Power Plant
  41. 41. Headquarters SPIG S.p.A . P.zza S. Graziano 31 28041 Arona – NO – ITALY Ph. + 39 0322 245401 SPIG Middle East LOB 7 Office No 7F09 Opp. Jebel Ali Post Office, Jebel Ali Free Zone Dubai – U.A.E. Ph.+9714 8817202 www.spig-int.com Speaker Eng. Jeevan Joy

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