Pocket Diary Transcriptionof Charles H. Peterson Sunday, April 16, 1865 Monday, April 17, 1865Clear all day, and / very pleasant. Clear all day. This morning / we received the Todays paper confirms / thesad / news of President / Lincolns Death of our President. / He wasdeath. No / particulars. the flags assassinated / while at Fords Theatreare all half masted. / seeing the "American / CousinI sent two letters / one to Leogun (?) played" on Friday / evening. Theand / one to Hollnes. assassin is / supposed to be Wilkes /We did nt get any / papers, nor mail Booth (the Actor).today. He also made an / attempt onEvery thing appears / to be sad and Secretary / Sewards life but / at lastsorrowful / over the Death of our account he / was still alive.President. / It certainly / is a great Received two letters / one fromshock to the / Country, about this Clarke, and / one from Leem (?).time. Cannons firing all / day.
Primary SourcesHow to locate and use them effectivelyNicole Ramirez, Fall 2012
What are Primary Sources? ● Diary entry ● Scrapbook ● Newspaper Article ● Newspaper Sketch ● Leave Pass ● Letters / Cards What are Primary Sources?
What are Primary Sources?Definition ● A primary source is any item, such as an original photograph or a diary entry, that provides a first-hand account of an experience, event, or historical period from the perspective of the creator or the people that were present
Locating Primary Sources(Activity)Task: Locate Primary Sources for the following research topic:● Prohibition in the 1920s and medical marijuana today1. Begin your search. Within your research groups, discuss - Where would you start your search? What would you search for?2. Revise your search. Within your research groups, discuss - How do you refine, clarify, or modify your search? (Particularly if you are unsuccessful or unhappy with your initial results.)
Locating Primary Sources(Activity)1.2.3. If you continue to experience difficulty conducting your search, what are your next steps? - Give up. (Just kidding! Of course not.) - Consult your teacher. - Ask a librarian.
Where doprimary sources live? Locating Primary Sources
Physical Repositories Photo courtesy of LAPL Photo courtesy of CSUN, Daily Sundail University Archives & Special Public Libraries Collections Photo courtesy of LAPL Photo courtesy of CSUN, Daily Sundail
Physical Repositories Photo courtesy of ONE Courtesy of BookPatrol.net Archives / Repositories Museums Photo courtesy of Mayme A. Clayton LIbrary and Photo courtesy of ONE Museum
Digitized Collectionshttp://www.loc.gov/ http://www.archives.gov/http://www.calisphere.universityofcalifornia.edu/ http://www.oac.cdlib.org/http://www.nps.gov/history/ http://www.historyexplorer.si.edu/ (Discover History tab) Proquest Historical Newspapers Not an exhaustive list
Locating Primary SourcesStrategies:● Identity key terms, figures, and dates Topic: Prohibition in the 1920s and medical marijuana today Terms 18th Amendment Volestead Act Cullen-Harrison Act Figures Carrie Nation Anti-Saloon League George Cassiday Dates January 17, 1920 December 5, 1933
Locating Primary Sources● Establish place - proximity to location occurrence - donations to the university attended
Locating Primary Sources● Use academic language puppy doggie Zoe dog canine Beagle Canis lupus familiaris primary sources archives repositories special collections ephemera artifacts
Locating Primary Sources● Search broadly to start● Narrow down your search using criteria Topic: Prohibition in the 1920s and medical marijuana today Broad Prohibition in the 1920s Prohibition Regulations 18th Amendment Volestead Act Cullen-Harrison Act Narrow
Locating Primary Sources● Rhetoric (at the time vs. current usage) e.g. World War I --> "The Great War"● Identify perspective (bias) The Civil War (American) --> "War of Northern Aggression" or "The War Between the States"
Locating Primary Sources● Citation Searching of Secondary Sources
Effective Inclusion ofPrimary Sources● Provide illustrative examples - Disneys Pirates of the Caribbean
Effective Inclusion ofPrimary Sources● Present multiple perspectives“.... a rebel colonel visited the “ ... every man turned from himhospital, and requested the with contempt, saying “neverprivilege of talking to all the would they join the ConfederateIrishmen who were there ... as he army: they would rather starve inhad something special to say to prison, and die and decay,” andthem... he introduced himself ... he said he ought not to call himselfhad received orders ... to recruit an Irishman, and think that otherhis regiment with Irish prisoners. Irishmen had no more principleHe had been to ... other prisons ... than himself; and, if they caughtand some had joined him ... him within Union lines, wouldScarcely had he finished have the Lynch law enforced forspeaking, when every man ... his benefit: therefore he went away without any recruits.” Excerpts a from POW account
Effective Inclusion ofPrimary Sources● Analyze sources independently & put forth your own original ideas
How do you evaluate biasand validity of a primary source? Contextualizing Sources
Contextualizing Sources ● Mulitple perspectives ● Voices present, voices absent ● Validity ● How do you know what is a good source (valid vs. forgery) ● verifying the information youre finding is for the actual person you are seeking information regardingFrom Duke:Before you use the evidence you find there, ask yourself these importantquestions. What are the documents you’ve found: letters, pamphlets, pictures,advertisements, handbooks, newspaper articles? Who authored them, for whatintended audience, and with what motives? Can you trust it, and how would youverify its claims?http://www.duke.edu/~ekb6/Developing%20Effective%20Research%20Strategies.pdf