Nationalism overview - Unit 5B Other Ideological Traditions
Nationalism is an infantile disease. It is the measles of mankind. Albert Einstein
Soviet Union foreign policy is a puzzle inside a riddle wrapped in an enigma, and the key is Russian nationalism. Winston Churchill
A private man, however successful in his own dealing, if his country perish is involved in her destruction; but if he be an unprosperous citizen of a prosperous city, he is much more likely to recover. Seeing, then, that States can bear the misfortunes of individuals, but individuals cannot bear the misfortunes of States, let us all stand by our country. Thucydides
Nationalism A2 Govt. and Politics Unit 5B 5 March 2009
A state is a sovereign, political power over a given territory (which may be multinational). A nation (a much more recent concept that that of the state) is a cultural entity, a collection of people with a shared sense of common heritage.
A Nation state is when the common cultural group equates with a sovereign political unit.
The methods of most nationalist groups include: <ul><li>Unification </li></ul><ul><li>Secession </li></ul><ul><li>Irredentism </li></ul><ul><li>The replacement of a foreign leadership by an indigenous one. </li></ul>
Nationalism is often perceived as a single doctrine that can attach itself to almost any wider political ideology, such as liberalism, conservatism, fascism and even socialism. It is therefore one of the most flexible of all modern political tenets.
Liberal individualism verses nationalist collectivism
Liberal nationalism <ul><li>Peaceful </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive </li></ul><ul><li>Reformist </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking self-determination and popular sovereignty. </li></ul>
What is Conservative nationalism? From the 19 th century onwards, conservatives came to support nationalism because its emphasis on common culture, history and tradition corresponded well with conservative values.
Old maids on bicycles and cricketers playing on the village green. John Major
Conservative nationalism <ul><li>Traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Organic </li></ul><ul><li>Static </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasising cultural heritage, social stability and the primacy of the state over the individual. </li></ul>
What is Chauvinist nationalism? It is expansionist, aggressive, militarist and ethnocentric , justifying the nation’s right to impose its control and culture upon other ‘inferior’ nations and states through war and conquest.
Anti-colonial nationalism <ul><li>Anti-imperialist </li></ul><ul><li>Usually in less developed countries </li></ul><ul><li>Often revolutionary and socialist in character </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking economic modernisation </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe peaceful or violent. </li></ul>
Nationalism – progressive or reactionary? Liberal and anti-colonial nationalisms are seen as broadly progressive, rational, liberating and reformist or revolutionary. Conservative and chauvinist nationalisms are seen broadly as static, reactionary, irrational, illiberal or oppressive. Chauvinist nationalism, especially, is seen as inherently expansionist, violent and destructive. All forms may exhibit negative traits to some degrees.
What is Political nationalism? It is defined by the principle of self-determination, whether it is expressed by the desire for some measure of autonomy, in the form of devolution or federalism, or in the fully developed form of sovereign statehood. This is the most common of the two kinds of nationalism. It may be liberal, Communist, chauvinist, expansionist or anti-colonial.
What is Cultural nationalism? It is associated with the defence of a nation’s cultural heritage, without any strong desire for political autonomy It places primary emphasis on the regeneration of the nation as a distinctive civilisation, rather than as a discrete political community. It often leans to conservatism. Cultural nationalism may also seek to defend or strengthen a national religion. Cultural nationalism may sometimes develop into political nationalism.
Overview of nationalism National identity has at least 3 dimensions: cultural, political and psychological. The concept of nationalism originated in late 18 th century Europe, with the French Revolution and industrialisation. Cultural nationalism differs from political nationalism. Many writers regard nations as ‘invented traditions’ or ‘imagined communities’. Many states, such as the UK and the USA, are multinational or multicultural. Nationalism may or may not overlap with racism.